Benefit cost analysis of faecal sludge management options in Peri urban area

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Septic tank has been widely used in urban and more popular in peri-urban areas in Vietnam. That leads to more and more amount of septic sludge, which has been created. Faecal sludge management (FSM) is a big challenge in today''s rapid urbanizing Vietnam. More than 50% of household with farming activities wish to reuse sludge for garden or crop. ctivities in the next cycle, such as worm feeding and fertilizer revenue and profitability will increase 3.2 Households with farming activities Figure below shows cash flow of third year of farmer life cycle Farmers with crop and livestock depend a lot on market prices These households discharged huge amount of manure The situation of devaluation or overcapacity is usually the case, leading to pure farm-based models that are almost unprofitable to farmers Figure Cash flow analysis for FS Emptier Figure Cash flow analysis for HHs with farming activities BCA for them is shown that, the inner return rate is low of 14%, net profit from only USD50-700 per year, not enough food for their live However, this indicator does not reflect the effective of re-use of sludge, which depends much on the price of agricultural products 3.3 Worm feeding farm Cash flow of third year of worm farm life cycle in Figure Worm feeding farm financial model showed higher economic efficiency compared to operator or farming activity household due to profit from worms and livestock are very high Net present value is high with USD9,790 The result of financial analysis shown that IRR of this business model is very high (207%), so this business model can be initial option for farmer who want to reuse FS for their purposes (livestock, crop…) Conclusions and recomendations Money flux analysis (MFA) of households with farming activities has shown average IRR 14%, while net profit is as low as ranging from VND to 14 million per family per year Figure Cash flow analysis of worm feeding farm Faecal sludge emptying and transportation service is provided by private enterprises MFA results show existing FS emptying and transportation business has no profit, while IRR is less than 10% Service providers often have other business activities but FSM MFA at worm farm feeding cow dung has shown high IRR, 207%, while net benefit is relatively high At the 3rd year of business, net benefit is VND 67 million per year Local government should involve in the management of sludge empty activities, which will facilitate the participation of households in the implementation of this service legally and financially, contributing to the socialization of environmental protection 160 Vol 11 No 11 - 2017 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN CIVIL ENGINEERING RESEARCH RESULTS AND APPLICATIONS Worm farming is a profitable business However, there is a need of sufficient land area, knowledge on worm raising technology, and market for the end products Reuse of FS for recovery of nutrients for crops is promising However, suitable technology is needed with local context consideration There are different technologies for FS treatment, and some FS emptying techniques Local enterprices and relevant stakeholders lack of information about FSM technologies selection To make resource recovery from FS feasible, integrating FSM activities into existing farming practice seems a feasible and promising approach Vermi-composting is a promising FS treatment alternative enabling nutrient recovery and safe reuse of FS in peri-urban areas Acknowledgment The authors express sincere thanks to Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) for funding and supporting of the study, to experts from EMW, for their cooperation and support Special thanks are delivered to all research team members, leaders and Women Union of Ninh Binh province, governments and households in the communes of Gia Tran and Gia Thanh, Gia Vien district Ninh Binh province has facilitated the conduct of this study References GSO (2016), Statistical Yearbook 2016 WHO, VIHEMA & UNICEF (2012), Vietnam Water and Sanitation Sector Assessment Report WHO (2006), Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater, Vol IV, WHO Press, France Hung L.D., Anh N.V, Keaton R., et al (2013), Vietnam urban wastewater review SANDEC (2008), Compendium of sanitation systems and technologies, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology; Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council, Dübendorf, Switzerland Harada H., Dong N T., Matsui S (2008) "A measure for provisional-and-urgent sanitary improvement in developing countries: Septic-tank performance improvement", Water Science Technology, (58):1305-1311 AECOM, SANDEC (2010), A Rapid Assessment of Septage Management in Asia: Policies and Practices in India, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam, ECO- Asia, USAID: Regional Development Mission for Asia (RDMA) Anh N.V., Anh D.H., Sam N.H, et al (2017), Research on Feacal Sludge Management Feasibility and Economics, Final report, Est Meet West Organization, Hanoi Strande L., Brdjanovic D., Ronteltap M (2014), Faecal Sludge Management - Systems Approach for Implementation and Operation, Alliance House, United Kingdom 10 Eastman B.R., Kane P.N., Edwards C.A., et al (2001) "The Effectiveness of Vermiculture in Human Pathogen Reduction for USEPA Biosolids Stabilization", Compost Sci Util, (9-1):38-49 11 Shalabi M., Otterpohl R., Müller R (2006), Vermicomposting of faecal matter as a component of source control sanitation, Cuvillier, Göttingen 12 Decree no.153/2016/ ND-CP (2016), The minimum wage is the lowest level as the basis for businesses and workers sign wage agreements JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Vol 11 No 11 - 2017 161 ... Vermi-composting is a promising FS treatment alternative enabling nutrient recovery and safe reuse of FS in peri- urban areas Acknowledgment The authors express sincere thanks to Bill and Melinda Gates... stakeholders lack of information about FSM technologies selection To make resource recovery from FS feasible, integrating FSM activities into existing farming practice seems a feasible and promising approach... Worm farming is a profitable business However, there is a need of sufficient land area, knowledge on worm raising technology, and market for the end products Reuse of FS for recovery of nutrients
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