Ebook The art of woodworking classic American furniture: Phần 1

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Part 1 ebook present the content: classic american furniture styles, Pembroke table, anatomy of a Pembroke table, making the leg and rail assembly, preparing the side rails, making the drawer, making the top, four poster bed, anatomy of a four-poster bed, turrning the bedpost, making the end boards, pencil posts. .16* /1 n J J | '.;"-: _9 xzr u l " # I I t I I t I THEARTOFWOODWORKING HOMEWORI$HOP I I I I WORKSHO GPU I D E HARDWARE ANDINLAYS Bed bolt covers M Escutcheone Federal-otyle inlayo t I I I I I I I I I I I ff:'&[ t CATCUTATING BOARD FEET NUMBER OFBOARD FEET ()F IN4 TINEAR FEET DIFFERENT SIZEBOARDS 1"x 12"x 12"= 1otandard board foot 1-by-3=lboardfoot 1-by-6=2boardfeet 1-by-12=4boardfeet 2-by-4 = 22/z board feet 2-by-6=4boardfeet 0rdering lumber bytheboard foot Because theboardfootisa unitof measurement that offersa standard wayof totaling thevolume of stock regardless of dimensions, it is commonly usedwhen dealing withlumber Asshownat left,thestandard boardfootis equivalent to a piecethatis inchthick, 12 inches wideand12 inches long.Tocalculate the pieceof wood, number of boardfeetin a particular multiply itsthreedimensions together Thendivide theresult by I44 if thedimensions areall in inches, or by 12 if onedimension is expressed in feet.Forthe standard board, theformulais: I " x "x "+ 4= I ( o r1 "x "x I ' = L 2= ) youwouldcalSoif youhadan8-foot-long 1-by-3, culatetheboardfeetasfollows: x x + 12 = (or boardfeet).Otherexamples areshownin theillustration.Remember thatboardfeetarecalculated on thebasisof nominal ratherthanactualsizes I I I I I I I I I t I I I I I THEARTOFWOODWORKING CLNSIC AMERICAN FURNTTURE THE ART OF WOODWORKING CIASSIC ANAERICAI FURNITURE TIME-LIFE BOOKS ALEXANDRIA, VIRGINIA ST.REMYPRESS MONTREAL r I I I THE ART OF WOODWORKING was produced by ST.REMYPRESS Publisher KennethWinchester President / ChiefExecutiveOfficer FernandLecoq President/ ChiefOperatingOfficer PierreL6veilld SeriesEditor SeriesArt Director SeniorEditor Editor Art Directors Designers PierreHome-Douglas FrancineLemieux Marc Cassini Andrew Iones lean-PierreBourgeois,Michel Gigudre FrangoisDaxhelet,Jean-GuyDoiron FrangoisLongp16 PictureEditor ChristopherJackson Writers fohn Dowling, AdamVan Sertima Contr ibuting IlIustrators GillesBeauchemin,Michel Blais, RonaldDurepos,Michael Stockdale, JamesTh6rien Administrator NatalieWatanabe ProductionManager MichelleTurbide Coordinator DominiqueGagn6 SystemCoordinator Eric Beaulieu Photographer RobertChartier Indexer ChristineM Jacobs Time-Life Booksis a division of Time Life Inc., a wholly owned subsidiaryof THE TIME INC BOOK COMPANY TIME-LIFEINC President andCEO JohnM Fahey TIME-LIFEBOOKS President ManagingEditor Directorof Design Directorof Editorial Operations JohnD Hall RobertaConlan MichaelHentges EllenRobling ConsuhingEditor Vice-Preside nt, BookProduction ProductionManager Manager Quality Assurance fohn R Sullivan Marjann Caldwell MarleneZack famesKing THECONSUTIANTS t JonArno is a consultant,cabinetmaker,and freelancewriter who livesin Tioy,Michigan He conductsseminarson wood identificationand earlyAmericanfurnituredesign,and is the authorof TheWoodworkers VisualHandbook,publishedby RodalePress I I Mike Dunbar builds fine furniture at his workshop in Portsmouth,New Hampshireand offersWindsorchairmaking seminarsacrossNorthAmerica.He is a contributingeditorof AmericanWoodworkerand author of FederalFurniture and MakeAWndsor ChairWth MichaelDunbar,bothpublished by The ThuntonPress GilesMiller-Mead taught advancedcabinetmakingat Montreal technicalschoolsfor more than 10years.A nativeof New Zealand,he hasworked asa restorerof antique furniture ClassicAmericanfurniture p cm.- (TheArt of woodworking) Includesindex ISBN0-8094-9542-2 Furniture making.I Time-Life Books.II Series TTl94.C531995 749.213-dc20 95-2t990 CIP For information about any Time-Life book, pleasecall I-800-621-7026,or write: ReaderInformation Time-Life CustomerService P.O.BoxC-32068 Richmond,Virginia 2326r-2068 @ 1995Time-LifeBooksInc All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproducedin any form or by any electronicor mechanicalmeans,including information storageand retrievaldevicesor systems,without prior written permissionfrom the publisher,exceptthat brief passages may be quotedfor reviews First printing Printed in U.S.A Publishedsimultaneouslyin Canada TIME-LIFE is a trademarkof Time WarnerInc U.S.A R r r t I I I I t I I t I I I I I I t I I I I t I I I I CONTENTS INTRODUCTION T2 CTASSICAMERICAN FURNITURE STYLES 22 PEMBROKETABLE 24 Anatomy of a Pembroketable 26 Making the leg-andrail assembly 30 Preparingthe siderails I Making the drawer 43 Making the top L04 QUEENANNE SECRETARY 106 Anatomy of a QueenAnne secretary 109 Making the deskunit 1 Making the drawers 1 Building the pigeonholeunit 12T Making the fall-front Making the bookcase Making the doors I4O GLOSSARY I42 INDEX 48 50 52 59 66 FOUR-POSTERBED Anatomyof a four-posterbed Tirrning the bedposts Making the end boards Pencilposts 70 WINDSOR CHAIR 72 Anatomy of a sack-back Windsor chair 74 Making the spindles 80 Making the bow and arm 84 Making the seat 88 Making the legs,arm posts, and stretchers 94 Assemblingthe chair 103 A milk paint finish I44 ACKNOWTEDGMENTS INTRODUCTION Dr Iohn Kassayon WINDSOR FURNITURE deceptivelywell-engineered furniturestylewhosepartsareassembled mainly fromwoodensticks, Wndsorrepresents oneof history's mostinnovative and recognizable furnituredesigns TheWindsorfamilyof furnitureconsists of stools, chairs, cradles, stands, andtables Chairsarethelargest categorywith eightdifferent basicforms,suchascomb-backs, step-downs, andthesack-back version, whichis featured beginningon page70.Chairsalsospawned ninederivatives thatinclude rockingchairs, stools, writingarmchairs, andchild-sized chairs Theoriginof Wndsorsisancienthistory.Theirantecedents canbeattributed to theEgyptians, wheretombdrawings of the18thDynastydepictworkmensittingon threeJegged hand-hewn stoolssocketed to a plankseat.Thereason for thename Wndsoris something of anenigma, but themostlogicalexplanation is thatthey werenamedduringthefirst decade of the 18thCenturyaftertheEnglishtown of Windsotwhosebeechtreesprovideda plentifrrlsupplyof rawmaterialfor legs andotherturnedparts Windsorchairsimprovedon thetraditionaljoiner'schairsof theperiodby eliminatingtheneedto glue-upseatframes In aWindsorchair,theseatis a solid plankservingasthefoundationfor thelegsandstretchers andfor thespindleback Thatsimplicityandstrenghof designis no doubtoneof thekeysto thechair's undyingpopularityandlongevity Windsorchairmakingstarted asa cottage industryin England duringthe1720s, but soonbecame animportantfactory-based operation, employing hundreds of workers, centered in thetownof HighWycombe AlthoughthefirstWndsorsin Americawerechairsimportedfrom England,Philadelphia chairmakersalmost immediately capitalized on thispopularnewform of easilymadeseating Their one-manshopsexpanded intolargefactories Englishchairmakerstookadvantage properties of thephysical of differentwoods for differentcomponents of thechairs,usingashfor bentparts,beechfor turnings, andelmfor seats TheirAmerican counterparts usedhickoryredoakor ashforbending,maplefor turnings,andpinefor seats Windsors weretraditionallypaintedgreen, butothercolorssuchasblue,mustardandredwerealsoused.Thepaintconcealed the differentwoodcolorsandservedto protectthewoodoutdoors,whileconveying a unifyingwholeness to thepiece.ManyEnglishchairsweresimplydip stained Nowretired,Dr.JohnKassay taughtfurnituredesign for 30yearsat San Francisco published StateUniversity HisBookof Shaker Furniture, bythe University ofMassachussetts Press, isconsidered oneof theforemost reference preparing boolcs onShaker style.Heiscurrently a similarbookonWndsor publisher the same He lives in SanBruno,Califurnia furniturefor I r I I r I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I FOURPOSTERBED THEVASESECTI()NS TURNING cuts sizinq 1t Makins - sf I n c et h e l o w e rp o m m esl e c t i o n o t h e f o r r rn o s t sa r ed o n e t u r nt o t h e v a s e cpniinnc nnc.l h2s thrpp v2qp qtro- m e n t s o: n ea t t h e t o p o f t h e p o m m esl e c t i o n a n dt w o m o r ea b o v ei t A l t h o u g thh e b o t t o m m o sotn e i s t h e w i d e s ta n d t h e n e x to n er r ni s l o n p e s t h e v a s e sa r eo t h e r w i s ei d e n t i c aaln d h a v es i m i l a cr o n t n r r r sT h e va l s nf e a t r r r ae t e n o na t t h e g ortise atthe b o t t o me n da n da m a t c h i n m tnn Tn nrndrrep e v:sp irrrn iho qpompni i n t oa c y l i n d e (r p a g e5 ) ,t h e nm a k ea s e r i e so f s i z i n gc u t sw i t h a p a r t i n gt o o l H o l d i ntgh e p a r t i n tgo o lw i t n u n d e r h a n d s r i n p d o p - r r n n n t h p- t n- , nl r -I v^ )^1 +, l- d^l ;) ^c ^ +L lLl ^t r h a n dl e s l i g h t l sy o t h e b l a d ec u t si n t ot h e c y l i n d e rC o n t i n uteo r a i s et h e h a n d l eu n t i l tho eut rp:ehcc ihp rpnrrirpd d'onlh (lpft) E a c hc u t s h o u l dp e n e t r a tteo t h e f i n i s h e d diamotpr nf thp nnct :t th:t nnint nhpek y o u rp r o g r e swsi t h c a l i p e r p s eriodically T w i s t h e t o o ls l i g h t l yf r o ms i d et o s i d ea s y o um a k et h ec u t t o m i n i m i zfer i c t i o na n d t o p r e v e ntth e b l a d ef r o mj a m m i n g t I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I F:r'h Planing thevasesmooth r) Roughing outthevase a ^ a l l t h e s i z i n gc u t s u s ea r o u g h i n g Z - O n c ey o ur a v ef i n i s h e d g o u g et o c l e a ro u t t h e w a s t eb e t w e e nc u t s F o l l o wt h e s a m e p r o c e d u ryeo uw o u l du s et o t u r n a c y l i n d e rh, o l d r n tgh e t o o l s o r k i n ign a d o w n h i d l li r e c w i t n o v e r h a ngdr i pa n da l w a yw t i o nt o a v o i dt e a r o u (t a b o v e J) o i n i n gt h e s i z i n gc u t sw i l l c r e a t e a t a p e l o n gt h e l e n g t lo' f t h e w o r k p i e c eU.s ea s p i n d l eg o u g e t o r o u n v e rt h e e n d so f t h e v a s e 55 o l d i n teh et o o lw i t h U s ea s k e wc h i s etlo s m o o t h t h ev a s eH a n u n d e r h a ngdr i pa n dw i t ht h e l a t h et u r n e f f ,s e tt h e b l a d eo n thetoolrestsothat its longpointis abovethe blankand its bevel i s i n c l i n e idn t h ed i r e c t i oonf t h ec u t ;t h i si s a b o u t " t o t h ea x i s o f t h ew o o d S w i t c ho n t h e l a t h ea n dr a i s et h e h a n d l es l i g h t l y , bringing the cuttingedgeof thechiselintocontactwiththe stock lettrngits bevelrub; Movethe bladealongthe tool rest(above), h ec e n t e r d o n o ta l l o wt h e h e e lo r l o n gp o i n td i g i n t ot h ew o o dT o f t h ec u t t i n ge d g es h o u l dp r o d u cae s e r i e os f t h i ns h a v i n g s FOUR_POSTER BET) MAKING THETANG J()INTS thetenons 1t Turnins - I O r c ey o uh a v et r r n e da l l t h ev a s e si t i s t r m et o p ' o d u c et er a n gj o r n t sS r a r b ty t -r r" "" 'nb i nl ep n o n as l l h en n l t o m e r d so f L h e t i r u nq e n , a r a l ev : s e < o r - i i n n 5a n d I n i a l b a f k M a r kt h et e n o ns h o u l d e2r r n c h efsr o mt h e e n f t l ^ ew o r k p , eecb y l ^ o l idr g a p e r c a g a i n st ht es p i n nn g b l a n kT h e n h, o l d i n g a p a r t i n tgo o lw i t n u n d e r h a ngdr p , m a k ea s e " i eos' s i zr p c r t st o d e f i n e the gougeto tenon(pzgp55) Usea ,oughing c l e a ro r t t h e w a s t eb e t w e e trh e c u t s A s t h et e n o nb e g i n tso t a k es h a p ep, e ro d i c a l i y c h e c kt w i t l ^c a i p e r ss, t o p p i nw g l ^ e nt h e t e n o ni s I i n c hi n d i a m e t eFr i n a l l yu,s ea s k e wc h i s e[l o r n d e r c utLh es h o u l d esrl r g h t l y ;t h i sw i l e n s u r teh a tt h e b o t t o me n d so f t h ev a s es e c to n ss i t f l u s ho n t h es e c t i o n s b e l o ww i t h o uwt o b b l i n gH o l dt h ec h i s e l edge-up s o i t s l o n gp o r n ta n d b e v e al r e a l i g n ew d i t ht h es h o u l d el irn e ,T h e ns l o w l y rarse a n dt w i s t h e h a n d l es,l i c i n g deeper i n r ot l - es l - o u l d ears t l e c u t t r r ge d g ea p n r o a c n e' \se l e n o t ( r t p h l J i I I I I I I I t I I I I I I I r t t ' r r b r i ! / I I I I I I I r ) B o r i n tgh em o r t i s e s Z R r o u t h e b l a n ka n d t o o l r e s t ,a n d a d j u s t h e l a t h et o t s s l o w e sst p e e d l V o u n a t l - i n c hd r r l lb r t i n a J a c o bcsh u c k a n da t t a c ht h e c h u c kt o t h e l a t h et a i s t o c k l.V o u ntth et e n o n e n f t h e b a n ki n t h e h e a d s t o cakn ds l i d et h et a i l s t o cakl o n s I I t h e b e du n t i t h e b i t m e e t st h e c e n t e o r f t h e w o r k pe c e T h e n t u r no n t h e l a t h ea n dt u r nt h e h a n d w h e teol a d v a n cteh e t a i l s t o c ks o t h e b i t b o r e ss t r a i g hitn t ot h e e n f t h e b l a n k( a b o v e ) ; h p s r r r pl n h n l n t h e w o r k n i p r ^ p , t p a d v :ttn p < , t a rni f t n p n r' v yn r r o ru :L lr vr rn n ,56 r t I I I I I I I I t I I I I I I I I I BED FOUR-POSTER TUR N I N TG H EF I NIA T S thefinials 1I Shaoins I T h ef i n i a l sa t t h et o p o f t h e b e d p o s t s c o m b i n ev a s e sa n d b e a d sA f t e rt u r n i n g t h e s ee l e m e n t ss,e p a r a tteh e t o p e n f t h e f i n i a lf r o m t h e w a s t ew o o du s e dt o h o l dt h e b l a n kb e t w e e cne n t e r sT o a v o i d m a r r i n gt h e f i n i a l ' sr o u n d e d t o p , u s ea s k e wc h i s e lt o p a r to f f t h e w o r k p i e c e H o l d i ntgh et o o lw i t n u n d e r h a ngdr i p , tf m a k ea s l i c i n g c u t w i t ht h e l o n gp o i n o t h e b l a d ea s y o uw o u l dr o u n da p o m m e l @age53).Makea seriesof deeperV-cuts (right).Beforethe finishedturningbreaks l o o s ef r o mt h e w a s t es, u p p o ritt w i t ho n e f r e eh a n d ,k e e p i n ygo u rf i n g e r sw e l lc l e a r o f t h e t o o l r e s ta n d b e i n gc a r e f unl o tt o g r i pt h es p i n n i nw gorkpiece t t I I t t I I I I I I I I I I I r) Smoothing thefinial L f o remoue anytool marksleft on the f i n i a l sb yt h es k e wc h i s e ls, a n dt h e i rs u r f a c e ss m o o t hY o uc a n d o t h e j o b b y h a n d ,s e c u r i ntgh e s t o c ki n a b e n c hv i s e a n d u s i n ga s a n d i n gb l o c k B u t a d i s k s a n d e lri k et h e o n es h o w na t l e f tw i l l m a k eq u i c kw o r ko f t h e t a s k H o l d i n g t h e f i n i a lo n t h e s a n d i n tga b l e e , a s ei t i n t ot h e d i s ka t a n a n g l eo f a b o u t4 " Applying l i g h r e s s u r e r o, t a t et h e f i n i a l u n t i li t i s s m o o t h FOUR-POSTER BED PREPARING THEPOSTS FOR THEENDBOARDS ANDRAILS 'l Laying outthemonises I Thebedoosts areioined to theend b o a r dasn di a i l sw i t ht l i n o m o r t i s e - a n d tenons Toensure thatall themortises l i n eu p ,m a r kt h e mo nt h ep o s t isn a s i n glesetup Clamp theposts together with theirendsaligned andplacetheassemblyona worksurface Holding theedge of a carpenter's square against thestock, m a r ko n o n ep o s ta t a t i m e M a r kt h e mortise length-3 i nches-across the pommel; posthasthree eachheadboard mortises, including twofortheheadboard andonefortheendrail,whileeachfootboardposthastwo-oneforthefootboard andonefortherail,Next,markthemortisewidth-% inch;centerthe mortise outline onthepommels Usethesquare to alignall themortise lengthmarks(/eff) I I I I I I t I I I t I I t I I I t I I r) Drilling themortises youcancutthemortises in theoosts byhandwitha chisel andmallet, or usea routerf ittedwitha mortising bit.Butconsidering thedepthof themortises-1% inches-ahollow chiselmortiser, likethe oneshownat rightor a drillpress with a m o r t i s i nagt t a c h m e nwti,l ld ot h ej o b mostquickly andaccurately, Setupthe m a c h i nfeo l l o w i nt g h em a n u f a c t u r e r ' s directions Forthemortiser shown, install a s/e-inch bit andplaceoneof theposts onthetable,centering a mortise outline underthecutter.Buttthefenceagainst thestockandadjustthe hold-down to youto secure thepostwhilestillallowing slidetheworkpiece freely along thefence M a k ea c u ta t e a c he n f t h eo u t l i n e , thena series of staggered cutsin between (right)Io complete themortise t I I r I I I I t 58 I I I t I I I I I I I I I I I I I MAKINGTHEENDBOARDS rl*1 he sunrisemotif of the headboard I featuredin this chapteris a popular in AmericanCountry design,particularly furniture.rv\hatever designyou choose, in making however, theprimarychallenge the endboardsfor a bed is cuttingthe piecessymmetrically Theboardsaretoo on the unwieldyto thejob accurately bandsaw.Youwillbe muchbetteroff shapingtheboardswith a routerguidedby templates, asshownstartingon page61 Whenthetimecomesto gluetheend boardsand railsto the bedposts(page 64),lry to enlistthe aid of an assistant or hvo to help you maneuverthe stock andthesixlongbarclampsyouwill need Formaximumflexibilityat glue-up,use whiteglueratherthanyellowadhesive; it takeslongerto set,allowingmoretime for adjustment afterit hasbeenapplied Jointhe siderailsto the postswith commercial bayonetbrackets(page63) are or bedbolts(photo,right).Bedbolts stronger,but thebracketsaresimplerto installand comeapartwith only a few mallettaps Tofacilitatedisassembly, are bedposts usuallyanachedto thesiderailswith knockdown hardware, suchasthebed boltshownat right.Theboltextends throughthepostinto therail and is threadedinto a crossdowelinstalled in therail Theboltheadis concealed by an embossed brasscover THETEN()NS CUTTING t t I I I I I I I I I I I I I I t I 'l Sawing thetenoncheeks in theendboards andrails I Youcancutthetenoncheeks witha router or a radialarmsaw.lf youdothejobona table saw,asshownhere,youwill needto setup an auxiliary table orworkwitha helper to keepthelongworkpieces steady asyou feedthemacross thetable.Startbyinstalling a dadoheadon it to itswidest setting Attach a highauxilthesaw,adjusting iaryfenceandan extension boardto themitergauge Holda carpenter's square against thefenceandextension to ensure thattheyareperpendicular to eachotherandadjustthemiter (above, gauge, if necessary /eft).Setthecuttingheightat about%inchandmakea cutacross eachfaceof a scrapboard asthickastheendboards andrails.Test-fit thetenonin one of thepostmortises, raising thedadoheadandmaking addiuntilthefit is snug.0ncethe blade tionalcuts,asnecessary, heightis set,position thefencefora ll,-inch-wide cut and c l a m oa f e a t h e r b o at or dt h ef e n c ea b o v teh ed a d oh e a d H o l d i ntgh ew o r k p i e cf leu s g a i n st h t ef e n c ea n dm i t e r gauge extension, andflatonthetable,feedit intotheblades Thenshiftthestockawayfrom to definethetenonshoulder passto thefencebythewidthof thekerfandmakeanother waste Turntheworkpiece overto cutthe cleartheremaining right) cheekonthe otherside(above, t FOUR-POSTER BED r) Markingtheedgesof thetenons L O n c ea l l t h e t e n o nc h e e k sh a v eb e e n c u t , m a r kt h et e n o n se' d g e su, s i n gt h e i r p o s tm o r t i s eass a g u i d e O utline single t e n o n so n t h e e n dr a i l sa n df o o t b o a r dt h; e h e a d b o a rsdh, o w na t r i g h t ,h a st w ot e n o n s S e tt h e p o s to n a w o r ks u r f a c ew i t h i t s m o r t i s efsa c i n pr r na n d o o s i t i otnh e m a t i n gp i e c eo n t o p ,a l i g n i ntgh ee n f t h e b o a r dw i t ht h e m o r t i s e sT.h e nl i n eu p t h e b l a d eo f a c o m b i n a t r os n quarw e i t ho n e e n f a m o r t i s ae n d ,h o l d i n tgh e h a n d l e o f t h e s q u a r ea g a i n stth e e n f t h et e n o n a n dt h et i p o f t h e b l a d ea g a i n stth es h o u l d e r ,m a r kt h e t e n o ne d g ea c r o s tsh e c h e e k u t l i n teh e r e m a i n i nt e w i t p e n c i lO gnon edgesthe sameway tight), markingthe wastewith Xs as yougo t I I r Finishing thetenons C l e a trh e w a s t ea d j o i n i ntgh e e d g e so f t h et e n o n su s i n ga r o u t e fri t t e dw i t b o t t o m - p i l o tfel u ds h - t r i m m i n bg r t C l a m p t h e s t o c kt o a w o r ks u r f a c ea n d a l i g nt h e c u t t e rw i t ht h e e d g e o f a t e n o n T h e nb u t t a s t o pb l o c ka g a i n stth e r o u t e b r a s ep l a t e a n dc l a m pi t t o t h e w o r k p i e c el f t h e r ei s a s e c o n dt e n o no n t h e s a m ee n d o f t h e s t o c k a , s i n t h e h e a d b o a r cd l,a m pa s e c o n d s t o pb l o c kt o p r e v e ntth e r o u t e fr r o mc u t t i n gi n t ot h e t e n o n I I I W i t ht h e t o o l ' sb a s ep l a t ef l a t o n t h e w o r k p i e c ae n d f l u s h a g a i n st th e s t o pb l o c k e, a s et h e b i t i n t ot h e s t o c ku n t i lt h e p i l o t b e a r i n gr e a c h e tsh e t e n o ns h o u l d e rF e e dt h e r o u t e r a l o n gt h e e n f t h e b o a r ds, t o p p i n g w h e nt h e b a s ep l a t ec o n t a c t sa s e c o n ds t o pb l o c k( i n s e t o) r t h e b i t r e a c h e tsh e e d g e o f t h e w o r k p i e c (ea b o v e )C l e a nu p t h e e d g e so f t h e t e n o n w i t c h i s e l I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I r I t I -a I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I J I I I FOUR.POSTER BED THEENDBOARDS SHAPING theendboard templates Making profiles I Shape thecurved of theheadandfootboards witha routerguidedby t e m p l a t e sM a k et h et e m p l a t ef sr o m plywood, %-inch tracing thecontours of theboards'top edges, as illustrated on page51, on theplywood Butinstead of producing templates thatspanthefullend boards, markonlyone-half the patterns o n t h ei e m p l a t efsr,o mo n ee n dt o t h e m i d d l en; o to n l yw i l lt h et e m p l a t ebse easier to maneuver, butbyusinga single pattern to outlinebothhalves of each youwillensure board, thattheyaresymmetrical Cuteachpattern one-half as l o n ga st h ee n db o a r dp, l u sa b o u t2 inches Onbothsidesof thetemplate, markoneendof theendboard, thenthe pattern middle, andtracethecurved in between Cutthe pattern on yourband s a w t, h e ns m o o t thh ec u t e d g eu, s i n ga (righilor a sanding spindle sander block r") Marking theendboard stock L Setthestockface-uo on a worksurf a c ea n dm a r kt h e m i d d l eo n t h et o p e d g eT h e nc l a m pt h et e m p l a toen t o p , a l i g n i ntgh ee n dm a r kw i t ht h ee n f theworkpiece andthetwomiddlemarks R u na p e n c ial l o n g t h ec u te d g eo f t h e template to outlinethe pattern on the endboardstock(/eft).Thenturnthetemplateoverandrepeat theprocess to mark theotherhalfof theworkorece t I I I t I t 61 FOUR_POSTER BED theendboards Q Shaping onyourbandsaw, r.,l Cuttheendboards leaving about1/sinchof wastealongthe and cuttinglines.Reclamp theworkpiece asin step2, to a worksurface template e n s u r i ntgh a tt h ee d g et o b e s h a p e d e x t e n dosf f t h et a b l eb y a f e wi n c h e s bit in flush-trimming Install a top-piloted yourrouter, adjusting thecuttingdepth willbelevelwiththe sothepilotbearing t e m o l a taen dt h ec u t t ew r i l lt r i mt h e at one entireedgeof thestock.Starting flaton holdtherouter endof theboard, t h et e m o l a taen de a s et h eb i t i n t ot h e contacts thepatstockuniilthebearing along the tern.Thenfeedthetoolsteadily thedirection of bit edge,moving against against rotation andpressing thebearing (right) Onceyoureachthe thetemplate s t, o pt h ec u t T u r n e n f t h et e m p l a t e r n dc l a m pi t t o t h e t h et e m p l a toev e a thenrepeat otherhalfof theendboard, Smooth theedges thetrimmingprocess sandpaper of thestockwith12O-grit I I I I I I I I I I I I I t I I I PREPARING THESIDERAILS t I I t t0 therails hookplates Fastening thesiderailsto w i t ht h ee n f t h er a i l ,h o l di t i n p o s i t i oann dt a pi t w i t I lf youareusingbayonet brackets to attach malletto markthe baseof the hooks on thewood.Holdthe theposts, startbyfixinga hookplateto theendsof therails to theendgrainof therailandcutrecesschiselperpendicular center a plateontheend,and Clamp a railtoa worksurface, Thenscrewtheplateto therail,makt h eo u t l i n e esforthe hooks(above) o u t l i niet w i t p e n c iTl h e nc h i s eal m o r t i swei t h i n plate plate will is flush ing sure that the hooks bepointing down 0nce the a depth equal to the thickness to 62 T I I I I I I I I I I u I I t I I t I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I FOUR-POSTER BED r) Fastening catchplates to theposts L me placement of thecatchplates on thebedposts determines theheight ofthe mattress; thebottom of theboxspringis customarily 8r/zinches above thef loor.lt is alsocrucial to locate theplates sothe inside facesof therailshugtheedges of theboxspring; fora 60-inch-wide box spring/mattress setin a bedof thedimensionsprovided on page50, centrethe plateontheedgeof thepost.Markthe edges of therailonthepostandoutline thecatchplateon the post?ighil,cenrailmarks teringit between Chisel the platemortise asyoudid in step2, then h o l dt h eh a r d w airnep o s i t i oann u t l i n e t h eh o o ko p e n i n gosnt h es t o c kU s ea chiselandmalletto cut recesses in the postforthehooks, thenscrew thecatch olateto theoost t) Fastenins thecleats to thesiderails dilu rdilJ rrb - nnp of ihp c l a m p su n t i lt h e t a i l s t o p sm a k ec o n t a c t R e p e awt i t ht w o m o r ec l a m p sa c r o s tsh e e n dr a i l a n dp a r t i a l lt yi g h t e na l l f o u r c l a m p st,h e nt u r nt h e a s s e m b loyv e n d i n s t a ltlh e r e m a i n i nfgo u rc l a m p sT i g h t e n a l l t h e c l a m p s( l e f t )u n l i la t h i n g l u eb e a d s o r e e z eos r t o f t h e i o i n t s 64 I I I I I t I I I I I t I t I I I I I I I I I t I I r I t I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I FOUR-POSTER BED MAKING ANDINSTALLING THETESTERS theendsofthetesters Notching I Oncethebedposts, endboards, and r a i l sa r eg l u e du p a n da s s e m b l ei tdi,s timeto preDare thetesters thatconnect thetopendsof theposts Useyourtable s a wt o c u t t h e h a l f - l a pt sh a tj o i nt h e testers, lnstalla dadohead,adjusting it to itsmaximum width,andsetthecutting h e i g hat t o n e - h atlhf es i o c kt h i c k n e s s Screwan extension boardto the miter p a r r s eP.o s i t i ot n h er i nf e n c ef o w i d t h of cut equalto thewidthof thetesters, t h e nc u t e a c hh a l f - l a ipn t w op a s s e s S t a r tb ya l i g n i ntgh ee n f t h e b o a r d withthedadoheadand,holding theedge of thetesterflushagainst themitergauge e x t e n s i ofne,e dt h es t o c ki n t ot h ec u t passthesameway,but Makethesecond withtheendof the boardflushasainst Ihefence(right) Miter 4au4e exLengion thetesters O Installing L Borea holethroush thecenter of each half-lap at theendoflhetesters, usrng yourdrillpress f ittedwitha bitthesame d i a m e t earst h ef i n i a tl e n o n s% i n c h To prevent tearout, borethe holesin two steps:Startbydrillinghalfway through thestock,thenturnthetesteroverand c o m p l e th e eh o l ef r o mt h eo t h esr i d e (Youcanalsoassemble thetesters and d r i l lt h et w oh o l e a s t t h es a m et i m ew i t h a p o r t a bdl er i l lT h i sw i l le n s u rteh a t h e holeslineup perfectly.) Install thetesters at onecorner of thebedat a time.Sliothe f i n i atl e n o nt h r o u gthh eh o l ei n t h ee n d testerand,holding thesidetesterover (left),fit thetenonthrough the bedpost itsholeintothemortise in theoost 65 I PENCILPOSTS known hetapered octagonal bedpost, I asa pencilpost,is a popularalternativeto theturnedversionfeaturedin the previoussection.Insteadof being shaoedin individualsectionsthat are pencilpostsaremade then assembled, from a singlelengthof solidor facegluedlumber-first taperedon ajointer (page67)andthenby hand (page68) To avoidtearoutasyou shapetheposts, makeyour blanksfrom 3/,-inch-thick stockwith straightgrain;if you choose to glueup thinnerboardsto makeup the blanks,makesurethe wood grain of theoieces runsin thesamedirection Shapingthe octagonalsectionsof of designand the postsis a challenge f execution.The bevelsthat createthe octagonmust be laid out so the eight sidesareequalasthe posttapersfrom baseto tip Althoughthelayoutmethod shown below is straightforward,it demandsprecisedrafting With its solid, squarebasegiving way to an octagonalsectionthat gradually tapersto a narrow tip, the pencil post shown at right offersboth strengthand refinement.The curved bevelsthat mark the transition between the squareand octagonalsegments are known as lamb's tongues POSTS MAKING PENCIL t I I I I t I I I I I I I I I I I I I I r taper (ahaded area) thetapers 0utlining through eachof itsfourcorners Then,with I Fora bedofthedimensions shown on page50,marka line square thatpasses pencil from ruler, draw a second square whose corners meet forthestartof thetaperall around theblank20 inches the a and (inseil where lines intersect fhe octagonal theoctagonal taperonthecenter of thecircleandcenter bottom end.Thenoutline willbecut byfirsttapering of a lYq-inch square ontheend shape thestockto thedimensions thetopend.Startbycentering you planing parallel side.Extend thesidesof the thefirstsquare drew,thenby thecorners of that withsides to thestock's Mark andhorizon- square downto theremaining sidesof thesecond square square to theedges of thestock,thendrawvertical pencil andlongstraightedge to extend tal linesthrough thecenter, eachbisecting thesquare's sides thefirstcutsbyusinga Nextusea comDass to drawa circlefromthecenterof the thetaperlinesfromtheendto thestartline(above) 66 I I I I T I I I I I t I I FOUR-POSTER BED t t I t I I I t t t t I I I I I I I I I I I I I I r) Setting upandstarting thetaper L nn easywayto taperthe postsis witha jointer Setthe machine fora shallow cutandposition thefenceto expose only Forthisoperation, about4 inches ofthecutterhead alsoadjust t h eg u a r d o u to f t h ew a yT h e nh, o l d i ntgh eb l a n ka g a i n st ht e f e n c e a l i s nt h e t a n e rs t a r tl i n ew i t ht h e f r o n to f t h e o u t f e e d tableT o s t a r te a c hp a s sc, a r e f u l llyo w e trh e b l a n ko n t ot h e c u t ) ake terhead w h i l eh o l d i n gi t f i r m l ya g a i n stth e f e n c e( a b o v e M s u r eb o t hh a n d sa r eo v e rt h e i n f e e ds i d eo f t h e t a b l e Tapering the posts Q r - , F e e dt h e l e s a c r o s st h e c u t t e r h e a d w i t p u s hb l o c k ,p r e s s i ndgo w no n t h e t r a i l i n ge n f t h e s t o c kw h i l eh o l d i n gi t flushagainstthe fence(/eft).Keepyour l e f th a n da w a yf r o mt h e c u t t e r h e a dM a k e s s n e c e s s a ruyn t i l y o u a s m a n yp a s s e a h a v et r i m m e dt h e s t o c kt o t h e t a p e ro u t l i n e ,r e p e a t i ntgh e p r o c e stso s h a p et h e r e m a i n i nfga c e s l f y o u rm a r k i n gasr ec o r r e c t ,y o us h o u l dm a k et h e s a m en u m b e r o f p a s s eosn e a c hs i d e C l e a nu p t h e t a p e r a t t h e s t a r tl i n eu s i n sa b e l ts a n d e r t t I I 67 FOUR-POSTER BED BEVELING TAPERS I I I I I I t I I r 'l Laying outthebevels I Toformtheoctagon, bevelthecorners of thesquare taper Thebevelis already outlined ontheendof eachpost,butit mustalsobemarked Taking onthesidesof thestock thedimenpoststock, sionsfroma pieceof full-size anddrawing onscrap plywood, outlinesquares asyoudid in stepI (above, left) yourmeasurement-equal Transfer to thebevelwidth-tothe post,measuring fromeachcorner of thesquare to eitherside Thenusea pencilanda longstraightedge to connect each pointontheoctagon markwithitscorresponding drawnat the n c ea l l e i g hbt e v elli n e sa r em a r k e d , t o pe n f e a c hp o s tO joining drawa curved lamb's tongue at eachcorner, thebevel markswiththetaperstartlinehbove,right) Roughing outthebevels Tosecure theoosts usethreewood notches intoan blocks CutV-shaoed edgeof eachone,thenplacetwoof the blocksundertheworkpiece to support it andclamponeontop between theother twoof theblocks two:oosition around the portion square of the post.Thenusea portion drawknife to shapethetapered of thepostsintooctagons, beveling onecorn e t a t i m e H o l d i ntgh ed r a w k n iof en thestockbevel-side down,pullthetool toward thetopendof thepost(righil.fhe depthof cutdepends on howmuchyou tilt thehandles; thelower theangle, the shallower thecut.Takea lightshaving, following always thewoodgrain 68 I I I I t I I I I t I I I I I I I I I I I I I t I I I I I I I I I t I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I FOUR-POSTER BED thebevels Q Smoothing r-,f Onceall the bevels havebeencut, toflatten t h ee i g h t u s ea b e n c hp l a n e Adjust sidesof theposts'tapered section thetoolto a verylightcutandworkfrom thetaperstartlinetoward thepost's top (righil.fo auoid endto levelthesurface tearout, workwiththewoodgrain.Repositiontheoostin thewoodblocks asnecsides essary to f latten theremaining Shaping thelamb's tongue Tocomplete thepencilposts, switch b a c kt o t h ed r a w k n i b f er i n gt h el a m b ' s Workasyou tongues to theirfinalshape didin step5, smoothing outthetransition between thetongues andthebevellines (left).Onceyouarefinished draw-knifing, smooth thesurface using a sanding block 69 ... basewiththeblankagainst Tosupport fenceflushagainst theopposite edgeof thebase theblankduringthecut, Taper thefirst mounttwofeatherboards to thesawtable,oneoneachsideof theblade sureneither sideoftheblankbysliding... I I I I THEARTOFWOODWORKING CLNSIC AMERICAN FURNTTURE THE ART OF WOODWORKING CIASSIC ANAERICAI FURNITURE TIME-LIFE BOOKS ALEXANDRIA, VIRGINIA ST.REMYPRESS MONTREAL r I I I THE ART OF WOODWORKING. .. To ensure to the mitergauge thatthe dadoes areparallel to theendsof theleg, themitergaugemustbesetto theappropriateangle.Holdthetapered partof the legf lushagainst themitergaugeextenofa try s i
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