Building some design patterns in C#

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In this article we will consider building a number of designs that Gamma has proposed language with C#.The purpose of the work here is to have an insight than some designs can be implemented in C#, to learn the new features of the language in practice and make it easier for designers object-oriented software Nguyễn Mạnh Đức Tạp chí KHOA HỌC & CƠNG NGHỆ 90(02): 77 - 86 BUILDING SOME DESIGN PATTERNS IN C# Nguyen Manh Duc* College of Education – TNU SUMMARY In software engineering, design is a total solution for common problems in software design Profound idea of the design is good saving solutions-oriented design and object re-use them to solve similar problems New object oriented language C#, Microsoft's influencemany of the languages Java and C++ But there are still many new and interesting featureis introduced to simplify the design of object-oriented In this article we will consider building a number of designs that Gamma has proposed language with C#.The purpose of the work here is to have an insight than some designs can be implemented in C#, to learn the new features of the language in practice and make it easier for designers object-oriented software Key words: Design Patterns, Singleton, Proxy, Abstract Factory, Strategy, UML INTRODUCTION* Object oriented programming has been the dominating style in software development for quite a few years The intuitive way in which object oriented languages allow us to divide our code into objects and classes is what makes this style of programming attractive Another aim of object oriented program design is to make code more reusable However practical has shown that designing reusable object oriented software is not always that easy A good software design should, not only solve existing problems, but also concern future problems It should make the program flexible, easy to maintain and to update Design patterns help us address these issues The idea is quite simple, we save document and design solutions that have been used and worked for reoccurring problems, in order to use them again in similar situations In software engineering, a design pattern is a total solution for common problems in software design A design pattern is not a perfect design for can be converted directly into code, it is only a framework describing how to solve a problem that can be reused in many different situations The object oriented design patterns typically show relationships and interactions between classes or objects, * Tel: 0915 564 249; Email: nmductn@yahoo.com without specifying the class or object of each specific application The design can help speed up the process of software development by providing development patterns have been authenticated and verified It provides general solutions, documented in a format that is not attached to a particular problem The model allows developers to communicate with each other using the name easy to understand, is widely used to set for the interaction of software [1] The aim of this work is to take a closer look at how some of the known design patterns can be implemented in C#, and to investigate whether the new features of the language in fact make it easier to design object oriented software After the introduction, section will review some of the designs represent the Gamma and colleagues have proposed [1], we propose how to design and build these templates in C# and apply them in some real-world problems; section discusses some issues of interest; Finally section will include a number of conclusions and future work DESIGN SOME PATTERNS IN C# The designs are important building blocks for design and modeling applications on all platforms The design helps us to understand, discuss and re-use of applications on aparticular platform In [1] Gamma and 77 Số hóa Trung tâm Học liệu – Đại học Thái Nguyên http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn Nguyễn Mạnh Đức Tạp chí KHOA HỌC & CÔNG NGHỆ colleagues proposed 23 designs, they are classified into types are: creational patterns, structural patterns and behavioral patterns Here we will review a representtative sample for each type Creational Patterns Creational pattern as the name implies are concerned with the creation of object The patterns help you build a part of an application that hides how an object is created and composed from the representation of the object The only information known of the object is its interface Creational patterns can be divided in class creational patterns and object creational patterns The difference lies in that the class creational patterns use inheritance to instantiate a class, while object creational patterns delegate the instantiation to another object Here we will look at the Singleton and Abstract Factory patterns represent creational patterns Singleton Pattern Singleton design pattern is designed to ensure that a class can only create a unique show and it provides access points in a uniform global In fact, there are many situations where we want a class has only a single show during application execution Singleton design pattern has been born to meet the problems of this type The structure of the Singleton pattern is represented by the UML diagram shown in Figure [1] Singleton static instance() Singleton Operation() GetSingletonData() Return uniqueInstance static uniqueInstance singletonData Figure 1: Structure of the Singleton pattern 90(02): 77 - 86 Installation: Singleton design pattern can be installed in the C# language as follows: class Singleton { // Field private static Singleton instance; // Constructor protected Singleton() { } // Method public static Singleton Instance() { if (instance == null) instance = new Singleton(); return instance; } } Apply the Singleton pattern: Problem 1: Suppose the need to build a Find dialog box and search for a text editor Note that in all cases to ensure that only up to a Find dialog box appears for convenience to users and for the management of the system [1] The most reasonable solution for the above case is designed for that class can express itscontrol Specifically, the class will always ensure that no other show can be created from it Normally when an object to be created from the class must be created through function (constructor) of that class Therefore, to prevent the user create objects freely, we will prevent the creation function can be called, by turning it into a private domain (or protected) in the class Then provide a static method, to create new objects in a controlled, iecheck if the object will not create new objects, otherwise it returns the object already exist This solution will ensure only one instance of the class only The clients to access instance of class through the constructor mentioned above Thus, the Find dialog box can be installed as follows: public class Find { protected static Find instance = null; // field protected Find() {} //constructor public static Find Singleton() //method the Singleton pattern 78 Số hóa Trung tâm Học liệu – Đại học Thái Nguyên http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn Nguyễn Mạnh Đức Tạp chí KHOA HỌC & CÔNG NGHỆ return ServerName; } public static DataInfo Singleton() { if (instance == null) instance = new DataInfo("DHTN", "data2011", "Le An", "an-dhtn"); return instance; } { if (instance == null) instance = new Find(); return instance; } } If a user creates an instance of the class with the command: Find find It will have compile errors, so constructor of the class is located in southern private (protected) Instance of the class can only be made by: Find find = Find.Singleton(); Therefore, we can completely control the instance of the class created in the method Singleton(), ensuring that only one the an object Problem 2: Another application is a class that can be designed for its information accessed globally by all other objects in the program For example, sometimes we need a singleglobal object store information connected to the database or information through computer networks connected to other objects can be accessed as needed to produce this singleobject [1] Specifically, we need to store information about a database include: ServerName, DatabaseName, UserName and Password Need to access the information at any time and anywhere in the program We can use the Singleton pattern solve this problem as follows: public class DataInfo { private string ServerName; private string DatabaseName; private string UserName; private string Password; protected static DataInfo instance = null; protected DataInfo(string servername, string databasename, string username, string password) { ServerName = servername; DatabaseName = databasename; UserName = username; Password = password; } public string getServerName() { 90(02): 77 - 86 } class Program { static void Main(string[] args) { DataInfo dataInfo = DataInfo.Singleton(); Console.WriteLine("ServerNamme:"+ dataInfo.getServerName()); } } Abstract Factory Pattern Abstract Factory is a design pattern provides to the client program an interface , which is a family or a set of objects of different classes have the same interface with each other, which is not directly work with each subclass particular Abstract Factory design pattern to pack a group of the class acts as a "production" (factory) in the application, this is the class used to create objects The production of this the class have a common programming interface that is inherited from a parent class pure virtual called class "virtual factory class" Structure of the Abstract Factory pattern is represented by the UML diagram in Figure [1] Of which:  ConcreteFactory: real-time methods in AbstractFactory to create the specific object The system has many objects, the groups generated by the ConcreteFact-ory similar role  AbstractFactory: is abstract, it specifies the interface for manipulating create "products" virtual (AbstractProduct)  Product: As the reality of object generated from the concreteFactory class and it inherited the class virtual product 79 Số hóa Trung tâm Học liệu – Đại học Thái Nguyên http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn Nguyễn Mạnh Đức Tạp chí KHOA HỌC & CƠNG NGHỆ 90(02): 77 - 86 Figure 2: Structure of the Abstract Factory pattern AbstractProduct  Client: Is a program to create objects in the system, it uses AbstractFactory and AbstractProduct Building Abstract Factory Pattern in C#: Imagine you are designing software to build an electric motor First you must determine the AbctracFactory and AbstractProduct classes We called them DongCoFactory and DongCo, these classes are installed in C# as follows: abstract class DongCoFactory { public abstract DongCo getDongCo(); } abstract class DongCo { public abstract string type { get; } } Now we define a product class DongCoE500Product for DongCo class, ConcreteFactory class for DongCoFactory: class DongCoE500Product : DongCo { string _type = "DCE-500"; public override string type { get { return _type; } } } class concreteDongCoFactory1 : DongCoFactory { public override DongCo getDongCo() { return new DongCoE500Product(); } } We now have a factory and the product, ready for the implementation of theclasses and build the engines But first we need a client and a Main class Here, the client class is testDriver class TestDriver { public void Model(DongCoFactory factory) { DongCo dc = factory.getDongCo(); Console.WriteLine("Model {0}", dc.type); } } class Program { static void Main(string[] args) { DongCoFactory factory1 = new concreteDongCoFactory1(); new TestDriver().Model(factory1); Console.ReadLine(); } } Now, to add another factory class and other types of DongCo can be made as follows: class DongCoE700Product: DongCo { string _type = "DCE-700"; 80 Số hóa Trung tâm Học liệu – Đại học Thái Nguyên http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn Nguyễn Mạnh Đức Tạp chí KHOA HỌC & CÔNG NGHỆ public override string type { get { return _type; } } } class concreteDongCoFactory2 : DongCoFactory { public override DongCo getDongCo() { return new DongCoE700Product(); } } Now we add code to the Main function as follows, and then implement programs to presentperformance results, and note that the client class is that testDriver not remain unaltered class Program { static void Main(string[] args) { DongCoFactory factory1 = new concreteDongCoFactory1(); new TestDriver().Model(factory1); DongCoFactory factory2 = new concreteDongCoFactory2(); new TestDriver().Model(factory2); } } The above example shows that how to add a factory and a new product into the system Structural Patterns Structural patterns suggest ways to put together existing objects into complex structures, in order to achieve new 90(02): 77 - 86 functionality Class structural patterns use inheritance to compose interfaces and implementation, whereas in object structural patterns an object can reside inside another object In this section, we will review a representative sample for this model, which is the proxy pattern Proxy Pattern: Proxy pattern is used when the need to replace, or more accurately represent a complex object with a simple object If the initialization of an object that consuming too many resources or time, the Proxy pattern is a good solution, it allows only if clearly needed a newinitialized object Proxy now can be applied anywhere where you need to have an objectreference to a more flexible, more sophisticated than using a simple pointer The structure of the Proxy pattern is presented in Figure [1] Of which:  Subject: A pure virtual object class or interface, this class can be inherited and implemented by Proxy and other objects  RealSubject: Inherit from the Subject, its full implementation or expansion functions defined in the Subject  Proxy: Inherits from Subject, it is responsible for transfer function calls (requests) from the Subject to RealSubject whenever necessary Client Figure 3: Structure of the Proxy pattern 81 Số hóa Trung tâm Học liệu – Đại học Thái Nguyên http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn Nguyễn Mạnh Đức Tạp chí KHOA HỌC & CÔNG NGHỆ Building Proxxy pattern in C#: The following example will illustrate the installation of Proxy pattern in C# Suppose weneed to build a service processor in a computing system, we can build this service form Proxy pattern as follows: First define an delegate Calculate as follows: public delegate int Calculate(int a, int b); Then there Subject: is an interface IMath role for public interface IMath { int ADD(int x, int y); int SUB(int x, int y); } And next is a Math class is inherited from the MarshalByRefObject class IMath and the system acts as RealSubject: class Math: MarshalByRefObject, IMath { public int ADD(int x, int y) { return x + y; } public int SUB(int x, int y) { return x - y; } } inherited from class IMath: class MathProxy: IMath { Math math = new Math(); public MathProxy() { Console.WriteLine("Calculator constructor"); // Tao the hien cua Math mot // AppDomain khac AppDomain ad = System.AppDomain.CreateDomain("MathDomain", null, null); } public int ADD(int x, int y) { return math.ADD(x, y); } public int SUB(int x, int y) { return math.SUB(x, y); } } This class will change the calculations required to handle RealSubject class when needed 90(02): 77 - 86 Next we add the Client class, this class has two methods: Xuly used delegate packaging methods calculation processing services and Display to create Proxy objects and call handling requirements necessary calculations: public class Client { int x = 12, y = 7; void Xuly(Calculate cal, int v1, int v2) { Console.Write("\nXu ly voi:{0}; {1}: ",v1,v2); Console.WriteLine("Ket qua={0}",cal(v1, v2)); } public void Display() { MathProxy mp = new MathProxy(); Calculate pt = new Calculate(mp.ADD); Xuly(pt, x, y); pt = mp.SUB; Xuly(pt, x, y); } } In illustration of this Proxy application pattern, we have used Imath interface to determine theservice requirements, delegate technicians to perform the calculations required and theprocess of creating objects in C# language instead of having to use ordinary pointers as in C++, to save resources and ease of handling Behavioural Patterns Behavioral patterns focused on problem solving algorithm and the division of responsibilities between objects Behavior patterns are most concerned to the transmission of communications between objects Behavioral patterns not only describes the object model of the model but also describes the exchange of information between them; characterize complex control flow, enabling us to focus more on how to build links between objects instead of the control flow Here we consider the strategy pattern represent for behavioral patterns Strategy pattern: The Strategy pattern defines a family of algorithms, encapsulates the related algorithms and makes them interchangeable This allows the selection of algorithm to vary 82 Số hóa Trung tâm Học liệu – Đại học Thái Nguyên http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn Nguyễn Mạnh Đức Tạp chí KHOA HỌC & CÔNG NGHỆ independently from clients that use it and allows it to vary over time [4] The structure of the Strategy pattern as shown in Figure [1], in which:  Strategy: Defining the interface for all classes present algorithm During the initialization process may object to add data from the Context  ConcreteStrategy: Is the implementation of the Strategy interface to present a specific algorithm  Context: At compile time, only to use the object Strategy model when determining thealgorithm for the problem to be treated; At the time of execution given a specific object of algorithm replacement for object Strategy Building Strategy pattern in C#: The construction behind the Strategy pattern is to encapsulate the number of strategies in a single module and provide an uncomplicated interface to allow the clients to choose between these strategies If you have several different behaviours that you want an object to perform, it is much simpler to keep track of them if each behaviour is a separate class, instead of the most common approach of putting them in one method This is illustrated in figure [1] By doing this you can easily add, remove, or change the different behaviours, since each one is its own class Each such behaviour or algorithm encapsulated into its own class is called a Strategy The strategies not need to be members of the same class hierarchy but they have to implement the same interface [2] The new language support for interfaces in C# comes in handy when implementing the Strategy pattern C++ programmers typically create interfaces by defining abstract classes with pure virtual methods In C#, all interface 90(02): 77 - 86 members are public, and classes adhering to an interface must implement all methods in the interface The following code demonstrates the Strategy pattern, which encapsulates functionality in the form of an object This basic example is based on the structure in figure First we create an Strategy interface with its method are AlgorithmInterface(): interface Strategy { void AlgorithmInterface(); } Next is subclass of concreteStrategy inherits the Strategy interface, which corresponds to thealgorithm of each case will be selected strategy: class ConcreteStrategyA : Strategy { public void AlgorithmInterface() { Console.WriteLine(this.ToString()); } } class ConcreteStrategyB : Strategy { public void AlgorithmInterface() { Console.WriteLine(this.ToString()); } } class ConcreteStrategyC : Strategy { public void AlgorithmInterface() { Console.WriteLine(this.ToString()); } } Figure 4: Structure of the Strategy pattern 83 Số hóa Trung tâm Học liệu – Đại học Thái Nguyên http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn Nguyễn Mạnh Đức Tạp chí KHOA HỌC & CƠNG NGHỆ Next is the Context class will provide specific algorithm objects as required: class Context { private Strategy strategy; public Context(Strategy strategy) { this.strategy = strategy; } public void ContextInterface() { strategy.AlgorithmInterface(); } } Finally, the class that contains function to execute the program: the Main class Program { static void Main(string[] args) { Context cA = new Context( new ConcreteStrategyA()); cA.ContextInterface(); Context cB = new Context( new ConcreteStrategyB()); cB.ContextInterface(); Context cC = new Context( new ConcreteStrategyC()); cC.ContextInterface(); } } DISCUSSION A design pattern is a description of a set of interacting classes that provide a framework for a solution to a generalized problem in a specific context or environment In other words, a pattern suggests a solution to a particular problem or issue in object-oriented software development In today’s software development, applications and systems are complex These products require a great deal of flexibility in design and architecture to accommodate the everchanging needs of clients and users during the product development and also after the product has been released Design patterns assist in laying the foundation for a flexible 90(02): 77 - 86 architecture, which is the characteristic of every good object-oriented design [5, 6] C# together with NET brings about many benefits, including the easy-to-use object model, the garbage collection mechanism for automatically cleaning up resources, and far improved libraries covering areas ranging from Windows GUI support to data access and generating web pages The NET framework insures that enough information is included in the compiled library files (the assemblies) and that your classes can be inherited from and used by other NET-aware code without requiring access to your source files [3, 4] The record in fact shows that pointers is one of the largest sources causes errors when developing software, the concept of pointers in C and C++ does not exist in C # However, it can overcome this problem in C# using other mechanisms such as: set the reference variable with the parameters of the method, or by the constructor the object classes [4]… An interface is basically a contract between a class and a client that guaranties that the class implements the methods specified in the interface In other words, interfaces contain the public signature of methods, events and properties but it is up to the class, which is said to implement the interface, to provide the implementation of these methods The implementing class inherits from an interface in the same way as from a base class An instance of this class can then be casted into the interface and access its methods In this way interfaces can be used to reach the same objectives as with multiple inheritance [5, 7] As Liberty [2] states, in the programming language C#, delegates are first-class objects, fully supported by the language Using a delegate allows the programmer to encapsulate a reference to a method inside a delegate object You can encapsulate any matching method in that delegate without having to know at compile time which method that will be invoked A delegate in C# is similar to a function pointer in C or C++ 84 Số hóa Trung tâm Học liệu – Đại học Thái Nguyên http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn Nguyễn Mạnh Đức Tạp chí KHOA HỌC & CƠNG NGHỆ But unlike function pointers, delegates are object-oriented, type-safe and secure managed objects One of the primary goals of C# is safety; many of the problems that programmers can cause in C and C++ are avoided in C# Generally the abstraction level of programming is higher in C# compared to C++ Introducing C# in design patterns provides the programmer with a modern object-oriented programming language offering syntactic constructs and semantic support for concepts that map directly to notions in object-oriented design The designs show that you always have a program with an interface does not enforce it Then, in all inherited classes, you will be more flexible implementation of the method is most suitable to your purpose Since C# supports interface, this feature is useful when implementing patterns as Adapter, Strategy, Abstract Factory The technical delegate an dother events also match the features of the design and for the design of the patterns becomes easier CONCLUSION In software engineering, design is a total solution for common problems in software design Profound idea of the design is good saving solutions-oriented design and object re-use them to solve similar problems New object-oriented language C# is Microsoft's influencemany of the languages Java and C++ But there are still many new and exciting features are introduced to simplify object-oriented design In this article we will consider building designs which some have proposed Gamma by C# language, namely the Singleton pattern, AbstractFactory, Proxy and Strategy These models are built based on some new features of C #, such as creating a single object using the static method, the use of abstract classes to define the interface for manipulating create "products" virtual; techniques authorized to perform the 90(02): 77 - 86 required processing requirements and mechanism for creating objects in C# instead of using pointers to normal C++ and use this technique class inheritance and interfaces instead of multiple inheritance in C++ to implement multi-processing forms Object oriented language C#, Microsoft's influencemany of the languages Java and C++ But there are still many new and interesting featureis introduced to simplify the design of object-oriented In this article we will consider building a number of designs that Gamma has proposed language with C# The purpose of the work here is to have an insight than some designs can be implemented in C#, to learn the new features of the language in practice and make it easier for designers object-oriented software In the future we will look at other patterns and build on the languages C# or Java Research on the refine designs Application forms and combine them to solve the problem in practice REFERENCES [1] Gamma E., et al, Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software, Addison-Wesley The PDF conversion was made in February 2003 [2] Liberty J., Programming C#, 2nd Edition, O’Reilly, ISBN: 0-596-00309-9, 2002 [3] MSDN, C# Language specification 17 Attributes, Microsoft Corporation 2004 [4] Mathias Bartoll, Nori Ahari, Oliver C.Moldez, Design patterns in C#, Mälardalen University Västerås, Sweden 2004 [5] Sherif M Yacoub, H.H Ammar, PatternOriented Analysis and Design: Composing Patterns to Design Software Systems, Addison Wesley 2003 [6] Nguyen Manh Duc (2011), "Some calculations and refinements with the components", Journal of Science and Technology, University of Thai Nguyen, volume 78, No 02, p 97-104 [7] Pham Huu Khang, Tran Tien Dung, C# 2005 Object Oriented Programming, Publishing House of Social Labour, 2008 85 Số hóa Trung tâm Học liệu – Đại học Thái Nguyên http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn Nguyễn Mạnh Đức Tạp chí KHOA HỌC & CƠNG NGHỆ 90(02): 77 - 86 TÓM TẮT XÂY DỰNG MỘT SỐ MẪU THIẾT KẾ TRONG C# Nguyễn Mạnh Đức* Trường Đại học Sư phạm – Đại học Thái Nguyên Trong công nghệ phần mềm, mẫu thiết kế giải pháp tổng thể cho vấn đề chung thiết kế phần mềm Ý tƣởng sâu xa mẫu thiết kế để tiết kiệm tốt giải pháp thiết kế hƣớng đối tƣợng việc tái sử dụng chúng để giải vấn đề tƣơng tự Ngôn ngữ hƣớng đối tƣợng C# hãng Microsoft có ảnh hƣởng nhiều từ ngôn ngữ Java C++, nhiên nhiều tính thú vị đƣợc giới thiệu để đơn giản hóa thiết kế hƣớng đối tƣợng Trong báo xem xét xây dựng số mấu thiết kế mà Gamma đề xuất ngơn ngữ C# Từ có nhìn sâu sắc số mẫu thiết kế thực C#, tìm hiểu tính ngơn ngữ thực tế làm cho dễ dàng thiết kế phần mềm hƣớng đối tƣợng Từ khóa: Các mẫu thiết kế, mẫu Singleton, mẫu Proxy, mẫu Abstract Factory, mẫu Strategy, ngôn ngữ mơ hình hóa thống * Tel: 0915 564 249; Email: nmductn@yahoo.com 86 Số hóa Trung tâm Học liệu – Đại học Thái Nguyên http://www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn ... creating objects in C# language instead of having to use ordinary pointers as in C++, to save resources and ease of handling Behavioural Patterns Behavioral patterns focused on problem solving... avoided in C# Generally the abstraction level of programming is higher in C# compared to C++ Introducing C# in design patterns provides the programmer with a modern object-oriented programming language... processing requirements and mechanism for creating objects in C# instead of using pointers to normal C++ and use this technique class inheritance and interfaces instead of multiple inheritance in
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