Ebook Management (13/E): Part 2

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Part 2 book Management has contents: Managing human resources, creating and managing teams, managing communication, understanding and managing individual behavior, motivating employees, being an effective leader, monitoring and controlling, management practice. www.downloadslide.net Managing Human Resources Chapter 12 It’s Your Career Acing Your Interviews Although it may feel that way, you’re actually not going to be in college forever Graduation is coming soon (hopefully) and you’ll be looking for a job A big hurdle in that search is the job interview An interview allows potential employers to solicit information about you and to see you “in action.” You want to put your best foot forward and show that you’re a good catch! Here are some suggestions for helping you “ace” that interview: Source: Kativ/iStock A key to success in management and in your career is knowing how to interview for a job effectively 1.  Research the company ahead of time You already know you need to this, but you know what to look for? Know the company’s competitive advantages—what makes this company unique Look closely at its financial “health.” Know the company’s strategic initiatives Find out what you can about the company’s culture Where you find this information? Check the company’s Web site, especially the “About Us” and financial sections Check the company’s social media presence: blogs, Facebook and LinkedIn profiles, Twitter Check out information on other Web sites such as Glassdoor and The Muse, and business news sites 2.  Research the industry and competitors Familiarize yourself with this industry and the main competitors, but only the big-picture stuff, not minute details 3.  Decide ahead of time how you will answer certain “standard” interview questions • The “Tell me about yourself” question: Although this question seems easy enough, you want to show how you’re the perfect fit for the job One expert suggests a “present-past-future” approach.1 Describe where you are right now, describe a little about your past experiences and the skills you’ve gained, finish with describing the future and why you’re excited about this particular job opportunity www.downloadslide.net MyManagementLab® Improve Your Grade! When you see this icon, visit www.mymanagementlab.com for activities that are applied, personalized, and offer immediate feedback Learning Objectives Explain the importance of the human resource management process and the external influences that might affect that process Discuss the tasks associated with identifying and selecting competent employees Know how to be a good interviewee ● Develop your skill at being a good interviewer Explain the different types of orientation and training Describe strategies for retaining competent, high-performing employees Discuss contemporary issues in managing human resources ● •The “What’s your greatest weakness” question: If you’re not prepared, this question can trip you up You don’t want to give the cliché answers of “I’m a perfectionist” or “I work too hard.” All these is show you’re not prepared with a good answer One expert suggests talking about weaknesses that don’t relate to the job (e.g., if you know the job doesn’t require public speaking and public speaking is one of your weaknesses, talk about that) This shows you’re selfaware and realize you have weaknesses, like all of us do.2 Another approach is to talk about past weaknesses and how you dealt with them by getting advice or additional training This expert also said never mention these weaknesses: “I’m not a team player, I’m not trustworthy, I’m not reliable, I have difficulty accepting feedback, I’m not able to take initiative and work independently.” We would agree 100 percent with that! 4.  Watch your body language.3 You want to present a polished, poised, and professional demeanor So, NO: bad posture, too weak/too forceful handshake, lack of eye contact, fidgeting, appearing distracted or uninterested, not smiling And definitely no cell phone going off in the middle of your interview! 5.  Review the job description carefully Pay particular attention to stated requirements outside the standard “various duties as assigned.” Come up with possible questions an interviewer might ask about those requirements and think about how you would answer those questions 6.  Review your résumé with the critical eye of an interviewer What stands out? What would you ask a person who had those statements/descriptions on their résumé? 369 www.downloadslide.net 370 Part 4  Organizing With the organization’s structure in place, managers have to find people to fill the jobs that have been created or to remove people from jobs if business circumstances ­require That’s where human resource management (HRM) comes in It’s an important task that involves having the right number of the right people in the right place at the right time In this chapter, we’ll look at the process managers use to just that In addition, we’ll look at some contemporary HRM issues facing managers A major HRM challenge for managers is ensuring that their company has a highquality workforce Getting and keeping competent and talented employees is critical to the success of every organization, whether an organization is just starting or has been in business for years If an organization doesn’t take its HRM responsibilities seriously, performance may suffer Therefore, part of every manager’s job when organizing is h ­ uman resource management Research has shown that when line managers are responsible for recruiting, performance management, and retention, their companies are 29 percent more successful.4 That’s a good reason for all managers to engage in some HRM activities, such as interviewing job candidates, orienting new employees, and evaluating their employees’ work performance, even if there is a separate HRM department The Human Resource Management Process Many organizations profess that their people are their most important ­asset and acknowledge the important role that employees play in ­organizational success However, why is HRM important, and what external factors ­influence the HRM process? LO1 Why Is HRM Important? high-performance work practices Work practices that lead to both high individual and high organizational performance HRM is important for three reasons First, as various studies have concluded, it can be a significant source of competitive advantage.5 And that’s true for organizations around the world, not just U.S firms The Human Capital Index, a comprehensive study of more than 2,000 global firms, concluded that people-oriented HR gives an organization an edge by creating superior shareholder value.6 Another study found that 71 percent of CEOs say that their “human capital” is the key source of sustained economic value.7 Second, HRM is an important part of organizational strategies Achieving competitive success through people means managers must change how they think about their employees and how they view the work relationship They must work with people and treat them as partners, not just as costs to be minimized or avoided That’s what people-oriented organizations such as Southwest Airlines and W L Gore Finally, the way organizations treat their people has been found to significantly impact organizational performance.8 For instance, one study reported that improving work practices could increase market value by as much as 30 percent.9 Another study that tracked average annual shareholder returns of companies on Fortune’s list of 100 Best Companies to Work For found that these companies significantly beat the S&P 500 over 10-year, 5-year, 3-year, and 1-year periods.10 Another study found a positive relationship between companies’ high- performance work practices and the ability of the organization to efficiently adapt to changing and challenging markets.11 Work practices that lead to both high individual and high organizational performance are known as high-performance work practices (See some examples in Exhibit 12-1.) The common thread among these practices seems to be a commitment to involving employees; improving the knowledge, skills, and abilities of an organization’s ­employees; increasing their motivation; reducing loafing on the job; and enhancing the ­retention of quality employees while encouraging low performers to leave Even if an organization doesn’t use high-performance work practices, other specific HRM activities must be completed in order to ensure that the organization has qualified people to perform the work that needs to be done—activities that comprise the HRM process Exhibit 12-2 shows the eight activities in this process The first www.downloadslide.net Chapter 12  Managing Human Resources Exhibit 12-1 • Self-managed teams High-Performance Work Practices • Decentralized decision making • Training programs to develop knowledge, skills, and abilities • Flexible job assignments • Open communication • Performance-based compensation • Staffing based on person–job and person–organization fit • Extensive employee involvement • Giving employees more control over decision making • Increasing employee access to information Sources: C H Chuang and H Liao, “Strategic Human Resource Management in Service Context: Taking Care of Business by Taking Care of Employees and Customers,” Personnel Psychology, Spring 2010, pp. 153–196; M Subramony, “A Meta-Analytic Investigation of the Relationship Between HRM Bundles and Firm Performance,” Human Resource Management, September–October 2009, pp 745–768; M M Butts et al., “Individual Reactions to High Involvement Work Practices: Investigating the Role of Empowerment and Perceived Organizational Support,” Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, April 2009, pp 122–136; and W R Evans and W D Davis, “High-Performance Work Systems and Organizational Performance: The Mediating Role of Internal Social Structure,” Journal of Management, October 2005, p 760 three activities ensure that competent employees are identified and selected; the next two involve providing employees with up-to-date knowledge and skills; and the final three ensure that the organization retains competent and high-performing employees Before we discuss those specific activities, we need to look at external factors that ­affect the HRM process External Factors That Affect the HRM Process An administrative assistant job opening paying $13 an hour at a Burns Harbor, Indiana, truck driver training school for C R England, a nationwide trucking company, was posted on a Friday afternoon.12 By the time the company’s head of corporate recruiting arrived at work on Monday morning, there were about 300 applications Exhibit 12-2 HRM Process External Environment Human Resource Planning Recruitment Selection Identify and select competent employees Decruitment Orientation Performance Management 371 Training Compensation and Benefits Provide employees with up-to-date skills and knowledge Career Development External Environment Retain competent and high-performing employees www.downloadslide.net 372 Part 4  Organizing in the company’s e-mail inbox And an inch-and-a-half stack of résumés was piled up by the now out-of-paper fax machine Out of those 500-plus applicants, one person, who had lost her job four months earlier, impressed the hiring manager so much that the job was hers, leaving the remaining 499-plus people—including a former IBM analyst with 18 years of experience, a former director of human resources, and someone with a master’s degree and 12 years of experience at accounting firm Deloitte & Touche—still searching for a job During the economic slowdown, filling job openings was an almost mind-boggling exercise As you can see, the entire HRM process is influenced by the external environment Those factors most directly influencing it include the economy, employee labor unions, governmental laws and regulations, and demographic trends The Economy’s Effect on HRM  The global economic downturn has left what many experts believe to be an enduring mark on HRM practices worldwide For ­instance, in Japan, workers used to count on two things: a job for life and a d ­ ecent pension Now, lifetime employment is long gone and corporate pension plans are crumbling.13 In the European Union, the early 2014 jobless rate was 11.9 percent, with Greece and Spain being hit hardest with an unemployment rate of 27.5 percent and 25.6 percent respectively.14 And in Thailand, employees in the automotive industry dealt with reduced work hours, which affected their pay and their skill ­upgrades.15 In the United States, labor economists say that jobs are coming back slowly but aren’t the same ones employees were used to Many of these jobs are temporary or contract positions, rather than full-time jobs with benefits And many of the more than 8.4 million jobs lost during the recession aren’t coming back at all, but they may be replaced by other types of work in growing industries.16 All of these changes have affected employers and workers A Global Workforce Study survey by global professional ­services company Towers Watson confirmed that the recession has “fundamentally altered the way U.S employees view their work and leaders. . .  U.S workers have dramatically lowered their career and retirement expectations for the foreseeable future.”17 Such findings have profound implications for how an organization manages its human resources Employee Labor Unions  Hundreds of workers at Ama- A new law in Germany that lowers the retirement age from 67 to 63 for some workers affects the HRM practices of Marie-Christine Ostermann, general manager of Rullko, a family-owned food and kitchen supply wholesaler in Hamm, Germany Along with a shortage of skilled labor in Germany, the law challenges Ostermann to find new employees to replace those who now can retire earlier than they planned Source: Thomson Reuters (Markets) LLC labor union An organization that represents workers and seeks to protect their interests through collective bargaining zon’s two fulfillment centers in Germany used a series of wildcat strikes—the first of any kind against the company—to make a statement about their demands.18 A planned series of three five-day work stoppages by Unite, the union representing British Airways cabin crews, had the potential for a serious negative effect on Europe’s third-largest airline in an industry already struggling from the prolonged economic downturn.19 If negotiations b ­ etween management and the union didn’t resolve the disputes over work practices, then employees vowed to hit the airline with more strikes during the busy summer ­period Then, in China, strikes at Honda and Toyota factories highlighted that country’s struggle with income inequality, rising inflation, and soaring property prices ­Factory workers, who had been “pushed to work 12-hour days, six days a week on monotonous low-wage assembly line tasks, are pushing back.”20 Work stops, ­labor disputes, and negotiations between management and labor are just a few of the c­ hallenges organizations and managers face when their workforce is unionized A labor union is an organization that represents workers and seeks to protect their interests through collective bargaining In unionized organizations, many HRM decisions are dictated by collective bargaining agreements, which usually ­define things such as recruitment sources; criteria for hiring, promotions, and l­ayoffs; training eligibility; and disciplinary practices Due to information availability, it’s difficult to pin down how unionized global workforces are Current estimates are that about 11.3  percent of the U.S workforce is unionized.21 But the percentage of unionized www.downloadslide.net Chapter 12  Managing Human Resources 373 workers tends to be higher in other countries, except in France, where some 7.8 percent of workers are unionized For instance, in Japan, some 18 percent of the labor force belongs to a union; in Germany, 18 percent; in Denmark, 68.5  percent; in Australia, 17.9 percent; in Canada, 26.8 percent; and in Mexico, 13.6 percent.22 One union membership trend we’re seeing, especially in the more industrialized countries, is that the rate in private enterprise is declining while that in the public sector (which includes teachers, police officers, firefighters, and government workers) is climbing Although labor unions can affect an organization’s HRM practices, the most significant environmental constraint is governmental laws, especially in North America Legal Environment of HRM  Two hundred fifty million dollars That’s the amount a New York City jury awarded in punitive damages to plaintiffs who claim drug company Novartis AG discriminated against women.23 As this example shows, an organization’s HRM practices are governed by a country’s laws and not following those laws can be costly (See Exhibit 12-3 for some of the important U.S laws that affect the HRM process.) For example, decisions regarding who will be hired or which Exhibit 12-3 Major HRM Laws LAW OR RULING YEAR DESCRIPTION Equal Employment Opportunity and Discrimination Equal Pay Act 1963 Prohibits pay differences for equal work based on gender Civil Rights Act, Title VII 1964 (amended in 1972) Prohibits discrimination based on race, color, religion, national origin, or gender Age Discrimination in Employment Act 1967 (amended in 1978) Prohibits discrimination against employees 40 years and older Vocational Rehabilitation Act 1973 Prohibits discrimination on the basis of physical or mental disabilities Americans with Disabilities Act 1990 Prohibits discrimination against individuals who have disabilities or chronic illnesses; also requires reasonable accommodations for these individuals Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act 1990 Requires employers with more than 100 employees to provide 60 days’ notice before a mass layoff or facility closing Family and Medical Leave Act 1993 Gives employees in organizations with 50 or more employees up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave each year for family or medical reasons Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act 1996 Permits portability of employees’ insurance from one employer to another Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act 2009 Changes the statute of limitations on pay discrimination to 180 days from each paycheck Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act 2010 Health care legislation that puts in place comprehensive health insurance reforms Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) 1970 Establishes mandatory safety and health standards in organizations Privacy Act 1974 Gives employees the legal right to examine personnel files and letters of reference Consolidated Omnibus Reconciliation Act (COBRA) 1985 Requires continued health coverage following termination (paid by employee) Compensation/Benefits Health/Safety Source: United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, www.eeoc.gov; United States Department of Labor, www.dol.gov; United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration, www.osha.gov www.downloadslide.net 374 Part 4  Organizing affirmative action Organizational programs that enhance the status of members of protected groups employees will be chosen for a training program or what an employee’s compensation will be must be made without regard to race, sex, religion, age, color, national origin, or disability Exceptions can occur only in special circumstances For instance, a community fire department can deny employment to a firefighter applicant who is confined to a wheelchair; but if that same individual is applying for a desk job, such as a dispatcher, the disability cannot be used as a reason to deny employment The issues, however, are rarely that clear-cut For example, employment laws protect most employees whose religious beliefs require a specific style of dress—robes, long shirts, long hair, and the like However, if the specific style of dress may be hazardous or unsafe in the work setting (such as when operating machinery), a company could refuse to hire a person who won’t adopt a safer dress code As you can see, a number of important laws and regulations affect what you can and cannot legally as a manager Because workplace lawsuits are increasingly targeting supervisors, as well as their organizations, managers must know what they can and cannot by law.24 Trying to balance the “shoulds” and “should nots” of many laws often falls within the realm of affirmative action Many U.S organizations have affirmative action programs to ensure that decisions and practices enhance the employment, upgrading, and retention of members from protected groups such as minorities and females That is, an organization refrains from discrimination and actively seeks to enhance the status of members from protected groups However, U.S managers are not completely free to choose whom they hire, promote, or fire, or free to treat employees any way they want Although laws have helped reduce employment discrimination and unfair work practices, they have, at the same time, reduced managers’ discretion over HRM decisions We want to mention some U.S laws that will and some that are likely to affect future HRM practices The first of these, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA and commonly called the Health Care Reform Act), was signed into law in March 2010 and upheld by the Supreme Court of the United States in 2012.25 This law is affecting current HRM practices as employers are beginning to sort through the requirements and the deadlines for compliance Other proposed legislation that is likely to affect HRM practices includes (1) the Social Networking Online Protection Act (SNOPA), which has been introduced and would prohibit employers from requiring a username, password, or other access to online content; 26 and (2) immigration reform, which is aimed at providing a way for undocumented individuals to become legal citizens.27 The best source of advice about these and other important legal issues will be your company’s HR department What about HRM laws globally? It’s important that managers in other countries be familiar with the specific laws that apply there Let’s take a look at some of the ­federal legislation in countries such as Canada, Mexico, Australia, and Germany Canadian laws pertaining to HRM practices closely parallel those in the United States The Canadian Human Rights Act prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, religion, age, marital status, sex, physical or mental disability, or national origin This act governs practices throughout the country Canada’s HRM environment, however, is somewhat different from that in the United States in that it involves more decentralization of lawmaking to the provincial level For example, discrimination on the basis of language is not prohibited anywhere in Canada except in Quebec In Mexico, employees are more likely to be unionized than they are in the United States Labor matters in Mexico are governed by the Mexican Federal Labor Law One hiring law states that an employer has 28 days to evaluate a new employee’s work performance After that period, the employee is granted job security and termination is quite difficult and expensive Those who violate the Mexican Federal Labor Law are subject to severe penalties, including criminal action that can result in steep fines and even jail sentences for employers who fail to pay, for example, the minimum wage Recently, Mexican labor laws underwent a major overhaul Some of the important new changes include controls on outsourcing jobs, hiring and firing, wrongful discharge, and additional antidiscrimination requirements.28 www.downloadslide.net Chapter 12  Managing Human Resources 375 Leader making a Difference Source: Google Australia’s discrimination laws were not enacted until the 1980s and generally apply to discrimination and affirmative action for women Yet, gender opportunities for women in Australia appear to lag behind those in He’s in charge of the people/HR function at the comthe United States In Australia, however, a pany that’s number one on the World’s Most Attractive significant proportion of the workforce is Employer list and the number one company on the list of unionized The higher percentage of unionthe 100 Best Companies to Work For.29 As senior vice ized workers has placed increased importance president of people operations at Google Inc., Laszlo on industrial relations specialists in Australia Bock knows and understands people and work You and reduced the control of line managers over shouldn’t be surprised that the comprehensive (and complicated) analysis workplace labor issues In 1997, Australia overthat goes into Google search efforts also characterizes its approach to hauled its labor and industrial relations laws with the ­ objective of increasing productivity ­managing its human resources (Look back at Chapter on pages 56–57 for and ­ reducing union power The Workplace a discussion of its Project Oxygen study of effective managers.) Bock’s curRelations Bill gives employers greater flexibility rent pursuit is a long-term study of work (patterned after the long-­running to negotiate directly with employees on pay, Framingham Heart Study that transformed what we know about heart hours, and benefits It also simplifies federal ­disease) Bock says, “I believe that the experience of work can be—should regulation of labor–management relations be—so much better.”30 He and his team hope to learn more about work-life Our final example, Germany, is similar balance, improving employee well-being, cultivating better leaders, doing a to most Western European countries when it better job of engaging Googlers (the name for Google employees) long term, comes to HRM practices Legislation requires and how happiness and work impact each other Undoubtedly, there will be companies to practice representative particisome interesting insights that result! (P.S If you’d like to work at Google pation, in which the goal is to redistribute power within the organization, p ­ utting labor and want to know more about getting hired, check out the references cited on a more equal footing with the interests above! There are good tips in there!) What can you learn from this leader of management and stockholders The two making a difference? most common forms of representative participation are work councils and board representatives Work councils link ­employees work councils Groups of nominated or elected with management They are groups of nominated or elected employees who must be consulted when management makes decisions involving personnel Board represen- employees who must be consulted when management makes decisions involving tatives are employees who sit on a company’s board of directors and represent the personnel interests of the firm’s employees Demographic Trends  A few years back, the head of BMW’s 2,500-employee power train plant in Dingolfing, Lower Bavaria, was worried about the potential inevitable future decline in productivity due to an aging workforce.31 That’s when company executives decided to redesign its factory for older workers With input from employees, they implemented physical changes to the workplace—for instance, new wooden floors to reduce joint strain and special chairs for sitting down or relaxing for short periods—that would reduce wear and tear on workers’ bodies Other organizations worldwide are preparing for a shift as baby boomers retire Many older workers delayed their retirement during the recession, reducing the threat of mass turnover for a few years “But now it’s sneaking up on companies.” Companies are responding by creating succession plans, bringing retirees on as consultants, and increasing crosstraining efforts to prepare younger workers to fill the void Almost half of HR professionals surveyed said this potential loss of talent over the next decade is a problem for their organizations.32 As these examples show, demographic trends impact HRM practices worldwide Much of the change in the U.S workforce over the last 50 years can be attributed to federal legislation enacted in the 1960s that prohibited employment discrimination With these laws, avenues opened up for minority and female job applicants These two groups dramatically changed the workplace in the latter half of the twentieth century Women, in particular, have changed the composition of the workforce as they now hold some 49.1 percent of jobs And because women tend to be employed board representatives Employees who sit on a company’s board of directors and represent the interests of the firm’s employees www.downloadslide.net 376 Part 4  Organizing in education and health care industries, their jobs are less sensitive to economic ups and downs.33 If this trend continues, women may, at some point, become the majority group in the workforce Workforce trends in the first half of the twenty-first century will be notable for three reasons: (1) changes in racial and ethnic composition, (2) an aging baby boom generation, and (3) an expanding cohort of Gen Y workers By 2050, Hispanics will grow from today’s 13 percent of the workforce to 24 percent, blacks will increase from 12 percent to 14 percent, and Asians will increase from percent to 11 percent Meanwhile, the labor force is aging The 55-and-older age group, which currently makes up 13 percent of the workforce, will increase to 20 percent by 2014 Another group that’s having a significant impact on today’s workforce is Gen Y, a population group that includes individuals born from about 1978 to 1994 Gen Y has been the fastest-growing segment of the workforce—increasing from 14 percent to more than 24 percent With Gen Y now in the workforce, analysts point to the four generations that are working side-by-side in the workplace34: • The oldest, most experienced workers (those born before 1946) make up percent of the workforce • The baby boomers (those born between 1946 and 1964) make up 41.5 percent of the workforce • Gen Xers (those born 1965 to 1977) make up almost 29 percent of the workforce • Gen Yers (those born 1978 to 1994) make up almost 24 percent of the workforce These and other demographic trends are important because of the impact they’re having on current and future HRM practices Identifying and Selecting Competent Employees Executives at Texas-based global engineering giant Fluor are expected to recognize and mentor high-performing employees The company’s senior vice president of human resources and administration says such efforts are necessary because “you can’t create a senior mechanical engineer overnight It takes years.” Here’s a company that understands the importance of tracking talent on a global scale.35 Is a job in the insurance industry on your list of jobs you’ll apply for after graduation? Unfortunately for the insurance industry, it’s not for many college graduates Like many other nonglamorous industries, including transportation, utilities, and manufacturing, the insurance industry is not “particularly attractive to the so-called ‘millennials’—people who turned 21 in 2000 or later.” In all these industries, the number of skilled jobs is ­already starting to overtake the number of qualified people available to fill them.36 Every organization needs people to whatever work is necessary for doing what the organization is in business to How they get those people? And more importantly, what can they to ensure they get competent, talented people? This first phase of the HRM process involves three tasks: human resource planning, recruitment and decruitment, and selection LO2 Recruiting good people who become loyal employees and are happy with their jobs is an important part of Federal Express Corporation’s human resource planning and plays a major role in maintaining an employee turnover rate of just one percent The company operates recruiting centers at 25 locations in the United States that help process and screen applicants Source: Robert Nickelsberg/Alamy Human Resource Planning human resource planning Ensuring that the organization has the right number and kinds of capable people in the right places and at the right times Human resource planning is the process by which managers ensure that they have the right number and kinds of capable people in the right places and at the right times Through planning, organizations avoid sudden people shortages and surpluses.37 HR planning entails two steps: (1) assessing current human resources and (2) meeting future HR needs www.downloadslide.net Chapter 12  Managing Human Resources 377 Current Assessment  Managers begin HR planning by inventorying current employees This inventory usually includes information on employees such as name, education, training, prior employment, languages spoken, special capabilities, and specialized skills Sophisticated databases make getting and keeping this information quite easy For example, Stephanie Cox, Schlumberger’s director of personnel for North and South America, uses a company planning program called PeopleMatch to help pinpoint managerial talent Suppose she needs a manager for Brazil She types in the qualifications: someone who can relocate, speak Portuguese, and is a “high potential” employee Within a minute, 31 names of possible candidates pop up.38 At Hoover’s Inc., a Dun & Bradstreet subsidiary, getting a clear picture of employees’ skills and finding the right people for projects is done through a sophisticated software program and an internally developed employee appraisal system that charts employees’ progress along their career paths.39 That’s what good HR planning should do— help managers identify the people they need An important part of a current assessment is job analysis, an assessment that defines a job and the behaviors necessary to perform it For instance, what are the duties of a level accountant who works for General Motors? What minimal knowledge, skills, and abilities are necessary to adequately perform this job? How these requirements compare with those for a level accountant or for an accounting ­manager? Information for a job analysis is gathered by directly observing individuals on the job, interviewing employees individually or in a group, having employees complete a questionnaire or record daily activities in a diary, or having job “experts” (usually managers) identify a job’s specific characteristics Using this information from the job analysis, managers develop or revise job descriptions and job specifications A job description (or position description) is a written statement describing a job—typically job content, environment, and conditions of employment A job specification states the minimum qualifications that a person must possess to successfully perform a given job It identifies the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to the job effectively Both the job description and job specification are important documents when managers begin recruiting and selecting Meeting Future HR Needs  Future HR needs are determined by the organization’s mission, goals, and strategies Demand for employees results from demand for the organization’s products or services After assessing both current capabilities and future needs, managers can estimate areas in which the organization will be understaffed or overstaffed Then they’re ready to proceed to the next step in the HRM process Recruitment and Decruitment Competition for talent by India’s two largest technology outsourcing companies has led to an all-out recruiting war In the United States, the tech sector is also in a hiring push, pitting start-up companies against giants such as Google and Intel in the hunt for employees.41 At CH2MHill, a global engineering firm based in Colorado, it’s a real struggle to recruit foreign employees To be successful at global talent acquisition, its company’s talent acquisition director has a plan for dealing with different recruiting cultures in different parts of the world.42 If your professor has assigned this, go to www.mymanagementlab.com to watch a video titled: CH2MHill: Human Resource Management and to respond to questions If employee vacancies exist, managers should use the information gathered through job analysis to guide them in recruitment—that is, locating, identifying, and attracting capable applicants.43 On the other hand, if HR planning shows a surplus of employees, managers may want to reduce the organization’s workforce through decruitment.44 job analysis An assessment that defines jobs and the behaviors necessary to perform them job description (position description) A written statement that describes a job job specification A written statement of the minimum qualifications a person must possess to perform a given job successfully FYI • 28 percent of executives said that identifying good interpersonal skills was the biggest challenge when developing job descriptions.40 Watch It 1! recruitment Locating, identifying, and attracting capable applicants decruitment Reducing an organization’s workforce www.downloadslide.net Organization Index A Abercrombie & Fitch, 158, 168 Abt Electronics, 185 Accentra, Inc., 78 Accenture, 258, 355–356, 511 Acxiom Corporation, 417 Adidas, 562 ADP, 326 African Union (AU), 134–135 AgSquared, 203 AICPA, 584 AIDS Red campaign, 203–204 Airbus, 135, 195 Air Force, 476 Alameda County Medical Center, 351 Alcoa of Australia, 610 Alibaba Group, 163 All Nippon Airways, 317 Alpha Chi Omega, 524 Amazon, 83, 90, 125, 127, 251, 255, 268, 280–281, 291, 346, 372, 411, 440, 465, 533, 569, 612 AMC Entertainment, 126–127 Ameren Corporation, 570 American Airlines, 74 American Cancer Society, 261 American Express, 324, 568, 611 American Medical Association, 569 American Standard, 606 Amerigas Propane, 392 AMR, 274–275 Anheuser-Busch InBev, 138 AOL, 392 Apache Corp., 117–118 Apple, 83, 90, 105, 114, 119, 199, 228–229, 239, 274, 279, 291, 316, 363, 398, 470, 523, 609 Applebee’s Restaurants, 513 ArcelorMittal, 352 Arizona Republic, 346 Arkadium, 458 ARM, 349 Asbury Automotive, 168 ASEAN See Association of Southeast Asian Nations Association of Professional in Business, 55 Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), 132, 134, 134E4–2 A.S Watson Group, 237–238 Atos, 458 AT&T, 36, 156–157, 168, 226, 363, 470 AU See African Union Australian Stock Exchange, 98 AutoZone, 90 Avery-Dennison Corporation, 218, 324 Aviva Investors, 339, 443 Avon Products, 175, 533 B BAE, 195 Banco Santander, 118 Bang & Olufsen, 279 Bank of America, 158, 365 Bayer AG, 119, 334, 529 BBC Worldwide, 428 BCP Imports, 336 BearingPoint, 383 The Beatles, 408 Beckman Coulter, Inc., 273 Beijing Airport, 326 Beloit College, 483 Belu, 203 Benetton Group SpA, 149, 218 Bershka, 289 Best Buy, 48, 280, 354, 365, 483, 520–521, 603 Bethlehem Steel Company, 60 Better Business Bureau, 125 Black & Decker, 324, 392, 602 Black Jack Club, 406 Blockbuster, 290–291 BLS See U.S Bureau of Labor Statistics Blue Cross of California, 512 BMW, 105, 117, 316, 375, 610–611 The Body Shop, 274 Boeing, 135, 195, 248, 346, 349–350, 388, 418, 429, 545, 596 Boeing-Rocketdyne, 418 Bombardier, 133 Bon-Ton Stores Inc., 80 Bose Corporation, 273 Boston Beer Company, 311 Boston Consulting Group, 275 Boston Pizza International, 384 Boston Red Sox, 562 Boy Scouts of America, 502 BP, 139–140, 157, 158E5–2, 218, 453, 582–583 British Airways, 372 British Council, 131 Build-A-Bear Workshop, 117 Burson-Marsteller, 459 Business Ethics, 201 Business Roundtable, 577 Butler International, Inc., 308 C Cadbury Schweppes, 274 Cafe Blends: Blending Autism into the Workplace, 168 CAFTA See Central America Free Trade Agreement California Supreme Court, 390 Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce, 601 Canon, Inc., 384 Carlsberg A/S, 508 Carlton and United Breweries, 610 CarMax, 115 Carmike Cinemas, 126–127 Carnival Corporation, 556 Carrefour, 237 Carrier-Carlyle Compressor Facility, 252–253 Catalyst, 164 Caterpillar, 393, 609–610 CEDC See Central European Distribution Center for Academic Integrity, 201 Center for Creative Leadership, 416 Centers for Disease Control, 556 Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA), 133–134 Central European Distribution (CEDC), 300 CH2MHill, 377 Charles Schwab Bank, 342 Charles Schwab Corporation, 342 Chartered Management Institute, 571 Cheesecake Factory, 600 Chevron, 451 CHG Healthcare Services, 387 Chicago Cubs, 562 Chicco, 185 Chick-fil-A, 120, 185 Chico’s, 589 The Children’s Place, 299 Chobani, 88 Chrysler, 265 Cianbro, 226 Cinemark, 126–127 Cisco Systems, 46, 63, 104, 190, 200, 215, 322, 359 Citibank, 450 Citicorp, 226 Citigroup, 532 Cleveland Clinic, 569 CNET, 363 Coach, 279 Coca-Cola Company, 95–96, 165–166, 174, 187, 195, 279 Coleman, 596 Coleman Trust Inc., 409 Colgate-Palmolive, 202, 597 Columbus Company, Ltd., 436 Comcast, 47 Committee to Encourage Corporate Philanthropy, 204 Compaq Computer, 217 Conference Board, 464 Connected Energy, 215 Conrad & Co., 358 The Container Store, 283, 538–539 Continental Airlines, 256 Control Risks, 140 Corbis, 431 Cordis LLC, 500 Corning, 193, 418 Costa Cruises, 459 CPAC, Inc., 328 Cranium, 117 Credito Emiliano, 140 C R England, 371 CropScience, 529 Crown Beers, 138 CVS Caremark Corporation, 185 D Daihatsu Motor, 508 Daimler AG, 136, 281 Darden Restaurants, 524–525 David’s Bridal, 474 DAX 30 index, 181 Daxko, 221–222 D&B See Dun & Bradstreet DDB Stockholm, 219 Decision Lens, 418 Deere and Company, 605 703 www.downloadslide.net 704 Organization Index Def Jam Records, 292 Defy Ventures, 203 Dell Inc., 257, 354, 388, 534, 602, 611 Deloitte & Touche, 372, 378, 509–510 Delphi, 610 Denver Mint, 556, 566 Detroit Zoo, 411 Deutsche Bank AG, 137, 249 Deutsche Telekom, 98, 181 Dial Corporation, 202 DineEquity, 513 Discovery Communications Inc., 386–387, 391 DISH Network, 291 DiversityInc, 156–157, 170–171 Dodge, 265 Domino’s Pizza, 268, 556, 564, 609 Dom Perignon, 276 Donna Karan, 275 DotOrg, 204 DoubleClick, 274 Dow Chemical, 611 Dow Corning, 204 DreamWorks Animation, 448 Dropbox, 267 Dun & Bradstreet (D&B), 377, 585 Dunkin’ Donuts, 138 DuPont, 137, 188, 538 Dutch Kruidvat Group, 237 E East African Community (EAC), 135 eBay, 85, 274, 297, 388 Ecover, 189 EEOC See Equal Employment Opportunity Commission EGreetings, 462 Eichstaedt & Devereaux, 352 Electrolux, 216 Eli Lilly & Co., 214 Emerson Electric, 587 Emma Inc., 348–349 Employment Equality Directive, 169 EnCana, 249 Enron, 190, 196–197, 202, 210, 576–577 Enterprise Rent-a-Car, 575–576 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), 158, 167, 169, 242, 389 Ericsson, 350 Ernst & Young, 157, 159, 169, 210, 357–358 ESPN, 282 Ethos Water, 99 EU See European Union European Commission, 274, 389 European Union (EU), 132–133, 132E4–1, 169, 274, 372, 600 Evans Findings Company, 601 Evolution Fresh Inc., 98, 244 EV Rental Cars, 296 Exxon, 139–140 F Fab.com, 483 Facebook, 116, 173, 229, 277, 353–354, 365, 456, 458, 477 Fahrenheit 244, 253 Fair Labor Association, 199 Fairmont Hotel chain, 187 Families and Work Institute, 357 Family Dollar, 543 Fast Company, 255 Federal Aviation Administration, 435 Federal Reserve, 160 FedEx, 296, 355, 358, 376, 512, 536, 574 FedEx Ground Division, 358 FedEx Kinko’s, 334 Fiat, 137 Fiji Water, 188 Florida Power & Light, 417 Fluor, 376 Forbes, 136 Ford Australia, 324 Ford Motor Company, 65, 120, 137, 184, 541, 611 Fortune, 111, 115, 198, 389, 391, 468, 489–490, 524, 545, 551–552, 562E18–7 Four Seasons, 209 Foxconn Technology Group, 238–239 France Télécom, 238–239 Francital, 298 Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA), 134 Fresh Direct, 378 Frito-Lay, 137, 273, 352–354 FTAA See Free Trade Area of the Americas Fuller Brands, 328 G Gallup, 36, 165 Gamesa cookie plant, 329 Gap, 274, 289 GapKids, 299 Garmin Ltd., 265 GATT See General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GCCC See Global Command and Control Center GE See General Electric GEM See Global Entrepreneurship Monitor General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), 135 General Cable Corporation, 37, 330, 607, 610 General Electric (GE), 38, 63, 138–139, 255, 348, 470, 565, 611 General Mills, 588 General Motors, 377, 388 Genuine Scooter Co., 310 Giordano Holdings Ltd., 588 GlaxoSmithKline, 226, 354 Global Command and Control Center (GCCC), 257 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM), 293 Global Fleet Graphics, 256 Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE), 143–144, 509, 539 Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), 189 Global Witness, 188 Global Workforce Study, 372 GLOBE See Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness Glory Foods, 593 Goatse Security, 363 Goldman Sachs, 196, 568 Google, 38, 56–57, 63, 83, 173, 188, 204, 228–231, 279, 333, 365, 375, 377, 393, 449, 564–565, 567–568, 584 Graphic Laminating Inc., 302 Great Place to Work Institute, 563 Green Earth Gardening Supply, 559–560, 560E18–5 Green Gear Cycling, 312 Greenpeace, 188 GRI See Global Reporting Initiative Grupo Televisa, 256 Guerlain, 276 Gymboree, 299 H Habitat for Humanity, 204, 316, 366 Hackensack University Medical Center, 415 Haier Group, 333 Hainan Airlines, 384 Hallmark, 324 Harley-Davidson, 612 Harrah’s Entertainment, 119–120 Harris Interactive Poll, 96, 106 Hartford Distributors, 574 Harvard, 540 Hasbro Toy Company, 106, 269 Hawthorne Studies, 464 Hay Consulting Group, 545 HBO, 291 HCL Technologies, 490–491 Headwaters MB, 45 Health Net Inc., 360 Heartland Payment Systems, 567–568 Herman Miller, Inc., 309 Hewlett-Packard (HP), 120, 139, 141–142, 189, 217, 229–230, 258, 274–275, 316, 388, 418 Hilton Baltimore BWI Airport, 381 Hilton Hotels, 259 hiSbe, 194 H.J Heinz Company, 137 H&M, 274 HOB Entertainment, 274 Hollister, 168 Home Depot, 283 HON Company, 40 Honda Motor, 138–139, 316, 372 Honeywell, 388 Hoover’s Inc., 377 The Horn Group, 306 Hospitality Management Corp., 197 House of Blues Clubs, 274 HP See Hewlett-Packard Hulu, 291 Hutchinson Whampoa, 237 Hyundai, 90 Hyundai Heavy Industries Inc., 599 Hyundai Motor, 257 I Iams, 283 IBM, 115, 137, 142, 169–170, 194, 222, 256, 258, 359, 372, 393, 505, 588 IBM Global Services, 569 IBM India, 164 ICICI Bank, 527 IdeaNet, 230 IDEO, 119, 348, 451–452 IHOP International, 513 IKEA, 88–89, 139, 604 Il Giornale, 99 IMAX Corporation, 127 IMF See International Monetary Fund Inditex SA, 289 Industrial Workers of the World, 432 Industry Week, 562E18–7 Institute of Certified Professional Managers, 55 Institute of Global Ethics, 198 Integrated Information Systems Inc., 570 Intel Corporation, 188, 377, 495 Intel’s India Development Center, 511 Internal Revenue Service (IRS), 199–200, 358 International Association of Business Communicators, 436, 454 International Monetary Fund (IMF), 106, 136 www.downloadslide.net Organization Index International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 189–190, 610–611 International Rice Research Institute, 501 Intuit, 232, 353 IRS See Internal Revenue Service ISO See International Organization for Standardization ITT Industries, 611 J J.B Hunt Transport Services, 597 J C Penney Company, 274–275, 281, 299, 398–399 J Crew, 274 J.D Power, 378 Jeep, 265 Jimdo, 463 J M Smucker, 387 John Lewis Partnership, 387 Johnson Controls Inc., 603 Johnson & Johnson, 226, 611 Josephson Institute of Ethics, 202 Just Born, 505 K Kellogg Company, 176, 276 Kelly Services, 464, 512 KFC, 513 Khayelitsha Cookie Company, 295 Khmer Internet Development Services (KIDS), 297 Kirin, 138 Kiva Systems, 276 Kmart Corporation, 268 Kodak, 169 Korean Air, 222 Korn/Ferry International, 158 KPMG, 357 Kraft Foods, 416, 524 Kroger, 223 Kwintessential, 130 L La Boulange, 98–99 Large Hadron Collider, 348 Latex Foam International, 601 Law Commission, 195 Lego, 275 Lehman Brothers, 151, 190, 210 Lenovo, 138 Levi Strauss, 611 Limited Brands, 588 LinkedIn, 229 LinkExchange, 125 Live Nation, 274 Livestrong Foundation, 264–265 L.L Bean, 89, 465 Lockheed Martin Corporation, 151, 200, 415, 448 Lonely Planet Publications, 428 L’Oreal, 274 Louis Vuitton, 275–276, 346, 612 Lucent Technologies, 475–476 Lululemon Athletica Inc., 614–615 LVMH-Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton SA, 36, 275–276, 612 M Macy’s, 332 Maersk, 397–398 Mandarin Oriental, 209 Marks & Spencer, 588 Marque, Inc., 310 Marriott International, 45, 163, 173, 588 Marsh, 512 Maruichi Bagel, 298 Mary Kay Cosmetics, 116, 534 Massachusetts General Hospital, 138 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 406 Massimo Dutti, 289 MasterCard, 84–85, 228, 532 Mattel, 230–231, 611 Mayo Clinic, 38 McDonald’s, 318, 323, 346, 357, 378–379, 388–389, 453, 565, 588, 599, 601, 608–609 McKinsey & Co, 165, 170 Meade Instruments Corporation, 298 Men’s Wearhouse, 120 Mercedes-Benz, 610 Merck, 388 Mercosur, 134 Merrill Lynch, 137 MGM Mirage, 156 Miami International Airport, 382 Miami Marlins, 96 Michael Waltrip Racing, 557 Michelin, 276, 328 Microsoft Corporation, 222, 307, 354, 378, 511, 584, 596 Midvale Steel Company, 60 Mine Safety Appliances Company, 309 Missouri State Employees’ Retirement System, 137 MIT See Massachusetts Institute of Technology Mohawk Industries, 188 Molson-Coors, 204 Mondelez International, 524 Monsanto Company, 450 Morning Star Company, 37 Moscow Ballet, 524 MotionWorks, 557 Motorola, Inc., 346, 611 Motorola Mobility, 274 Motown Records, 251 MTV, 110 Mugaritz, 407 MWH Global, 423 N NAFTA See North American Free Trade Agreement NASCAR, 417, 543, 557 NASDAQ Stock Exchange, 170 National Autistic Society, 396 National Football League, 322 National Hockey League, 47, 307 National Labor Relations Board, 432 National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, 483 National Speleological Society, 568 National Transportation Safety Board, 220 Natura Cosmeticos SA, 190 NBC, 268 NEC Lenovo Japan Group, 138 Nest Labs, Inc., 274, 292 Nestlé, 105–106, 137, 431, 450, 532 Nestlé USA, 605–606 Netflix, 127, 227, 290–291 New Balance Athletic Shoes, 283 New Ventures Group, 417 New York City Fire Department, 379 New York Mets, 96 705 New York Times, 151, 556 Neyret, 298 NHL.com, 307 Nichols Foods, 512 Nielsen Media Research, 215 Nike, 85, 119, 187, 249, 264, 354 Nissan Motor Company, 131, 136, 176, 569, 588 Nokia, 354, 388, 453 Nomura Holdings Inc, 151–152 Nordson Corporation, 606 Nordstrom, 119, 279 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), 133–134 Northrup Grumman Corporation, 610 Norwich Union, 451 Novartis AG, 373 Novo Nordisk A/S, 190 Nvidia Corporation, 565 O O’Bryant’s Kitchens, 240 OCE See Operations Center East Ocean Spray Cranberries, 228 OECD See Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Office Depot, 269, 558 Ohio State, 525–526 Olympic Games, 209 Operations Center East (OCE), 581–582 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 136, 195, 430 Organization for European Economic Cooperation, 136 Outward Bound School, 540 Oxford University, 524 Oysho, 289 Oyster, 83 P Pactiv Corporation, 605 Palm, 119 Panera, 346 Parrish Medical Center, 512 Patagonia, 188, 519 PATH See Program for Appropriate Technology in Health Pathmark, 552 Paychex, 392 Payless Shoe Source, 588 PayPal, 85, 274 Peer Hosting, 119 Pella Corporation, 601 Penske Truck Leasing, 350 PepsiCo Americas Beverages, 273 PepsiCo Americas Foods, 273 PepsiCo Asia/Middle East/Africa, 273 PepsiCo Europe, 273 PepsiCo Inc., 95, 137, 258–259, 329, 352, 418, 431, 471, 532 Pew Research Center, 164, 397 Pfizer, 343, 352, 445, 605 Phat Farm, 292 Philips Professional Luminaires, 417 Pike Place Market, 241 Pinterest, 110 Pitney Bowes, 230 Pizza Hut, 513 Pocket Gems, 37 Pollo Campero, 138 Polytechnic Institute of New York, 48 www.downloadslide.net 706 Organization Index PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC), 180, 204 Procter & Gamble Company, 38, 119, 136, 228, 254, 268, 283–284, 351, 354, 385, 388, 431, 494, 585–586 Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH), 203 PSA Peugot Citroen, 131 Pull and Bear, 289 PwC See PricewaterhouseCoopers Q Qantas Airways, 46 Quaker Oats, 273 Qualcomm, 354, 387 Qwikster, 291 R Radio City Rockettes, 481 RadioShack, 264 Randstad USA, 383 Randy’s Photocopying Service, 593–594 Raytheon Company, 445 Real Madrid, 209 Reckitt Benckiser, 136–137 Recording Industry Association of America, 570 Recreational Equipment, Inc (REI), 248 Red Box, 291 Red Bull, 47 Red Robin Gourmet Burgers, 277 Regal Entertainment Group, 126–127 REI See Recreational Equipment, Inc Reimers Electra Steam, 39 Renault, 131, 136 Ritz Carlton Hotels, 276, 452 Rockwell Automation, 417 Rowe Furniture, 608 Royal Dutch/Shell PLC, 137, 335 R R Donnelley & Sons Company, 279 RSA Security, 296 R&S Information Services, 467 Rullko, 372 Rush Communications, 292 Russell Simmons Argyle-Culture, 292 Ruth’s Chris Steak House, 383 S SAARC See South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation Sabre Holdings, 359 Sage Group PLC, 190 Saint-Gobain Performance Plastics, 605 SAIT Polytechnic, 436 Saks Fifth Avenue, 573 Salo LLC, 117 Samsung Electronics, 63, 316 San Francisco Giants, 584 San Francisco Opera, 479 SAP, 45 Sapient Corporation, 308 Sara Lee, 274 SAS Institute, Inc., 489–490, 499, 511, 533, 596 Savers Health & Beauty, 237 SCAN Health Plan, 355, 357 Schering-Plough, 609 Schlotzky’s, 138 Schlumberger, 377 S C Johnson & Sons, Inc., 169 Scotiabank, 218 Scribd, 83 Seagate Technology, 524 Sealed Air Corporation, 586 Seaport Hotel & World Trade Center, 379 Sears, 196 Sears Holdings, 268 Seattle’s Best Coffee, 98–99 Second Life, 348 Seven & iHoldings, 136 Shakey’s Pizza, 138 Siemens AG, 388, 422, 602 Siemens Energy, 422 SIFE See Students in Free Enterprise Simplex Nails Manufacturing, 601 Singapore Airlines, 283, 468 Skinny Improv, 415–416 SkipDr, 297 Skip Hop, 297 Skoda, 601 Skype, 447 Smart Balance Inc., 229, 349 SMG Connected, 451 Social Investment Forum, 187 Social Security, 107, 358 Société Générale, 466 Society for Human Resource Management, 167 Sodexo, 171 SolarCity, 85 Solidares Unitaires Démocratiques, 238 Sony Corporation, 112, 137, 268, 611 South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), 135 Southern Common Market, 134 Southwest Airlines, 112, 116, 120, 276, 279, 370, 435–436, 465, 576 Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX), 85 Spartan Motors, 281 Sport Otto, 311 Springfield Remanufacturing Company (SRC), 44, 512 Staff Builders, 326 Stagee, 409 Starbucks Access Alliance, 242 Starbucks Armed Forces Support Network, 242 Starbucks Black Partner Network, 242 Starbucks Coffee Agronomy Company, 550 Starbucks Coffee Trading Company, 550 Starbucks Corporation, 98–100, 231, 241–244, 317–319, 346, 354, 430–432, 449, 465, 550–552, 615–616 Starbucks Entertainment, 99 Starbucks Leadership Lab, 546 Starbucks Tata Limited, 431 Starcom MediaVest Group, 451 Starwood Hotels, 137, 141, 259 St Jude Children’s Research Hospital, 466 St Louis Cardinals, 38 Stradivarius, 289 Stryker Corporation, 309 StubHub, Inc., 307 Students in Free Enterprise (SIFE), 201 Suburban Hospital (Bethesda, Maryland), 352, 418 Subway, 417, 597 SuccessFactors, 450 SuperValu, 47 Svenska Handelsbanken, 589 Swingline, 79 Sylvania, 417 Sysco, 605 T Taco Bell, 268, 513, 556 TAG Heuer, 276 Target, 203, 289, 564, 569 Target Technology Innovation Center, 215 Tata Global Beverages, 431 Tata Group, 274 Tazo Tea, 98–99 Teavana, 98 TechForum, 350 Technogym, 209 Tecnologico de Monterrey, 252 Ted’s Malibu Surf Shop, 524 Tefron, 296 Tennessee Valley Authority, 468 Terex Corporation, 330 Tesco, 237, 350 Tesla Motors, 85, 255 Texas Instruments, 534, 589 Texas Rangers, 480 Thermo Fisher Scientific, 606 Thomson SA, 137 3M Company, 216, 229–230, 256, 279, 334, 350–351, 470, 545, 611 Sisters Adventure Trekking Company, 473 Timberland, 193 Timken, 602 T-Mobile, 89, 378–379 Tom’s Of Maine, 119 TOTAL, SA, 188 Towers Watson, 36, 372, 446 Toyota Motors Corporation, 110, 316, 350, 372, 608 Trader Joe’s, 576 TripAdvisor, 261 Trunk Club, 277 Tsingtao Brewery, 217 Turner Industries Group LLC, 170–171 Twitter, 47, 49, 365, 458 Tyson Foods, 120 U UA See Under Armour Uber Technologies, Inc., 276 UBS AG, 197 Ugg, 603 Unilever, 137, 268, 274 UniRush, 292 Unisys, 388 United Airlines, 256, 568, 588 United Nations, 195, 196E6–6 United Parcel Service (UPS), 43, 185, 187–188, 227, 358, 444, 612 United Plastics Group, 139 United Technologies Corporation (UTC), 197 United Way, 38 Unity, 448 Univenture Inc., 295 Universal Music Group, 292 University of Arizona, 251 University of Cambridge, 524 University of Iowa, 525 University of Maryland, 215 University of Michigan, 171, 526–527 University of Wisconsin Madison, 41 UPS See United Parcel Service US Airways, 383 U.S Armed Forces, 470 U.S Army, 352, 378, 437 www.downloadslide.net Organization Index USA Today, 292, 614 U.S Bankruptcy Court (Southern District of New York), 210 U.S Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), 54, 160–161, 388, 400 U.S Cellular, 458 U.S Census Bureau, 166 U.S Congress, 597 U.S Department of Education, 271 U.S Department of Justice, 195 U.S Department of Labor, 167, 574 U.S Federal Trade Commission, 274 U.S Military, 588 U.S National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, 574 U.S Postal Service (USPS), 269 U.S Small Business Administration, 293 U.S Supreme Court, 374 UTC See United Technologies Corporation Uterqüe, 289 U2, 530 V Valeo Klimasystemme GmbH, 610 Van Halen, 556 Verismo, 99 Verizon, 366–367, 391 Virgin America, 448 Virgin Group, 79 Visa, 84–85, 581 Volkswagen AG, 388, 601 Volkswagen Sweden, 219 Volvo, 416, 589 Volvo Construction Equipment, 588 Vurv Technology, 494 VZ-LIFE, 391 W Wachovia, 204 Walgreens, 167–168, 283 Wall Street Journal, 390 Walmart, 48, 149, 151, 237, 256, 268, 273, 276–277, 280, 283, 289, 337, 500, 556, 569, 604–605 Walt Disney Company, 125, 569 Warby Parker, 283 Waste Management, 543 Watson Wyatt, 357 Wayfair.com, 513 Weber Shandwick, 458 Wellmark Blue Cross Blue Shield, 226, 611 Wellness Corporate Solutions, 218 The Wellness Foundation, 209 Wells Fargo & Co., 277, 611 Wendy’s, 556, 603, 608–609 Western Electric Company Works, 64 Western Provident Association, 451 Whirlpool, 334 White Castle, 543 Whole Foods Market, 66, 297, 451, 534 Wild Oats Markets, 451 William Wrigley Jr Co., 452 Wilson Sporting Goods, 322 707 Wipro Limited, 258 W L Gore & Associates, 111, 114, 346, 370, 416 World Bank Group, 136 World Business Council for Sustainable Development, 49 WorldCom, 190, 210 World Cup, 571 World Economic Forum, 106, 190 WorldNow, 117 World Trade Organization (WTO), 135, 145 Wormald Security, 610 WTO See World Trade Organization Wyeth, 498 X Xerox, 48, 272, 346, 352, 418 Xerox Innovation Group, 228 Y Yahoo!, 333, 365–366, 479 Yamaha Corporation of America, 393 YouTube, 127, 274, 450 Yum Brands Inc., 150, 513 Z Zappos.com, 55–56, 125–126, 440, 465, 508, 603 Zara, 274, 289–290 Zebra, 557 Zimmer Holdings, 296 Zippo Manufacturing, 109 Zynga, 268, 493 www.downloadslide.net Subject Index A B Absenteeism, 463 job satisfaction and, 464–465 Acceptance theory, of authority, 326 Accountability, 56 Achievement need, 508–509 Achievement oriented leader, 530 Across Asia on the Cheap (Wheeler, T & Wheeler, M.), 428 Active listening, 442–443, 443E14–3 Activist approach, to green organizations, 189 Activities, 591, 592EPC–8 Activity ratios, 566 ADA See Americans with Disabilities Act Ad hoc committees, 352 Affective component, of attitudes, 464 Affirmative action, 374 Age, 163–164 Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, 163 Aggression, 484 Aging, 160 population, 162–163 world, 162E5–4 Agreeableness, 471 Alcohol, 579 Alternative decisions, 75–76, 76E2–3, 77E2–4 Ambiguity, 231 American Idol, 268–269 Americanization, 145 Americans, 142E4–4 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 166–167, 242 Anchoring effect, 86 Anti-Bribery Convention, 195 Antisocial actions, 409 Artificial intelligence, 83 Asch’s cards, 410E13–4 Assertiveness, 144 Assumed similarity, 480 Attentional processes, 482 Attitudes, 463–469 behavioral component of, 464 cognitive component of, 463–464 consistency and, 467 cultural, 607–608 managers and, 469 polycentric, 131 surveys, 468, 468E15–2 value chain management strategies and, 607 Attractiveness of reward, 504 Attribution theory, 478–479, 479E15–6 Audit committees, 577 Authority, 324–326 acceptance theory of, 326 line, 326, 327E10–4, 327E10–5 staff, 326–327, 327E10–5 Autism, 396 Autocratic style, 525 Automation, 218 Autonomy, 501 Availability bias, 87 Baby boomers, 106 Balanced scorecard, 569 Bankruptcy, 210, 268 Baseball, 96–97 Basic corrective action, 560 BCG matrix, 275 Behavior, 462 See also Organizational behavior; Organizational citizenship behavior group, 462 individual, 462 negative, 484–485 shaping, 482 theories, 524–525, 526E17–2 Behavioral approach, 63–65 Behavioral component, of attitudes, 464 Benchmarking, 569–570, 588 internal, 570E18–11 steps, 588EPC–2 Benefits, 386–387, 388E12–11 family-friendly, 391 Best practices, 569–570 Biases, 86–87, 87E2–11, 171–173 self-serving, 87, 479 Big data, 90–91, 277 Big Five Model, 471 Billboard, 279 Black Book model, 95–96 Blog-Hub, 453 Blogs, 451 Bloomberg BusinessWeek, 95 Board representatives, 375 Boards of directors, 577 Body language, 438 Boeing 737-800, 429 “Boiled frog” phenomenon, 313 Boundaryless organizations, 348–350 Bounded rationality, 78–79 Bragging boards, 512 Breakeven analysis, 593–594, 594EPC–10 Bribery, 150–151, 195 Budgeting, 567, 589 analysis, 566 improving, 590EPC–4 types, 589EPC–3 Building construction, 592EPC–8, 593EPC–9 Bureaucracy, 62–63, 63EMH–4 Business description, 302 Business model, 268 Business planning skill, 287 Business plans, 301–302 Business valuation, 313 708 C Calm waters metaphor, 215 Camaraderie, 519 Canadian Human Rights Act, 374 Capabilities, 271 Career opportunities in management, 400 Caring, Serving, and Giving, 507 Caring Unites Partners (CUP), 551 Casual dress, 409 C corporation, 303 CDO See Chief diversity officer Centralization, 329–330, 330E10–7 CEO See Chief executive officer Cerealtop, 295 Certainty, 83 CEs See Commissioning editors CFO See Chief financial officer Chain of command, 324–328, 327E10–4 dual, 346 Change agents, 216–217 forces for, 214E7–1 managing, 221–227, 235 organizational, 216–219 organizations and, 227E7–8 process, 214–216 resistance to, 219–221, 221E7–5 stimulating, 306–307 successful, 226–227 three-step process, 215E7–2 types of, 217–219, 217E7–3 Channels, 437 Charismatic-visionary leadership, 533–534 Cheaper by the Dozen (Gilbreth, F B & Gilbreth, L M.), 61 Cheating, 201 Chief diversity officer (CDO), 180 Chief executive officer (CEO), 280 Chief financial officer (CFO), 280 Chief information officer (CIO), 280, 536 Chief operating officer (COO), 280 CIO See Chief information officer Civil Rights Act of 1964, 163, 168–169 Classical approach, 60–63 Classical view, of social responsibility, 184 Client relationships, 502 Closed systems, 67 Coaching skills, 404–405, 426–427 Codes of ethics, 197–199, 198E6–7 Coercion, 221 Coercive power, 536 Coffee, 98–100, 615–616 Coffee industry, 430–432 Cognitive component, of attitudes, 463–464 Cognitive dissonance theory, 467–468 Cohesiveness of global teams, 422 of groups, 411–412, 412E13–5 Collaboration, 350–355, 351E11–3, 604–605 developing your skill, 149 internal, 351–352 workplace design and, 447 Collectivism, 144 Colony Collapse Disorder, 187 Commissioning editors (CEs), 428 Commitment concept, 256 escalation of, 79 organizational, 466 unified, 419 www.downloadslide.net Subject Index Communication, 221 See also Interpersonal communication; Organizational communication barriers to, 440–441 in creating effective teams, 419 in crisis, 459 customer service and, 452–453 downward, 444 ethical, 453–454 flow direction, 444–445 formal, 444 function of, 436–437 gender differences, 434 informal, 444 Internet and, 450–451 issues, 450–454 IT and, 448–450 lateral, 445 leadership and, 551 managerial, 448–449 methods of, 439E14–2 nature of, 435–437 nonverbal, 438 online, 450–451 organizational, 436, 445E14–4 overcoming barriers to, 441–443 process, 437 technology, 359 upward, 444–445 workplace design and, 447–448 workplace violence and, 574 Communities of practice, 352, 353E11–4 Community service projects, 507 Company rankings, 562–563, 562E18–7 Company-mandated experiment time, 229 Comparability, 571 Compensation, 386–387, 388E12–11 Competence, 537 Competitive advantage, 276–278 Competitive strategies, 275–279 Competitor intelligence, 259, 585 Competitors, 299–300 Compressed workweeks, 357–358 Computerization, 218 Conceptual skills, 44 Concurrent control, 565 Confirmation bias, 86 Confirmation screens, 608–609 Conflict, 413 dysfunctional, 413 functional, 413, 416 groups and, 414E13–7 management, 413–415, 415E13–8 role, 224 task, 413 tolerating, 231 Conformity, 410 Connectedness, of employees, 359–360 Conscientiousness, 471 Consensus, 478–479 Consideration, 526 Consistency, 537 attitudes and, 467 attribution theory and, 479 Contemporary approaches, 67–69 Context, analysis of, 302 Contingency approach, 68 Contingency factors, in planning, 256 Contingency planning, 597 Contingency theories, of leadership, 527–531 Contingency variables, 68EMH–8 Contingent workers, 358–359 motivating, 511 Controlling, 41, 556–557 coffee, 615–616 concurrent, 565 cultural attitudes and, 607 customer interactions, 575–576 decision making and, 560 employee performance, 563–564 employee theft, 573, 573E18–12 feedback, 565–566 feedforward, 565 financial, 566–567 information, 567–569 issues, 310–314, 570–577 planning-controlling link and, 557E18–1 for quality, 610 technology and, 571 types of, 565E18–9 workplace violence, 575E18–13 Control process, 557–560, 558E18–2 decision making and, 561E18–6 Convenience, quality compared to, 117 COO See Chief operating officer Co-optation, 221 Coordination, 604–605 Core competencies, 271 Corporate governance, 576–577 Corporate philanthropy, 203–204 Corporate strategies, 273–275 Corporate symbols, 102 Corrective action basic, 560 immediate, 560 Costs, 593 fixed, 593 health care, 392–393 HR, 392–393 pension, 393 sunk, 87 variable, 593 Counseling, 226 Creativity, 119 developing your skill, 94 innovation versus, 228 Credibility, 537 Crises, recognizing, 313 Critical path, 591 Cross-cultural differences, 570–571 See also Cultural differences Cross-functional teams, 324, 351–352 Cultural attitudes, 607–608 Cultural differences, 89, 509 Cultural environment, 141–144 Cultural Health Index, 468 Cultural intelligence, 146 Cultural variables, 230–231 Cultures, 102–103 See also National culture; Organizational culture assessing, 143–144 blending, 151–152 changing, 223, 223E7–6 customer-responsive, 119–120, 120E3–10 environment and, 241 establishing, 114E3–8 ethical, 193 growth-oriented, 312EEV–5 innovative, 119 leadership across, 539–540, 539E17–7 learning, 116–118 maintaining, 114E3–8 managers and, 117–118, 118E3–9 motivation and, 508–509 personality types and, 473–474 reading in an organization, 102 ROWE and, 520 source of, 114–116 strong versus weak, 114, 114E3–7 weak, 223 CUP See Caring Unites Partners Currency exchange rates, 141 Customer-responsive culture, 119–120, 120E3–10 Customers, 66 interactions, 575–576 managers and, 46–47 satisfaction, 465 technology and, 612 transactions, 615–616 value chain management and, 602–603 Customer service, 342 communication and, 452–453 organizational volunteers and, 366–367 strategies, 283 Cyberattacks, 567–568 D DAT See Digital Acceleration Team Data, 568 big, 90–91, 277 comparability and, 571 financial, 302 production, 595EPC–11 Death from overwork See Karoshi Decentralization, 329–330, 330E10–7 Decisional roles, 42 Decision makers, 77–78 Decision making biases, 86–87, 87E2–11 big data and, 90–91 conditions, 83–85 controlling and, 560 control process and, 561E18–6 design thinking and, 90 effective, 88–91 group, 412–413, 413E13–6 guidelines, 89–90 intuitive, 79 managerial, 88, 88E2–12 process, 73–77, 75E2–1 rational, 78 style, 85–88 Decisions, 74 alternative, 75–76, 76E2–3, 77E2–4 criteria, 74–75, 76E2–2 EBMgt and, 80–81 effectiveness of, 77 of managers, 77–81, 77E2–5 nonprogrammed, 82, 82E2–7 programmed, 81 technology and, 83 types of, 81–82 Decruitment, 377–378, 379E12–5 Deep-level diversity, 156 Deepwater Horizon, 582–583 Defensiveness, 441 709 www.downloadslide.net 710 Subject Index Delegating, 320, 529 See also Empowerment Democracy, 490 Democratic style, 525 Demographic environment, 106–108 Demographics, 297 Demographic trends, 375–376 Dennis (hurricane), 582–583 Departmentalization, 324 forms of, 325E10–3 Design thinking, 90, 232 as competitive advantage, 276–277 Desperation hustle, 487 D&I See Diversity and inclusion Difficult people, dealing with, 402, 579 Digital Acceleration Team (DAT), 450 Direction, 494 Directional plans, 251 Directive leader, 530 Disabilities, 166–168, 168E5–6 Disasters, 582–583 Disciplinary actions, 563–564 Discipline problems, 563E18–8 Discrimination, 171–172, 172E5–7, 379 laws, 374–375 Disney Difference, 569 Distinctiveness, 478 Distributive justice, 504 Diversification, 274 Diversity, 107, 156–160 See also Workplace ­diversity; Global diversity and inclusion accomplishments, 174 deep-level, 156 inclusion and, 242 initiatives, 173–176 managing, 170–173 motivation and, 510–511 surface-level, 156 in teams, 430–432 tomorrow’s workforce, 107 training, 175–176, 432 valuing, 178 Diversity and inclusion (D&I), 170 Divisional structure, 337 Division of labor, 59–60 Documentation, supporting, 302 Downsizing, 388, 389E12–12 Downturns, 312–313 Dress code, 489 Driving forces, 215 Dysfunctional conflicts, 413 E E See Extraversion Earnings per share (EPS), 291 EBMgt See Evidence-based management E-business strategies, 282–283 Economic circumstances, challenging, 508 Economic context economic inequality and, 106 global economy and, 106 Economic development, 614 Economic environment, 106, 140–141 Economic inequality, 106 Economic recession, 508 Economy free market, 141 global, 106 HRM and, 372 planned, 141 Education, 221 Effectiveness, 40, 40E1–3 decision, 77 of forecasting, 586–588 organizational, 343, 562 Efficiency, 40, 40E1–3, 430 Effort-performance linkage, 504 Ego strength, 192 EI See Emotional intelligence Electronic payments, 581–582 E-mail, 448, 451 bans, 458 decline of, 449 Emotional expression, 437 Emotional intelligence (EI), 474–476 Emotional stability, 471 Emotions, 440 constrained, 443 emotional intelligence and, 474–476 Empathy, 475 Employees assessment, 377 benefits, 386–387 compensation, 386–387 connectedness of, 359–360 empowerment of, 121, 330, 538–539 engagement, 466–467 expression, 121 health care costs, 392–393 input from, 453, 453E14–5 job satisfaction and, 464 learning culture, 116–118 low-skilled, 512 pension costs, 393 performance, 563–564 performance management, 385–386 prioritizing, 490–491 productivity, 463 protection for, 202 recognition programs, 512–513 recruitment of, 306 relationship with, 241 resource groups, 176 retention of, 306 selection, 197, 376–382 skills for, 382–384 stress and, 223–226 theft, 573, 573E18–12 training, 383–384 value chain management strategies and, 606–607 volunteer efforts, 204 workplace violence and, 574–575 work teams, 310 Employment, 108–109 Employment Nondiscrimination Act (ENDA), 169 Empowerment, 308–309, 340 See also Delegating of employees, 121, 330, 538–539 leadership, 231 Encoding, 437 ENDA See Employment Nondiscrimination Act Energy, 494 Engagement, with employees, 466–467 Entrepreneurial ventures, 292 Entrepreneurship, 292–293 ethics and, 295 global, 293 importance of, 293 leadership and, 309–310 personality characteristics in, 307–308 process, 294 social, 203 social responsibility and, 295 Environment See also Global environment; Legal environment assessing, 584–588 cultural, 141–144 culture and, 241 demographic, 106–108 dynamic, 258 economic, 106 external, 105, 108–111 Environmental complexity, 109–110 Environmental footprint, 616 Environmental scanning, 258–259, 584–586 developing your skill, 124 Environmental uncertainty, 68, 109, 109E3–3, 334–335 EPS See Earnings per share Equal Opportunity Directive, 169 Equal opportunity employment laws, 174E5–8 Equity theory, 503–504, 504E16–7, 509 Escalation of commitment, 79 Esteem needs, 495 E-tailers, 125–126 Ethical behavior being ethical, 182 encouraging, 196–201 factors determining, 190–195, 191E6–3 leadership and, 199 managers and, 190–195 Ethical communication, 453–454 Ethical Culture, 193 Ethical dilemmas, 199E6–8 Ethical hacking, 363 Ethical lapses, 201–202 Ethics, 190 codes of, 197–199, 198E6–7 entrepreneurship and, 295 international, 195 leadership and, 202, 202E6–9 legality and, 585 protective mechanisms in, 201 social networks and, 456 social responsibility and, 201–204 training, 200 Ethisphere, 199 Ethnicity, 165–166 Ethnocentric attitude, 131 Euro, 133 Evaluating results, 272 Events, 591, 592EPC–8 Evidence-based management (EBMgt), 80–81 Executive summary, 301 Exiting ventures, 313–314 Expectancy theory, 504–505, 505E16–8, 514 Expected value, 84E2–8 Experimentation, 229 Expert power, 536 Exporting, 138 External analysis, 271 External controls, 231 External environment, 105, 105E3–2, 108–111 Extinction, 482 Extraversion (E), 469–471 F F See Feeling Facilitation, 221 Fairness, 503 Family-friendly benefits, 391 www.downloadslide.net Subject Index FarmVille, 493 Fashion, 289–290 FCPA See Foreign Corrupt Practices Act Feasibility region, 595 Feasibility studies, 298–299, 300EEV–2 Feedback, 441–442 channels, 502 controls, 565–566 giving effective, 554 JCM and, 501–502 performance, 563 positive, 231 self-generated, 499 Feedforward controls, 565 Feeling (F), 470 Fiedler contingency model, 527–529, 528E17–3 Filtering, 440 Financial collapse, 210 Financial controls, 566–567 Financial data, 302 Financial projections, 302 Financial ratios, 567E18–10 Financial reporting, 577 Financing, 300 options, 301EEV–3 First-line managers, 37–38 First movers, 284, 284E9–6 Five forces model, 278 Five Year Business Plan (USPS), 269 Fixed costs, 593 Flexibility job design and, 606 in leadership, 540 in manufacturing, 611 project management and, 596 of work arrangements, 355–358 Flexible organizations, 349 Flextime, 357–358 Focused work, 447 Forecasting effectiveness of, 586–588 qualitative, 586 quantitative, 586 rolling, 588 techniques, 586, 587EPC–1 technology, 449 Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA), 195 Foreign subsidiary, 139 Formalization, 331–332 Formal planning department, 257 Framing bias, 86 Franchising, 138 Free market economy, 141 Functional conflicts, 413, 416 Functional strategies, 279 Functional structure, 337 The Functions of an Executive (Barnard), 67 Fundamental attribution error, 479 Future orientation, 144 G The Game of Life, 269 Gantt charts, 590, 590EPC–5 Gender differentiation, 144 gaps, 181 glass ceiling and, 172–173 identity, 169–170 managers and, 164–165 quotas, 181 General administrative theory, 61–63 General partnership, 303 Generational differences, 483–484 Gen X, 164 Gen Y, 106–107, 164, 376, 483–484 Geocentric attitude, 131 Gift cards, 616 Glass ceiling, 172–173 Global company, 137 Global diversity and inclusion, 170 See also Diversity Global economy, 106 Global environment, 132–136 business in, 136–139 and the Internet, 140 Global mind-set, 146, 146E4–6 Global perspective, developing, 128 Global positioning systems (GPS), 265, 608 Global scanning, 585–586 Global sense, 240, 430, 549, 614 Global sourcing, 138 Global structural issues, 360 Global teams, 421E13–11 management of, 421–422 managers of, 422 processes, 422 resources, 421 structure of, 421 Global trade mechanisms, 135–136 Global turmoil, 570–571 Global workforce, 146 changes, 161–163 Goals See also Path-goal model clear, 419 job, 199–200 of OB, 463 planning and, 249–251 quality, 610–611 real, 249–250 sales, 559–560 setting, 246, 252–255, 262 stated, 249 stretch, 255 types of, 249–250 of value chain management, 603 well-written, 254, 254E8–4 Goal-setting theory, 498–499, 500E16–5 Google Glass, 449 GPS See Global positioning systems Grapevine, 446–447 Green approaches, 188E6–2 Green management, 187 Grievances, unresolved, 574 Group development, 406–407 adjourning stage of, 407 forming stage of, 406 norming stage of, 406 performing stage of, 406–407 stages of, 407E13–2 storming stage of, 406 Groups, 406–407 behavior, 462 cohesiveness, 411–412, 412E13–5 command, 406E13–1 conflict and, 414E13–7 cross-functional, 406E13–1 decision making, 412–413, 413E13–6 as effective teams, 416–420 employee resource, 176 external conditions imposed on, 408 formal, 406 informal, 406 711 performance, 408–416 processes, 412 resources, 408 satisfaction, 408–416 self-managed, 406E13–1 size, 411 structure, 409–415 tasks, 406E13–1, 415–416 teams versus, 417E13–9 unique, 509–512 Groupthink, 410 Groupware, 451 Growth controlling for, 312 culture and, 312EEV–5 managing, 311–312 organizing for, 311–312 planning for, 311 strategies, 273 H Hacking, ethical, 363 Halo effect, 480 Harvesting, 313–314 Hawthorne Studies, 64–65 Health care costs, 392–393 Heuristics, 86–87 Hierarchy, 335 Hierarchy of needs theory, 494–495, 495E16–1 High-high leader, 526 High-involvement work practices, 503 High-performance work practices, 370, 371E12–1 Hindsight bias, 87 Hispanic-Americans, 107 HMAS Sheean, 536 Holacracy, 55–56 Horizontal integration, 274 Hostility, 484 House of Cards, 291 HR See Human resources HRM See Human resource management Human Capital Index, 370 Humane orientation, 144 Human relations view, of conflict, 413 Human resource management (HRM), 306, 370 economy and, 372 external factors affecting, 371–376 laws, 373E12–3 legal environment of, 373–375 process, 370–376, 371E12–2 Human resources (HR) costs, 392–393 manual, 103 planning, 376–377 value chain management strategies and, 606–607 variables, 231–232 Hygiene factors, 496 I I See Introversion ICU See Intensive care unit Idea champions, 231 Ideas evaluating, 298–299, 299EEV–1 generating, 298 iGeneration, 107 Immediate corrective action, 560 Immediate gratification bias, 86 www.downloadslide.net 712 Subject Index Importing, 138 Impracticality, 231 Inclusion, 432 diversity and, 242 Incongruities, 296 Individual development, 121 Individual differences, 68 Individualism, 508–509 leadership and, 550–551 Industrial revolution, 59–60 Industry rankings, 562–563, 562E18–7 Industry structures, 297 Industry Week, 310 Inflation rates, 141 Information, 568 controls, 567–569 feedback control and, 566 overload, 441 Information age, 69 Informational roles, 42 Information technology (IT) communication and, 448–450 organizations affected by, 450 In-group collectivism, 144 Initiating structure, 525–526 Innovation, 236–238, 243–244 characteristics, 231 continuing, 307 creativity versus, 228 culture and, 119 design thinking and, 232 entrepreneurship and, 293 managers and, 48 open, 354, 354E11–5 stimulating, 228–232 strategies, 283–284 variables, 230E7–9 Institutional collectivism, 144 Instrumentality, 504 Integration, 392 Integrity, 537 testing, 197 Intellectual property, 607 Intelligence gathering, 585 Intensive care unit (ICU), 352 Interactionist view, of conflict, 413 Internet, 140 access, 449 communication and, 450–451 Interpersonal communication, 436 effective, 440–443 methods of, 437–440 process, 437E14–1 Interpersonal demands, 224 Interpersonal roles, 42 Interpersonal skills, 44 Interview, how to, 368, 396 Introversion (I), 469–470 Intuition (N), 79–80, 79E2–6, 470 Islam, 168–169 ISO 9000, 610–611 Issue intensity, 194–195, 194E6–5 IT See Information technology J J See Judging Jargon, 441 JCM See Job characteristics model Job analysis, 377 Job characteristics model (JCM), 501–502, 502E16–6 Job creation, 293 Job depth, 501 Job description, 377 Job design, 500 approaches, 503 flexibility and, 606 Job enlargement, 500–501 Job enrichment, 500–501 Job goals, 199–200 Job interview, 379 Job involvement, 466 Job motivation, 500–503 Job performance, 463–469 Jobs, 108–109 Job satisfaction, 463–466 two-factor theory and, 496 Job scope, 500–501 Job sharing, 357–358 Job specialization, 59–60 Job specification, 377 Joint venture, 139 Judging (J), 470 Judgment, 479–480 Justice, 504 K Karoshi (death from overwork), 226 Katrina (hurricane), 551 Knowledge, 297–298 resources, 451–452 L Labor unions, 372–373, 432 Laissez-faire style, 525 Language, 117, 441, 607 body, 438 simplified, 442 Leader-member exchange (LMX) theory, 532 Leader-member relations, 528 Leaders, 523–524 charismatic, 522–523, 533 directive, 530 effective, 540–541 employee-oriented, 526–527 growing, 545–546 high-high, 526 managers compared to, 545–546 path-goal model and, 530 production-oriented, 527 training of, 540–541 transactional, 532–533 transformational, 532–533 Leadership, 523–524 behavior theories, 524–525, 526E17–2 changing, 222–223 charismatic-visionary, 522–523, 533–534 communication and, 551 contemporary views of, 532–535 contingency theories of, 527–531 in creating effective teams, 420 across cultures, 539–540, 539E17–7 early theories, 524–527 effective style, 544 empowering, 231 entrepreneurship and, 309–310 ethical, 202, 202E6–9 ethical behavior and, 199 flexibility in, 540 fostering, 552 individualism and, 550–551 issues, 307–310, 536–541 motivation and, 551–552 organizational, 224 path-goal model and, 530–531 strategic, 280–281, 281E9–4 substitutes for, 541 team, 534–535, 535E17–5 training, 540–541, 546 traits, 525E17–1 trait theories, 524–527 value chain management strategies and, 606 visionary, 534 workplace violence and, 574 Leadership Jazz (DePree), 309–310 Leading, 41 for quality, 610 Lean In (Sandberg), 173 Lean organization, 611–612 Learning, 480–483 cultures, 116–118 environment, 116–118 managers and, 482–483 organizations, 350 reinforcement and, 481 social, 481–482 workplace design and, 447 Least-preferred coworker (LPC) questionnaire, 527–528 LEED standards, 431 Legal approach, to green organizations, 188 Legal environment, 139–140 of HRM, 373–375 Legal issues, with online communication, 451 Legality, ethics and, 585 Legitimate power, 536 Leverage ratios, 566 Licensing, 138 Limited liability company (LLC), 305 Limited liability partnership (LLP), 303 Linear programming, 594–595, 595EPC–12 Linear thinking style, 75 Liquidity ratios, 566 Listening, active, 442–443, 443E14–3, 457 LLC See Limited liability company LLP See Limited liability partnership LMX theory See Leader-member exchange theory Load charts, 591, 591EPC–6 Locus of control, 192, 471 Long-term plans, 250 Loyalty, 537 LPC questionnaire See Least-preferred ­coworker questionnaire M Machiavellianism, 472 Management See also Human resource ­management; Operations management; Strategic management; Value chain management approaches to, 59EMH–1 behavioral approach to, 63–65 bottom-up, 110 of change, 221–227 classical approach to, 60–63 contemporary approaches to, 67–69 definition of, 39 of diversity, 170–173 diversity accomplishments of, 174 early, 58–59 www.downloadslide.net Subject Index effectiveness in, 40E1–3 efficiency in, 40E1–3 employee performance, 385–386 functions, 40–41, 41E1–4 of generational differences, 483–484 in global environments, 139–146 of global teams, 421–422 green, 187 of growth, 311–312 levels of, 38E1–1 omnipotent view of, 104 open-book, 512 people, 157 of power, 536 principles of, 62, 62EMH–3 project, 596–597 quantitative approach to, 65–66 scientific, 60–61, 61EMH–2 self, 475 skills, 43–44, 43E1–6, 44E1–7 study of, 49–51 sustainability and, 187–190 symbolic view of, 104–105 of teams, 421–423 universality of, 49–50 universal need for, 49E1–9 values-based, 193 by walking around, 565 women in, 181 Management by objective (MBO), 226, 253–254, 254E8–3 Management information system (MIS), 568 Management science, 65 Managerial action, 560 Managerial discretion, 105E3–1 Managerial grid, 527 Managerial roles, 42–43, 43E1–5 Managers See also specific manager types attitudes and, 469 challenges of, 50–51, 50E1–10 changing job of, 45–49, 46E1–8 culture and, 117–118, 118E3–9 customer interactions and, 576 customers and, 46–47 decisions of, 77–81, 77E2–5 definition of, 37–38 duties of, 39–44 ethical behavior and, 190–195 external environment and, 108–111 first-line, 37–38 gender and, 164–165 of global teams, 422 importance of, 36–37 increased productivity and, 601 innovation and, 48 leaders compared to, 545–546 learning and, 482–483 in organizations, 38–39 organizing by, 430 perception and, 480 personality and, 476–477 rewards for, 50–51, 50E1–10 social media and, 47–48 sustainability and, 48–49 top, 38 turnover and, 98 women and, 98 Manipulation, 221 Manufacturing flexibility in, 611 lean, 429 lights-out, 601 organizations, 600 technology and, 602 Market approach, to green organizations, 188 Market structures, 297 Masculinity, 509 Mass Career Customization, 509–510 Mass customization, 611–612 Mass production, 334 Material artifacts, 117 Matrix structure, 346–348, 347E11–2 Maximax choice, 84 Maximin choice, 84 MBO See Management by objective MBTI See Myer Briggs Type Indicator MDRs See Multidisciplinary rounds Means-ends chain, 253 Mechanistic organizations, 332–333, 332E10–8 Medicare, 358 Mentor, be a great, 154 Mentoring, 175, 175E5–9, 180, 480 Messages, 437 Mexican Federal Labor Law, 374 Microchronometer, 61 Middle managers, 38 Minimax choice, 84–85 MIS See Management information system Missions, 254, 270 Mission statements, 270E9–2 M&Ms, 556 MNC See Multinational corporation Mobile computing, 359 Moneyball, 96 Monolingualism, 131 Moral development, 191, 191E6–4 Motivation, 493–494 in challenging economic circumstances, 508 contemporary theories of, 498–507 for contingent workers, 511 cultures and, 508–509 current issues in, 507–514 developing your skill, 517 diversity and, 510–511 early theories of, 494–497 feedback control and, 566 integrated theories of, 505–507, 506E16–9 job, 500–503 leadership and, 551–552 for low-skilled employees, 512 of professionals, 511 self, 475, 492 for unique groups, 509–512 Motivation-hygiene theory, 496 Motivators, 496 Motor reproduction processes, 482 Movie theater industry, 126–127 Multidisciplinary rounds (MDRs), 415 Multidomestic corporation, 137 Multinational corporation (MNC), 137 Myer Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), 469–471 personality types, 470E15–3 N N See Intuition nAch See Need for achievement nAff See Need for affiliation National culture, 142, 143E4–5, 441 See also Cultures goal-setting theory and, 499 Need for achievement (nAch), 497 Need for affiliation (nAff), 497 713 Need for power (nPow), 497 Negative reinforcement, 482 Negotiating skills, 419 Negotiation, 221 Networked systems, 449 Network organizations, 349–350 9/11 terrorist attacks, 598 Noise, 437 Nonlinear thinking style, 75 Nonprogrammed decisions, 82, 82E Nonverbal communication, 438 Nonverbal cues, 443 Norms, 409–410 nPow See Need for power O OB See Organizational behavior Objective function, 594 OCB See Organizational citizenship behavior Occupations, categories of, 471 OD See Organizational development The Office, 383 Office attire, 484 Office of the Future (OOF), 343 Office of tomorrow, 449 Offshore drilling, 582–583 Offshoring, 614 Onward: How Starbucks Fought for Its Life Without Losing Its Soul (Shultz, H.), 551 OOF See Office of the Future Open-book management, 512 Open innovation, 354, 354E11–5 Openness, 121, 537 to experience, 471 in global environments, 145–146 Open-system focus, 231 Open systems, 67, 67EMH–7 Operant conditioning, 480–481 Operating agreement, 305 Operational plans, 250 Operations management, 600–602 issues in, 608–612 technology and, 608–609 using value chain management, 604–608 Operations system, 600EMO–1 Opportunities, 271 analysis of, 301 Orange Is the New Black, 291 Orange juice, 95–96 Organic organizations, 332–333, 332E10–8 Organizational barriers, 607 Organizational behavior (OB), 63–65, 64EMH–5 contemporary issues of, 483–485 focus of, 462–463 goals of, 463 Organizational change, 216–219 Organizational chart, 322 Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), 463 job satisfaction and, 465–466 Organizational commitment, 466 Organizational communication, 443–448 all-channel networks, 446 chain networks, 445 networks, 445–447, 445E14–4 wheel networks, 445–446 Organizational culture See also Cultures challenges, 111–118 changing, 222–223 constraints, 111–118 www.downloadslide.net 714 Subject Index Organizational culture (continued ) contrasting, 113E3–6 definition of, 111–112 dimensions of, 112E3–5 ethical behavior and, 192–193 value chain management strategies and, 607 Organizational design, 305–306, 322 challenges, 359–360 contemporary, 346–350, 347E11–1 traditional, 336–337, 336E10–10 Organizational development (OD), 218, 219E7–4 Organizational effectiveness, 343, 562 Organizational leadership, 224 Organizational level, 256E8–5 Organizational orientation, 383 Organizational performance, 561 measures of, 562–564 tools for measuring, 564–570 workforce diversity and, 158–159 Organizational processes, 605–606 Organizational productivity, 562 Organizational structure, 224, 305–306, 430–432 contingency factors affecting, 333–335 designing, 321–332 divisional, 337 environmental uncertainty and, 334–335 functional, 337 simple, 336 size and, 334 technology and, 334 Organizations, 38–39 borderless, 137 boundaryless, 348–350 change-capable, 227E7–8 characteristics of, 38E1–2 flexible, 349 global, 138E4–3 green, 188–189 as iceberg, 462E15–1 IT, affected by, 450 lean, 611–612 learning, 350 legal forms of, 303–305, 304EEV–4 managers in, 38–39 manufacturing, 600 mechanistic, 332–333, 332E10–8 network, 349–350 organic, 332–333, 332E10–8 service, 600 size of, 68 social responsibility and, 185–187 transnational, 137 virtual, 348–349 Organizing, 41, 322 for growth, 311–312 issues, 302–307 by managers, 430 purposes of, 322E10–1 for quality, 610 Orientation, 144, 382–383 Outsourcing, 614 Overconfidence bias, 86 P P See Perceiving Parochialism, 131 Participating, 529 Participation, 221 Participative leader, 530 Path-goal model, 530–531, 531E17–4 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), 374 Pay-for-performance programs, 513–514 Payoff matrix, 84E2–9 Pension costs, 393 People changing, 218–219 management, 157 as obstacle to value chain management, 608 People First, 357 Perceived organizational support, 466 Perceiving (P), 470 Perception, 477–480, 478E15–5 Perception changes, 297 Performance, 248–249 See also Organizational performance appraisals, 199–200, 385–386, 386E12–10, 398–399 controlling, 561–564 definition of, 561 employee, 563–564 feedback, 563 groups, 408–416 management system, 385–386 measuring, 558–559, 558E18–3 orientation, 144 top box, 575–576 Performance-reward linkage, 504 Persistence, 494 Personal interaction, 451 Personality, 469 characteristics, in entrepreneurship, 307–308 insights, 471–473 managers and, 476–477 proactive, 308, 473 traits, 408, 473 traits, of Big Five Model, 471 type A, 225 type B, 225 types, in different cultures, 473–474 types, MBTI, 470E15–3 Personality-job fit theory, 476–477 Personal life, 314 PERT networks analysis, 591–593 for building construction, 593EPC–9 developing, 592EPC–7 PfizerWorks, 343 Physiological needs, 494 Planned economy, 141 Planning, 41, 248 approaches to, 256–257 contingency, 597 contingency factors in, 256 developing, 252–257 formal, 257 goals and, 249–251 for growth, 311 HR, 376–377 issues, 257–259, 295–302 long-term, 250 organizational level and, 256E8–5 performance and, 248–249 process, 596EPC–13 project, 596EPC–13 for quality, 609–610 scenario, 597–598 single-use, 251 strategic, 250 techniques, 596–598 types of, 250–251 Planning-controlling link, 557E18–1 Policies, 82 Political environment, 139–140 Political skill, 54 Polycentric attitude, 131 Population aging, 162–163 characteristics, US, 160–161, 161E5–3 total world, 161 Position power, 528 Positive feedback, 231 Positive reinforcement, 482 Post-Millennials, 106–107 Power acquiring, 363 coercive, 536 distance, 144 expert, 536 managing, 536 need for, 497 position, 528 referent, 536 reward, 536 PPACA See Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act Predictive maintenance, 609 Prejudice, 171 Price Is Right, 269 Principles of Scientific Management (Taylor, F W.), 60 Privacy, in workplace, 571–572 Proactive personality, 308, 473 Problem solving, 72–73 Problems discipline, 563E18–8 identifying, 74 structured, 81–82 unstructured, 82 Procedural justice, 504 Procedures, 81 Process conflict, 413 Process need, 296–297 Process production, 334 Production data, 595EPC–11 Productivity, 430 definition of, 562 employee, 463 group cohesiveness and, 412E13–5 increased, 601 job satisfaction and, 464 managing, 600–601 organizational, 562 ROWE and, 520 Professionals, motivating, 511 Profitability ratios, 566 Programmed decisions, 81 Project management, 596–597 Project managers, 597 Project Oxygen, 56–57 Project planning process, 596EPC–13 Projects, 596 Project structure, 346–348 Protégé, 180 be a great, 154 Pulse lunches, 450 Punishment, 482 Purpose, sense of, 121 www.downloadslide.net Subject Index Q Qualitative forecasting, 586 Quality, 609 as competitive advantage, 276 controlling for, 610 convenience compared to, 117 goals, 610–611 initiatives, 609–610 leading for, 610 organizing for, 610 planning for, 609–610 Quantitative approach, 65–66 Quantitative forecasting, 586 QuickBooks, 353 R Race, 165–166 Randomness bias, 87 Range of variation, 559–560 acceptable, 559E18–4 Ratio analysis, 566 Rationality, 78–79 R&D See Research and development Readiness, 529 Real goals, 249–250 Realistic job preview (RJP), 381–382 Recalls, 614 Recruiting resources, 378E12–4 Recruitment, 306, 377–378 Referent power, 536 Referents, 503–504 Regional trading alliances, 132–135 Regret, 85 Regret matrix, 85E2–10 Reinforcement, 481 negative, 482 positive, 482 processes, 482 theory, 499–500, 513 Reinforcers, 499 Relationship conflict, 413 Relevant skills, 419 Reliability, 380 Religion, 168–169 Remote diagnostics, 609 Remote work programs, 365–366 Renewal, 274–275 Repo 137, 210 Representation bias, 87 Required capabilities, 608 Research and development (R&D), 243 Resilience, 473 Resources, 271 allocating, 589–595 global team, 421 group, 408 knowledge, 451–452 recruiting, 378E12–4 Responsibility, 327 See also Social responsibility Restraining forces, 215 Results-Only Work Environment (ROWE), 520–521 Retailing, 398–399 Retention processes, 482 Reverse engineering, 585 Reverse pyramid, 65 Reward power, 536 Rewards, individualized, 510 Rewards programs, 512–514 Risk, 83–84 propensity, 308 tolerating, 231 Risk-taking, 472 Rita (hurricane), 551 Rituals, 116–117 RJP See Realistic job preview Robots, 39 Role ambiguity, 224 Role conflicts, 224 Role overload, 224 Roles, 409 Romances, in workplace, 390–391 Routineness, of task technology, 68 ROWE See Results-Only Work Environment Rudeness, 484 Rules, 81 S S See Sensing Safety needs, 494 Safety Training Observation Program (STOP), 538 Sales goals, 559–560 Sarbanes-Oxley Act, 200–202, 577 Satisfaction-dissatisfaction, 497E16–3 Satisfice, 78 SBU See Strategic business unit Scenario planning, 597–598 Scenarios, 597 Scheduling, 589–590 Scientific management, 60–61, 91 S corporation, 303–305 SE See Self-esteem Secrecy, 581–582 Security, 581–582, 615–616 Selection, 378–379 employee, 197, 376–382 outcomes, 380E12–6 tools, 380, 381E12–7 Selective perception bias, 86 Self-awareness, 460–461 EI and, 475 Self-efficacy, 499 Self-esteem (SE), 472 Self-management, 475 Self-monitoring, 472 Self-motivation, 475 Self-serving bias, 87, 479 Selling, 529 Sensing (S), 470 Service jobs, 47 Service organizations, 600 Service profit chain, 576 Sexual harassment, 388–392 Sexual orientation, 169–170 Shaping behavior, 482, 488 Short-term plans, 251E8–1 Simple structure, 336 Single-use plans, 251 Situational factors, 222–223 Situational leadership theory (SLT), 529–530 Six Sigma, 611 Skill-based pay, 387 Skill variety, 501 Slack time, 591 SLT See Situational leadership theory Slumdog Millionaire, 491 Small business, 292–293 SNOPA See Social Networking Online Protection Act 715 Social audits, 200–201 Social change promotion, 203–204 Social entrepreneurship, 203 Social irresponsibility, 201–202 Socialization, 116 workplace design and, 447 Social learning theory, 481–482 Social loafing, 411, 422 Socially responsible investing (SRI), 187 Social media, 448 as competitive advantage, 277 managers and, 47–48 Social needs, 495 Social Networking Online Protection Act (SNOPA), 374 Social networks ethics and, 456 structure, 423 Social obligation, 184 Social responsibility, 184–187, 186E6–1 entrepreneurship and, 295 ethics and, 201–204 Social responsiveness, 184–185 Social screening, 187 Social Security, 358 Social skills, 475 Socioeconomic view, of social responsibility, 184 Sole proprietorship, 303 South-East Asia on a Shoestring (Wheeler, T & Wheeler, M.), 428 Span of control, 329, 329E10–6 Specific plans, 251 Spirituality, 120–121 Sponsor See Mentor SRI See Socially responsible investing Stability strategy, 274 Stakeholder approach, to green organizations, 189 Stakeholders, 110–111, 111E3–4 Standards, 559–560 SWOT analysis, doing a personal SW analysis, 266 Standards of Business Conduct, 243 Standing plans, 251 Start-ups, 293 Stated goals, 249 Status systems, 410–411 Stereotyping, 171, 480 STOP See Safety Training Observation Program Stories, 116 Strategic alliance, 138–139 Strategic business unit (SBU), 276 Strategic flexibility, 281–282, 282E9–5 Strategic management, 268–269 issues, 279–284 process, 270–273, 270E9–1 Strategic partnerships, 354–355 Strategic plans, 250 Strategies, 268 choosing, 278–279 competitive, 275–279 corporate, 273–275 cost leadership, 278 customer service, 283 differentiation, 278–279 e-business, 282–283 focus, 279 formulating, 272 functional, 279 growth, 273 www.downloadslide.net 716 Subject Index Strategies (continued ) implementing, 272 innovation, 283–284 organizational, 273E9–3, 282–284 retrenchment, 275 stability, 274 turnaround, 275 value chain management, 604–607, 604EMO–2 workplace diversity and, 159–160 Strengths, 271 Stress, 224, 238–239 causes of, 224–225 employee, 223–226 managing, 212 reduction of, 226 symptoms of, 225–226, 225E7–7 Stressors, 224 Stretch goals, 255 Strikes, 432 Strong cultures, 114, 114E3–7 Structural components, 217 Structural design, 217–218 Structural variables, 229–232 Structured problems, 81–82 Suggestion box, 453 Sunk costs error, 87 Supervisors, 37–38 Support, 221 in creating effective teams, 420 documentation, 302 perceived organizational, 466 Supportive leader, 530 Surface-level diversity, 156 Surveys, 475, 575 Sustainability management and, 187–190 managers and, 48–49 SWOT analysis, 271, 275 Symbols corporate, 102 material, 117 Systems, 67, 568 See also specific systems types T T See Thinking Talent development, 180 Task conflict, 413 Task forces, 352 Task identity, 501 Tasks combining, 502 complexity, 416 group, 415–416 interdependence of, 416 Task significance, 501 Task structure, 528 Task technology, routineness of, 68 TAT See Thematic Apperception Test Tax policies, 141 Teams See also Global teams building skills, 423 characteristics of, 419E13–10 creating effective, 418–420 cross-functional, 418 diversity in, 430–432 employee work, 310 groups as effective, 416–420 groups versus, 417E13–9 leadership, 534–535, 535E17–5 management of, 421–423 problem-solving, 417 self-managed work, 417–418 structures, 346 types of, 417–418 virtual, 418 work, 417 Technical expertise, 57 Technical skills, 43–44 Technology See also Information technology changing, 218 communication, 359 control and, 571 customers and, 612 forecasting, 449 generational differences in, 484 investment in, 605 managerial communication and, 448–449 manufacturing and, 602 operations management and, 608–609 organizational structure and, 334 task, 68 wearable, 572 Telecommuting, 344, 355–357, 365–366 Telegraph, 69 Telling, 529 Theft, 573, 573E18–12, 616 Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), 497 pictures, 498E16–4 Theory X, 495–496 Theory Y, 495–496 Therbligs, 61 Thinking (T), 470 See also Design thinking Thinking styles, 75 Threats, 271 Three-needs theory, 497 Time estimates, 596 Time management, 34 programs, 226 To-do list, 262 Top box performance, 575–576 Top managers, 38 Tornadoes, 597–598 Total quality management (TQM), 66, 232 Town hall meetings, 444 TQM See Total quality management Trade alliances, 132–135 Trade sanctions, 135–136 Traditional goal-setting, 252–253, 252E8–2 Traditional view, of conflict, 413 Training diversity, 175–176, 432 employees, 383–384 ethics, 200 leadership, 540–541, 546 methods, 385E12–9 types, 384, 384E12–8 Trait theories, 524 Transactions, 615–616 Transnational organization, 137 Travel advice guides, 428 Trust, 121 building, 207, 538E17–6 cultural attitudes and, 607 development of, 536–538 mutual, 419 Turnover, 98, 463 job satisfaction and, 465 low, 489–490 ROWE and, 520 Tweets, 451 Two-factor theory, 496, 496E16–2 “Two-pizza” philosophy, 411 Type A personality, 225 Type B personality, 225 U U&I, 491 Uncertainty, 84–85 avoidance, 144 environmental, 68, 109, 109E3–3, 334–335 Undercover Boss, 543 Unexpected, 296 United Nations Global Compact, 195, 196E6–6 United States (US) equity theory and, 509 population characteristics, 160–161, 161E5–3 Unit production, 334 Unity of command, 328 Unstructured problems, 82 US See United States USA Today, 292 Utility cost savings, 609 V Valence, 504 Validity, 380 Value, 603 chain, 603 expected, 84E2–8 Value chain management, 602–603, 616 benefits of, 604 goal of, 603 obstacles to, 607–608, 607EMO–3 operations management using, 604–608 strategy, 604–607, 604EMO–2 Values, 191 Values-based management, 193 Variable costs, 593 Variable pay systems, 387 Venice, Italy, 59 Verbal intonation, 440 Vertical expansion, 502 Vertical integration, 274 Violence, in workplace, 574–575, 575E18–13, 580, 616 Virtual organizations, 348–349 Visibility, 447 The Voice, 268 Volunteers efforts, 204 organizational, 366–367 W Walking around, management by, 565 Weaknesses, 271 The Wealth of Nations (Smith, A.), 59 Wearable technology, 572 Web-conferencing, 356 Web surfing, 572 Wellness programs, 226 Whistle-blowers, 202 White-water rapids metaphor, 215–216 www.downloadslide.net Subject Index Wi-Fi, 449 WiMax, 449 Wireless capabilities, 449 Women in management, 181 managers and, 98 Work arrangements, flexible, 355–358 Work councils, 375 Work design proactive perspective of, 503 relational perspective of, 503 Work-life balance, 391–392 Workplace camaraderie and, 519 changing, 160–163 concerns, 571–573 density, 447 design, 447–448 future, 449 hierarchy, 335 negative behavior in, 484–485 open, 447 privacy, 571–572 romances, 390–391 spirituality, 120–121 violence, 574–575, 575E18–13, 616 Workplace diversity, 156–160, 157E5–1 benefits of, 158E5–2 legal aspects of, 173–174 types of, 163–170, 163E5–5 Workplace hierarchy, 335 Workplace misbehavior, 463 job satisfaction and, 466 Work practices, high-involvement, 503 Work specialization, 322–324, 323E10–2 Work units natural, 502 orientation, 383 World Factbook, 160 World War II, 602 World wide web (WWW), 140 Y Yoga, 614 717 ... Chapter 12 Managing Human Resources 393 15 percent a year and are expected to double by the year 20 16 from the $2. 2 trillion spent in 20 07. 121 And smokers cost companies even more—about 25 percent... During 20 13 (the latest data available), more than 7 ,20 0 complaints were filed with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), a drop from 7,944 in 20 10, 7,809 in 20 11, and 7,571 in 20 12. 89... Try It! Exhibit 12- 8 Types of Training Source: Based on 20 05 Industry Report— Types of Training,” Training, December 20 05, p 22 If your professor has assigned this, go to www.mymanagementlab.com
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