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THOMAS P BERNSTEIN is professor emeritus of political science at Columbia University HUA-YU LI is associate professor of political science at Oregon State University For orders and information please contact the publisher Lexington Books, Inc A division of The Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, Inc 4501 Forbes Boulevard, Suite 200 Lanham, Maryland 20706 1-800-462-6420 LI “This excellent and important volume will come as a revelation to many readers Nearly every conceivable facet of the Sino-Soviet relationship is covered The book’s breadth reveals just how pervasive the Soviet model was in Chinese society, economics, politics, and culture.” —Robert Ross, Boston College AND “At the recent 60th anniversary of the People’s Republic of China (PRC), an old slogan was repeated: ‘Without the Chinese Communist Party there would be no New China.’ We might also say: ‘Without the Soviet Union, there would be no Communist Party of China,’ and ‘Without the Soviet Union, there would be no People’s Republic of China.’ The Chinese Communist Party grew up in the Stalinist era Today, after three decades of market reform, there is still a Soviet DNA in its political culture The essays in this volume, compiled by an outstanding group of international scholars, trace the story of China’s most important foreign relationship in its periods of tutelage, partnership, and tension They remind us that, whether as mentor or rival, revolutionary or revisionist, no foreign state has had greater weight in modern China than the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.” —William C Kirby, Harvard University CHINA LEARNS FROM THE SOVIET UNION, 1949–PRESENT “The Sino-Soviet relationship has played a critical role in the development of the People’s Republic of China Basing their analysis on recent documentation from Russia as well as China, the authors in this collection contribute fresh and important insights into the nature of that relationship It should be essential reading for anyone seeking to understand the evolution of Chinese domestic politics and foreign policy.” —Steven M Goldstein, Smith College BERNSTEIN History • China Studies The Harvard Cold War Studies Book Series Series Editor: Mark Kramer, Harvard University CHINA LEARNS FROM THE SOVIET UNION, 1949–PRESENT edited by THOMAS P BERNSTEIN AND HUA-YU LI • THOMAS P BERNSTEIN • HUA-YU LI • PÉTER VÁMOS • TINA MAI CHEN • LORENZ LÜTHI • YOU JI • IZABELLA GOIKHMAN • ELIZABETH McGUIRE • MIIN-LING YU • GUAN GUIHAI • GREGORY ROHLF • JIAN ZANG • DONGHUI HE • GILBERT ROZMAN • SHENGFA ZHANG • XIAOJIA HOU • LAURENCE SCHNEIDER • MINGLANG ZHOU • KONG HANBING • DOUGLAS STIFFLER ChinaLearnsPODLITH.indd 11/23/09 12:28:31 PM CHINA LEARNS FROM THE SOVIET UNION, 1949–PRESENT THE HARVARD COLD WAR STUDIES BOOK SERIES SERIES EDITOR: MARK KRAMER, HARVARD UNIVERSITY Redrawing Nations: Ethnic Cleansing in East-Central Europe, 1944–1948 Edited by Philipp Ther and Ana Siljak Triggering Communism’s Collapse: Perceptions and Power in Poland’s Transition Marjorie Castle The Struggle for the Soul of the Nation: Czech Culture and the Rise of Communism Bradley F Abrams Resistance with the People: Repression and Resistance in Eastern Germany, 1945–1955 Gary Bruce At the Dawn of the Cold War: The Soviet-American Crisis over Iranian Azerbaijan, 1941–1946 Jamil Hasanli The Cold War after Stalin’s Death: A Missed Opportunity for Peace? Edited by Klaus Larres and Kenneth Osgood Mao and the Economic Stalinization of China, 1948–1953 Hua-yu Li The Eisenhower Administration, the Third World, and the Globalization of the Cold War Edited by Kathryn C Statler and Andrew L Johns Stalin and the Cold War in Europe: The Emergence and Development of East-West Conflict, 1939–1953 Gerhard Wettig Eisenhower and Adenauer: Alliance Maintenance under Pressure, 1953–1960 Steven Brady China Learns from the Soviet Union, 1949–Present Edited by Thomas P Bernstein and Hua-yu Li Globalizing de Gaulle: International Perspectives on French Foreign Policies, 1958–1969 Edited by Christian Nuenlist, Anna Locher, and Garret Martin CHINA LEARNS FROM THE SOVIET UNION, 1949–PRESENT Edited by Thomas P Bernstein and Hua-yu Li LEXINGTON BOOKS A division of ROWMAN & LITTLEFIELD PUBLISHERS, INC Lanham • Boulder • New York • Toronto • Plymouth, UK Published by Lexington Books A division of Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc A wholly owned subsidiary of The Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, Inc 4501 Forbes Boulevard, Suite 200, Lanham, Maryland 20706 Estover Road, Plymouth PL6 7PY, United Kingdom Copyright © 2010 by Lexington Books Published with the generous support of the Weatherhead East Asian Institute and the Harriman Institute for Russian, Eurasian, and Eastern European Studies All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any electronic or mechanical means, including information storage and retrieval systems, without written permission from the publisher, except by a reviewer who may quote passages in a review British Library Cataloguing in Publication Information Available Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data China learns from the Soviet Union, 1949–present / edited by Thomas P Bernstein and Hua-yu Li p cm — (Harvard Cold War studies book series) Includes index ISBN 978-0-7391-4222-6 (cloth : alk paper) — ISBN 978-0-7391-4224-0 (electronic : alk paper) China—Foreign relations—Soviet Union Soviet Union—Foreign relations— China Communism—China—History—20th century Communism and culture— China China—Politics and government—1949– China—Economic conditions— 1949– China—Social conditions—1949– Education—China—History—20th century I Bernstein, Thomas P II Li, Hua-Yu DS740.5.S65C477 2010 303.48'251047—dc22 2009025629 ϱ ™ The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of American National Standard for Information Sciences—Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992 Printed in the United States of America To Dorothy J Solinger and Jim McLendon Contents Acknowledgments xi Introduction: The Complexities of Learning from the Soviet Union Thomas P Bernstein Part One: The Ups and Downs of Sino-Soviet Relations Sino-Soviet Relations during the Mao Years, 1949–1969 Lorenz M Lüthi The Main Causes for the Return of the Chinese Changchun Railway to China and Its Impact on Sino-Soviet Relations Shengfa Zhang “Only a Handshake but no Embrace”: Sino-Soviet Normalization in the 1980s Péter Vámos 27 61 79 Part Two: Ideological and Military Influences Instilling Stalinism in Chinese Party Members: Absorbing Stalin’s Short Course in the 1950s Hua-yu Li The Soviet Model and the Breakdown of the Military Alliance You Ji — vii — 107 131 viii Contents Part Three: Soviet Economic Assistance and Socialist Transformation The Transplantation and Entrenchment of the Soviet Economic Model in China Kong Hanbing “Get Organized”: The Impact of the Soviet Model on the CCP’s Rural Economic Strategy, 1949–1953 Xiaojia Hou The Soviet Model and China’s State Farms Gregory Rohlf 153 167 197 Part Four: Society 10 “Labor Is Glorious”: Model Laborers in the PRC Miin-ling Yu The Soviet Impact on “Gender Equality” in China in the 1950s Jian Zang 231 259 Part Five: Soviet Influence on Science and Education 11 12 13 14 Soviet-Chinese Academic Interactions in the l950s: Questioning the “Impact–Response” Approach Izabella Goikhman “Three Blows of the Shoulder Pole”: Soviet Experts at Chinese People’s University, 1950–1957 Douglas Stiffler Lysenkoism and the Suppression of Genetics in the PRC, 1949–1956 Laurence Schneider Between Revolutions: Chinese Students in Soviet Institutes, 1948-1966 Elizabeth McGuire 275 303 327 359 Part Six: Literature and Film 15 16 Coming of Age in the Brave New World: The Changing Reception of the Soviet Novel, How the Steel Was Tempered, in the People’s Republic of China Donghui He Film and Gender in Sino-Soviet Cultural Exchange, 1949–1969 Tina Mai Chen 393 421 Contents ix Part Seven: The Era of Reform and the Impact of the Soviet Collapse 17 China’s Concurrent Debate about the Gorbachev Era Gilbert Rozman 18 The Fate of the Soviet Model of Multinational State-Building in the People’s Republic of China Minglang Zhou 19 The Influence of the Collapse of the Soviet Union on China’s Political Choices Guan Guihai 449 Concluding Assessment: The Soviet Impact on Chinese Society Gilbert Rozman 517 Index 527 About the Contributors 545 477 505 536 Index fleet proposal and, 144; the Soviet model and, 10, 14–15, 156, 162, 518–19; speech on dependency on the Soviets, 345; Stakhanovites praised by, 235; state farms and, 201–2; study in the Soviet Union, 175; study of Marxist theories, 169; as a theorist of Marxist-Leninist dialectics, 318; undermining of China’s foundation, 524; views of dogmatism, 137; views of international affairs, 32; views on socialist transformation, 11; visit to Moscow State University, 367–68; on Yugoslavia, 65 March clashes (1969), 31 Maretskaia, Vera, 422, 426, 429–30, 432–33, 434–35, 436 Marjai, József, 89 market economic system, 164 marriage, 266 Marsh, Christopher, 505 Marx, Karl, 328 Marxism, 512; Deng Xiaopeng on, 163; Mao’s study of, 169 mass reading: effect of institutional instability on, 405; of How the Steel Was Tempered, 394–95, 414–15 material incentives, 13, 427–28 Ma Xusheng, 87 Ma Zongfu, 510–11 media, Soviet, 511 Meister Wilhelm (Goethe), 398 Mei Yi, 400, 401, 413–14 melting pot model, 497 Member of Government (film), 432, 433 memoirs, 373, 380, 508 Mendeleev, D., 315, 316 Mendeleev Chemistry Institute, 388n100 Meng Tai, 237 Mezhkniga (International Books) 426 Michurin, Ivan Vladimirovich, 200, 220n20, 329–30, 331 Michurin biology, 200; defended by the CCP, 338–41; disseminating, 335–36; failure of, 331; Genetics Symposium and, 348–49; height of in China, 341–43; overview, 329–30; promotion in China, 332–34, 336–38; Soviet-Chinese tensions over, 334–35; textbooks, 335; undermining the legitimacy of, 343–44 See also Lysenkoism Mi Jingjiu, 335–36 Mikoyan, Anastas, 28, 63, 64, 115, 172, 175, 284, 481 military advisors, 321n8 Miller, John H., 489 Ministry of Agriculture (China), 332 Ministry of Foreign Affairs (China), 85 minorities: language and, 486–88, 495; “one-nation-with-diversity” model and, 492–96; resolving self-determination or regional autonomy for, 480–83; socioeconomic development and, 497–98 See also ethnic policy minority languages, 486–88, 495 minzu, 491–92 missile programs, 134 Miss Sophie’s Diary (Ding Ling), 396 model laborer movement: application in China, 244–48; cultural aspect of, 246–48; Cultural Revolution and, 248; goals of, 231, 237; market economy and, 248, 249, 251; material incentives and, 245–46; origins in China, 234–35; problems of, 243–44; propaganda and, 239–43; in the reform era, 248–50; rewarding model workers, 240–43, 245–46; selection and making of model laborers, 235–39; Soviet Stakhanovism and, 231; technology and, 244–45 See also Stakhanovism model laborers: advertising and, 249; the Cultural Revolution and, 257n73; faked, 237–38; internal contradiction of, 244; major activity of, 243; political background and, 237; political consciousness and the selection of, 251; resentment of, 244; rewarding, 240–43, 245–46; selection and making of, 235–39; “star,” 238 modernization, 525 modernization theory, 467 Molotov, Vyacheslav, 39 Mongolia, 82, 477 Mongolians, 481 Moscow Conference of 1960, 43 Moscow Energy Institute, 382 Moscow State University, 367–68, 382 Mother (film), 432 Mother (Gorky), 410 Index multinational state-building (Soviet model of): adapting to China, 480–83; adoption by China, 478, 479–80; the language issue in China and, 483–88; nationality and, 496–97; negative learning from the failure of, 488–90 multipolarity, 463 music videos, 218n6 Muslims, 481 mutual aid and cooperation movement, 10, 181, 185, 186–87 “mutual aid fetishism,” 171 mutual aid teams, 10, 167, 169, 171, 175–80 passim, 191n26 Nanjing Military Academy, 135, 136, 139–40 “National Advanced Producer,” 236 National Commonly Used Language and Script Law, 495 National Conferences of Chinese Stakhanovite Workers, 235–36, 240 National Conferences of Model Workers, 250 national identity, 525 Nationalist Party, 5, 31, 168, 190n3 nationalization, of private land, 185–86 National Resources Commission, 12 national security, 198, 214–17 nations: Lenin’s views of, 479; Stalin’s views of, 479–80 nation-state concept, 496, 497 nativization, 489 NATO, 63 “negative” historical figures, 118–19 “New China,” 416n6 Newcomer, The (Galina Nikolayeva), 200–201 New Democracy, 9, 117, 122, 172, 175, 176, 180 New Democratic Common Program, 482 New Economic Policy (NEP), 36, 122 New Heroes and Heroines (film), 441n2 “new Soviet man,” 232–33 newspapers, dedicated to women’s issues, 270n1 “new youth,” 396–97 Nie Rongzhen, 138, 240, 363, 380 Nikolaev, Leonid, 123 Northeast China, 73, 77n33; grain production, 195n103; radical land reform in, 173 537 Northeast Daily, 176, 178 North Korea, 66 Northwest China, prison system in, 215 November Soviet Film Festival, 430, 432 nuclear defense industry, 134 nuclear submarines, 144 nuclear weapons, 45 Nuzhdin, N I., 335 “On Contradiction Among the People” (Mao), 318 “On Cooperation” (Lenin), 7, 172–73, 175 “On Cooperatives” (Lenin), 180 “100 Regiments campaign,” 141–42 129th Division, 142 “one-nation-with-diversity” model: minorities policies and, 492–96; origin and development of, 490–96; overview, 478; preliminary evaluation of, 496–98 “On Khrushchev’s Phony Communism and its Historical Lessons for the World,” 2, 18 “on the fly” method, 221n24 “On the People’s Democratic Dictatorship” (Mao), 278 “On the Ten Great Relationships” (Mao), 14–15, 345 “On Working Women” (Stalin), 261 opium trade, 171 Opium War, 477 Ostrovskaia, Raisa, 401, 403 Ostrovsky, Nikolai, 394, 401 Our Mei (Europe-America) memoir, 373, 380 Outer Mongolia, 45, 62, 477 Pancha Shila, 41, 42, 88 Pang Xianzhi, 111, 120, 122, 124 Pan-Yang Incident, 123 “Pattern of Diversity in Unity of the Chinese Nation” (Fei Xiaotong), 490–91 Pavlov (Soviet expert), 312–13 peaceful coexistence, 29; second Taiwan Strait Crisis and, 41–42; Sino-Indian Pancha Shila, 41; Sino-Soviet disputes on, 41–43; Sino-Soviet normalization and, 94, 96–97; Sino-Soviet relations and, 47–48, 88 “peaceful evolution,” 462, 464, 513 538 Index peasant revolts, 190n5 peasantry, 7–8 “peasant scientists,” 220n20 Pei Wenzhong, 343 Peng Dehuai, 137, 138, 139–40, 141–42 Peng Zhen, 43, 89, 483 People’s Agriculture (magazine), 337 People’s Daily, 86, 187, 200, 211, 242, 245, 278, 339, 340, 394, 405 People’s Education Press, 342 People’s Fine Art Press, 410 People’s Liberation Army (PLA): conflicts between PLA tradition and Soviet experience, 134–37; force modernization, 132; force regularization, 132–33; introduction of formal military ranks, 138; participation in the Great Leap Forward, 141; political conflict within, 137–43; Soviet model of transformation, 131, 132–34 People’s Literature Publishing House (PLPH), 400, 406, 411, 413, 415 People’s University, 241 See also Chinese People’s University Pepper, Suzanne, perestroika, 2, 490 personality cults: Khrushchev’s attack on, 14; Mao and, 40, 162; the Short Course and, 113, 127 Petrovsky, Grigory, 401, 402 “petty bourgeoisie,” 412–13 piece-rate payment, 245, 246 pilots, female, 264 Pi Shenhao, 112 PLA See People’s Liberation Army Politburo, 381 Political Economy: Textbook, 246 Pollack, Jonathan, 81 Pol Pot, 82 Popular Science Monthly (magazine), 337 “positive hero,” 232 Prasolov, S I., 289 Present, I I., 329, 330 Price, Leah, 415 “primitive socialist accumulation,” 122, 126, 179 printing industry, 400, 405–6 prison system, 215 private land, nationalization, 185–86 producers’ cooperatives, 173, 194n81 See also collective farms; supply and marketing cooperatives Production and Construction Corps (Xinjiang Autonomous Region), 216, 217 professors, 253n20 “Provisional Rules on the Method for Setting Up State-run Mechanized Farms,” 199 publishing industry, 400, 405–6 purges, 123 Putin, Vladimir, 116, 471–72, 511 putonghua, 495 Pyriev, Ivan, 430 Qian Qichen, 85, 86, 93, 94, 102n58, 381 Qian Sanqiang, 283 Qing Dynasty, 477, 496 Qinghai province, 198, 203, 215; Delingha farm, 216–17 Qingzang gaoyuan, 218n6 Qipao (dress), 265 Quemoy crisis, 144–45 See also Jinmen Island Questions about Economic Planning, 158 Qu Qiubai, 485 radio stations, 143–44 railways See Chinese Changchun Railway Rakhmanin, O B., 84 reading: repeat-intensive, 415 See also mass reading Rectification campaign, 332 “red classics,” 405, 406–7, 413 Red Scarf, The (film), 423 reform socialism, 454, 463, 524 regional autonomy, 480–83, 492–96 “rehabilitation,” 413 Ren Bishi, 360 Renda See Chinese People’s University Renmin Daxue, 298n61 Renmin Ribao See People’s Daily Renmin University, 241 Renshing Zaishi (A Life in the World), 248–49 Ren Xiang, 360–61, 366 Ren Zuomin, 360 “Report on the Question of Intellectuals” (Zhou Enlai), 14 responsibility system, 524 revolutionary Stalinism, 7, 8, 35 Index revolutionary theory, Lenin’s, 117 Ribánszki, Róbert, 81 Robin, Régine, 399 Robinson, Thomas, 80 Rogachev, Igor, 91, 101n51 “romantic generation,” 396–97 romanticism, 396–97 Roriniva, Maria, 263 Roshchin, N V., 178, 284 Rozman, Gilbert, 2–3, 90 rubber plantations, 215–16 Run for Freedom: Comments on Gorbachev’s Reforms after Twenty Years (Gorbachev Foundation), 508 Rural Work Department, 209 Russia: China’s loss of territory to, 477; the Short Course and, 116 Russian loanwords, 487 Russian Social Democratic Party, 31 Sakhalin Island, 62 Sanyuan Foods, 206 Schwartz, Benjamin, 170 Science (journal), 341, 347 Science and Technology Cooperation Commission, 285 science and technology knowledge transfer, 280–82, 283, 288–90 Science for the People (magazine), 337 Science Press, 336, 347 Science Society of China, 333–34 scientific films, 424 Second Five-Year Plan (China), 344–48 Second Five-Year Plan (Soviet Union), 232 Secret Speech, 37, 39, 286–87, 378 sectarianism, 339 Seleznev (Soviet expert), 310, 313, 314 self-criticism: intellectuals and, 239; Tan Jiazhen and, 341 self-determination, 480–83 self-management concept, 482 self-reliance strategy, 279–80, 282–90, 295n39 Serdyuchenko, G P., 286, 484–85, 486, 487 Seypidin, Azizi, 496 Shaan-Gan-Ning Border Region, 481 Shan-Gan-Ning base area, 168, 191n26 Shanghai, 242 Shanghai Bright Dairy, 206, 224n55 Shanxi province, 10, 195n103 539 She Defends the Motherland (film), 428, 432, 433, 436 Shen Zhihua, 275, 284, 422 Shen Zongwu, 512 Shevardnadze, Eduard, 90, 92, 94 Shibaev, P A., 177–78 shock workers, 232 Short Course: assessing the influence of in China, 125–27; critical views in the Soviet Union, 124–25; criticisms and, 123–25; cult of personality and, 113, 127; emulation of the writing style in, 126; key areas of study in China, 117; learning about class struggle with actual cases, 123; on the length of time for socialist transformation, 11; Mao and, 6, 169–70; Mao’s agricultural collectivization and, 36; overview of, 113–14; personal stories of ideological transformation, 111, 119– 23; phases of learning in China, 114–16; printing history, 112–13; repudiated by CPSU, 115; the Soviet model and, 6–7; Soviet study methods, 117–19; Stalinism and, 109; study campaign of 1953-1954, 121–22 Sinking (Yu Dafu), 396 Sino-American Joint Communiqué, 87, 100n32 Sino-American relations: Joint Communiqué of 1982, 87, 100n32; in the 1980s, 80; the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and, 81–82; the Taiwan issue and, 80 Sino-Indian Border Wars, 29, 30, 42 Sino-Indian relations, 41 Sino-Russian Agreement on New Defense Technology, 134 Sino-Soviet academic interactions: Chinacentered approach, 275–76; impactresponse approach, 275, 276, 292n6; intercultural transfer concept, 276–77; lean-to-one-side policy, 278–80; longterm self-reliance strategy, 282–90; science and technology knowledge transfer, 280–82, 283; self-reliance and, 279–80, 295n39 Sino-Soviet Committee on Economic, Trade, Scientific and Technological Cooperation, 90 Sino-Soviet cultural exchange, 421 540 Index Sino-Soviet film exchange: engendering analysis of, 427–40; import statistics of Soviet films, 425; screening of Soviet films in China, 421; significant films in, 422; Soviet films used in education, 118; 1949 to 1976, 422–26; women and, 422 Sino-Soviet Friendship Association, 423 Sino-Soviet Friendship Farm, 200 Sino-Soviet military alliance: breakdown of, 143–44; overview, 131; PLA transformation by the Soviet model, 132–34; Quemoy crisis, 144–45 Sino-Soviet normalization: Beijing Summit, 94–97; border issue, 91; breakthrough in bilateral relations, 91–94; Deng Xiaoping’s reforms and, 80–82; first period of, 83–85; international political framework underlying, 79–80; overview, 97–98, 454–55, 461; resumption of political consultations, 85–91; two-way trade, 84 Sino-Soviet relations (1949-1969): changed needs within the alliance and, 44–45; the Chinese Changchun Railway and, 70–73; Chinese domestic politics and, 46–47; Chinese self-perceptions and, 47; chronology, 28–31; ideological disagreements on de-Stalinization, 39–40; ideological disagreements on economic development, 34–39; ideological disagreements on international affairs, 41–44; overview, 27–28, 48–49; personality issues and, 47; the second Taiwan Strait Crisis and, 47–48; sources of cohesion in, 31–33; sources of conflict in, 33–34; the Soviet model and, 3–4; territorial conflicts and, 45; the United States and, 45–46 Sino-Soviet split: causes of, 522–23; Chinese students in the Soviet Union and, 377–79; technology transfer and, 377–78 Sipsong Panna, 215–16 Sixth Five Year Plan, 38 Skarzhenskaia (Soviet expert), 315 SMCs See supply and marketing cooperatives Smetanin, Nikolai, 255n47 socialism: China and, 155, 156; Deng Xiaopeng on, 163; and the Soviet model in China, 161; Stalin’s definition, 114 socialist democracy, 457–58 “socialist liberation,” gender equality and, 259 “socialist new person”: concept of, 416n8; How the Steel Was Tempered and, 397– 404; ideal of, 397 socialist transformation, 9–11, 465–68, 470–71 socioeconomic development, minorities and, 497–98 Southern Films Corporation, 442n10 Sovexportfilm, 423, 424, 426, 442n10 Soviet Academy of Science, 283, 298n65 Soviet Constitution, 489 Soviet Council for Research on Productive Forces, 297n57 Soviet Cultural Revolution, 8, 405 Soviet democracy, 457–58 Soviet experts: agreements on the work conditions of, 285; at Chinese People’s University (see Chinese People’s University); “fewer but better” policy, 287–88; knowledge transfer to China and, 281; Mao’s instructions to, 284; number in China, 1–2, 282, 298n63; supervision issues, 285–86 Soviet military advisors, 321n8 Soviet model: applicability, 153–55; characteristics, 153–54; component models of, 7; during the Cultural Revolution, 17–18; during the Great Leap Forward, 15–17; heavy industrialization and, 12; historical overview in China, 518–21; influence of legacies on, 4–6; legacy of, 524–25; Mao’s repudiation of, 10, 14–15; the Short Course and, 6–7; Sino-Soviet relations and, 3–4; socialist transformation and, 9–11; strengthening in China, 160–64; transplantation to China, 155–60 Soviet nativization, 489 Soviet observers, 451–53 Soviet specialists See Soviet experts Soviet Union: Chinese citizens working in, 103n72; Chinese debates on, 449–51 (see also Gorbachev era); disarmament and military spending, 93, 102n57; science and technology aid to China, 281–82; Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia and, 82 Index Soviet Union collapse: China’s failure to predict, 505–6; Chinese learning from, 488–90; Chinese studies on the reason for, 506–8; Chinese views on the causes of, 508–11; effect of Chinese academic disputes on political choices, 511–14; Gorbachev and, 490, 509–10, 512; impact on China, 19–20; Putin on, 511 Soviet Women (magazine), 413 Soviet women film stars, 427–40 See also Kovaleva, Marina; Ladynina, Marina; Maretskaia, Vera Spano, Velio, 177–78 “speciation debates,” 344 Stakhanov, Aleksei, 232, 255n47 Stakhanovism: aims of, 251; characteristics in China, 244–48; cultural aspect of, 246–47; internal contradiction of, 244; introduction to China, 234–35; material incentives and, 245–46; the model laborer movement and, 231; in the Soviet Union, 232–33 Stakhanovites, 232, 234–35 Stalin, Joseph: advice to China on multinational state-building, 481; advice to China on the introduction of socialism, 218n1; attitude toward agricultural reform in China, 185–88, 189; attitude toward Mao, 65–66; attitude toward the CCP, 63, 65–66; Bukharin and, 192n36; the Chinese Constitution and, 483; Chinese economic growth and, 35; collectivization and, 8, 179; comment on “margarine” Communists, 75n5; comment on Taiwan’s future, 77n37; debate with Bukharin on producers’ cooperatives, 173; early interactions with the CCP, 5; Far East strategy, 62; Khrushchev’s attack on (see de-Stalinization); Korean War and, 67, 69, 72; Lysenko and, 331; Mao’s criticisms of, 146–47n17; moderate views for the development of China, 10; as a non-Russian, 497; policy of cooperation among big powers, 62; as a realist, 197; removal from the Lenin Mausoleum, 40; the Short Course and, 113–14; significance as a leader in the socialist world, 33; similarities with Mao, 541 31, 32; Stakhanovism and, 232–33, 244; suggestions for building socialism in China, 172; views of international affairs, 32; views of nations, 479–80; views on women, 261–62 Stalinism, 108–9, 197, 218n2 “Stalin on the Liberation of Women through Collective Farms,” 262 standard language, 486 “star model workers,” 238 State Commission on Nationalities’ Affairs, 484, 485 state farms: dairies, 206–7; efforts to develop the “Great Northern Wastes,” 212–14; enterprise management, 198, 207–12; enterprise reforms and, 206; fulfillment of target plans, 207–8; the Great Leap Forward and, 201–3, 210; historical evolution of, 199–201; importance to China, 203–7; investment in, 219n11; limits on the growth of, 205–6; main areas of development in China, 204; national security and, 198; population boom on, 211; production levels of, 199; role in national security, 214–17; setting up, 199–200; the Soviet model and, 197–98, 199–201; statistics on, 205, 206; “tractor farms,” 219n8 state-owned agriculture, 197–98, 199–201 Stoletov, V N., 334–35 Stubbe, Hans, 344 submarines, nuclear, 144 Sudalikov (Soviet cultural attaché), 316–18 Sudarikov, N G., 286 Suez Crisis, 41, 48 Sun Yat-sen-style fashion, 265 supply and marketing cooperatives (SMCs), 167–68, 168, 172–76, 180–81 Su Shaozhi, 18, 110, 111, 120, 458 Su Yu, 141, 142, 158 Taishan, 45 Taiwan, 77n37, 80, 522 Taiwan Strait Crisis (first), 29 Taiwan Strait Crisis (second), 29, 41–42, 47–48 Tales of a Siberian Land (film), 423 Tang Hualong, 355n44 Tang Peisong, 333, 335, 341, 355n44 542 Tan Jiazhen, 335, 338, 341, 346, 352, 355n30 Tan Zhenlin, 201, 203, 221n25 Teaching-research groups, 306 technological revolution, 245 technology: the model laborers movement and, 244–45 Soviet scientific films and, 424 technology transfer, 377–78 See also knowledge transfer “Ten Guidelines to Fight the Japanese Invasion and to Save China,” 480–81 Tenishev, E M., 286 territorial conflicts, Sino-Soviet, 45 third generation leaders, 382 “thought control,” 520 “three-anti” movement, 195n89 Tiananmen demonstrations, 19, 20, 95 Tibet, 477, 495, 521 Tibetan Uprising, 42 Tie Ning, 413 Tito, 65 tiyong, 136–37 Todorov, Tzvetan, 413 Tom Jones (Fielding), 398 tractor drivers, 205, 223n42, 263–64 Tractor Drivers (film), 428, 430–31 “tractor farms,” 219n8 trade relations, Sino-Soviet, 84, 100n26 trade unions, 236 “traditional socialism,” 518, 521–22 “transnational turn,” 291n6 Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance, expiration of, 81 Trotsky, Leon, 113 Tsitsin, N V., 344 two-line struggle, 116, 126, 201–3, 207 U-2 incident, 43 Ulanfu, 484, 496 United Front Department, 493 United States: second Taiwan Strait Crisis and, 41–42; Sino-Soviet split and, 45–46 See also Sino-American relations universities: anti-American movement and, 68; the Cultural Revolution and, 358n84 See also Chinese People’s University upward mobility, 241 Ussuri River, 31 Index Valikhiietov (Soviet expert), 314 “vegetative hybridization,” 344 Vietnam, 82 Vietnamese Communists, 33 Vietnam War, 46 villages, socialism and, 209 Village Schoolteacher, A (film), 423, 426, 432, 433, 436 Virgin Lands campaign, 13, 17, 162, 207, 212–14, 376 vocabulary, 487 Vodyanitskaya, Galina, 426, 436 Volkov (Soviet expert), 311 Voskressenski, Alexei, 291n8 Wang Anyi, 406 Wang Chonglun, 245 Wang Guangmei, 428 Wang Jiaxiang, 285 Wang Jingxi, 248 Wang Meng, 403 Wang Ming, 136 Wang Qian, 180 Wang Renzhi, 506 Wang Shuo, 409 Wang Tingyou, 510 Wang Xiaoying, 404–5 Wang Zhen, 200, 201, 202, 207, 221n25, 225n69 Wang Zuoyue, 291n6 “War Communism,” 15 wealth index, 490 White Haired Girl (film), 441n2 women: in the air force, 264; childcare and, 264; on collective farms, 263–64; defeminization, 266–67; fashion styles and, 265; in higher education, 264; leadership roles, 263; Mao’s; constructions of socialist womanhood, 427; marriage and, 266; political elections and, 263; as soldiers, 445n40; tractor driver image, 205, 223n42, 263–64; workplace equality and, 265–66 See also gender equality; Soviet women film stars Women of China (magazine), 260 Women of New China (magazine): description of, 260–61; publicizing Stalin’s views on women, 261–62; Index publicizing the life of Soviet women, 262–65 workplace equality: consequences of, 265–66; women in the 1950s and, 265 world revolution, 32–33 writing system, Chinese, 484–85 wubian method, 221n24 Wu Enyuan, 510 Wu Lengxi, 186 Wu Xiuchuan, 451–52 Wu Zhongxian, 333 Xiao Hua, 142 Xiao Jingguang, 138 Xiao Ke, 140, 141, 142 Xi’nan funü (journal), 270n1 xinhua, 416n6 Xinhua News Agency, 186 Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, 216, 217 Xinjiang province, 204, 211, 477, 521 Xinyang Infantry Institute, 135 Xinzhi Publishing House, 400–401 “Xin Zhongguo,” 416n6 Xin Zhonguo funü (journal), 270n1 Xishuang Banna, 215–16 Xu Bin, 317, 318 Xu Guangda, 138 Xu Tianxin, 111–12 Xu Tianxing, 124–25 Xu Xin, 506 Yahuda, Michael, 82 Yalta Agreement, 71 Yalta system, 62 Yan’an period, Yan’an Rectification Movement, 136, 169 Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, 494 Yang Hua, 213 Yang Minghan, 200 Yang Shangkun, 95, 382 Yan Xiajiang, 112 Yao Jianfu, 111, 119 Yao Ming, 250 Ye Jianying, 384n19 Yeltsin, Boris, 471 Ye Luoti’s Grave (Guo Moruo), 396 Young Guard, The (film), 423 543 Young Guard Publishers, 402 youth labor: in agriculture, 212–13, 214; state farms and, 201–2 Youth League, 212–13 Youth Swimteam (film), 441n2 Yuan Baohua, 158, 159 yuanshi, 381 Yu Dafu, 396 Yudin, Pavel, 67–70, 76nn19, 20, 77n29, 109, 318 Yu Fengying, 248 Yugoslavia, 63, 65 Yu Guangyuan, 345, 347–48, 357n61 Yu Hongliang, 86, 87 Yu Luoshan, 182 Yunnan Production Corps, 210 Yunnan province, 215–16, 494 zemliachestva (national groups), 371 Zeng Zhaolun, 296n41 Zenith, 423 Zhamin, V A., 315 Zhang Guotao, 136 Zhang Linchi, 225n69 Zhang Shenfa, 112 Zhang Wentian: appointed to the United Nations, 178; China’s economic development and, 9; on learning from the Soviet Union, 186; “mutual aid fetishism,” 171; regional autonomy and, 481; rural policies and, 173–74; supply and marketing cooperatives and, 167, 168–69; Yan’an rectification movement and, 169 Zhang Xuesi, 119 Zhang Yanlin, 377 Zhang Zongxun, 140, 141, 142, 146n12 Zhao Yiman, 435, 436 Zhao Yiman (film), 436 Zhao Zhangkui, 234, 235 Zhao Zhangkui campaign, 234–35 Zhao Ziyang, 18; meeting with Gorbachev, 95, 96, 103n70; purging of, 453; reformoriented socialism and, 452, 465–66, 469; replaces Hu Yaobang, 458 Zhdanov, Andrei, 32 Zhejiang University, 335 Zhenbao/Damanskii Island, 31 Zheng Yifan, 111–12, 121, 126 544 Zhongguo funü bao (newspaper), 270n1 Zhongshan-style fashions, 265 Zhonguo funü (journal), 270n1 Zhou Enlai: on the CCP’s anti-U.S stance, 64–65; on China’s anti-American campaign, 69; China’s first five-year plan and, 157; on the Chinese commitment to the Korean War, 70; Chinese students in the Soviet Union and, 363; critical attitude toward the Soviet Union, 14; economic development plan of, 36; genetics debate and, 345; Geneva Conference on Indochina and Korea, 29; on the handover of the Chinese Changchun Railway to China, 71; heavy industrialization and, 12; intellectuals and the model labor movement, 236; Michurinist debate, 348; nuclear Index submarine request to Khrushchev, 144; regional autonomy and, 482; self-reliance concept and, 280; on SinoSoviet academic interactions, 287; 1952/1953 visit to the Soviet Union, 157–59 Zhou Xincheng, 506 Zhou Yang, 399 Zhu Den, 138 Zhu Guangya, 134 Zhu Houze, 111 Zhukov, Georgy, 138, 139 Zhu Kozhen, 341 Zhu Xi, 334, 354n25 Zoya (film), 426, 436 Zunyi conference, 136 Zuo Fengrong, 510 zuqun, 492 About the Contributors Thomas P Bernstein is emeritus professor of political science, Columbia University He is the co-author, together with Xiaobo Lu, of Taxation without Representation in Contemporary Rural China (2003) He has also written on Chinese politics generally, on Chinese youth, and on comparisons of collectivization of agriculture and famines in China and the Soviet Union He is currently working on Sino-Soviet comparisons, especially on reform processes Tina Mai Chen is associate professor in the Department of History at the University of Manitoba Her recent publications include Film, History, and Cultural Citizenship: Sites of Production (co-edited with David S Churchill, 2007), as well as articles on various aspects of film import and export in 1950s and 1960s China They are published in Cultural Critique, Journal of the Canadian Historical Association, and Journal of Chinese Cinemas Her general research interests include modern Chinese intellectual and cultural history; gender; nationalism; film; and lived experiences in China of global historical forces She has two ongoing major research projects: one on Sino-Soviet film exchange in Maoist China; the other on migration of overseas Chinese between Burma, China, and India during the Japanese Occupation in the 1930s and 1940s Izabella Goikhman is research associate in the Institute of East Asian Studies, Chinese Studies, at the Free University Berlin Her recent publications include “The Discourse on Jews in China” (Berliner China Studien 47, 2007) and various articles on academic research on Chinese Jews Her current — 545 — 546 About the Contributors research interests are: Sino-Russian relations, intercultural knowledge transfer, history of Chinese science and humanities, Jews in China, and GenderStudies Guihai Guan is currently associate professor and associate dean of the School of International Studies at the Peking University He received his Ph.D degree from Moscow State Institute of International Relations in 1997 His academic interests lie in the fields of Russian foreign policy, Sino-Russian relations, and Russia’s political and social development His publications include: Da Ouzhou: guangrong yu mengxiang (Great Europe: Honor and Dream, co-author, 1996), and Yeliqin zhizheng shidai (Yeltsin’s Years in Power, co-author, 2000) Donghui He is assistant professor of Chinese literature at Whitman College She received her Ph.D from the University of British Columbia, Canada, in Comparative Literature in 2000 She publishes on Chinese film and literature And her recent publications include “Reconstructing ‘God-Fearing Communities’: Filming Tibet in the 21st Century,” in Sheldon Lu and Jiayan Mi, eds., Chinese Ecocinema (forthcoming) Her current research interests include Chinese film, theatre (spoken drama), contemporary literature, and discourse analysis Xiaojia Hou is assistant professor in the Department of History at the University of Colorado Denver She received her Ph.D in history from Cornell University in 2008 She has published an article on the second Taiwan Strait crisis in 1958, and her chapter on the relations between the CCP central leadership and local agents in the early 1950s is included in a forthcoming conference volume (2009) Her research interests include comparison of communist developments in China and in Russia, the Chinese Communist Party’s rural policies and China’s transformation in the 1950s Hanbing Kong is professor in the School of International Studies at the Peking University He received his Ph.D from the same school in 1992 He has published ten books and his most recent books include Zhong-Su guanxi yu dui zhongguo shehui fazhan de yixiang (Sino-Soviet Relation and its Influence on China’s Social Development, 2004); Shijie shehui zhuyi lilun shi (History and Theories of World Socialism, 2004); and Zhijie liyong waizi de lilun yu shijian (Theories and Practices of Direct Utilization of Foreign Capitals, 2003) Currently he is working on a book project, tentatively titled The East and Central Europe in the Shadow of Big Powers About the Contributors 547 Hua-yu Li is associate professor in the Department of Political Science at Oregon State University She received her Ph.D in Comparative Politics from Columbia University in 1997 She is the author of Mao and the Economic Stalinization of China: 1948–1953 (2006) She is an editorial board member for The Journal of China in Comparative Perspective Currently she is working on a book concerning the evolution and change of the CCP between the 1940s and present Lorenz M Lüthi is assistant professor in the History Department at McGill University He is the author of The Sino-Soviet Split: Cold War in the Communist World (2008) He was a National Security Fellow at the Olin Institute at Harvard University between 2004 and 2005, and a member of the Institute for Advanced Studies in 2007 He is currently working on a book project concerning the rise of the post-Cold War world in East Asia, the Middle East, and Europe in the 1960s, 1970s, and early 1980s Elizabeth McGuire is a Ph.D candidate in the history department at UC Berkeley Her dissertation, “The Sino-Soviet Romance, 1921–1966,” is about the relationship between the Russian and Chinese revolutions as seen through the biographies of Chinese communists who traveled, studied, and lived in the Soviet Union Her second project, Communist Neverland, tells the history of a special children’s home in Ivanovo, Russia, where the children of the international communist elite—from Mao to Tito—learned Soviet concepts of family, nation, and the individual, and formed their own international socialist family Gregory Rohlf is associate professor in the Department of History at the University of the Pacific He is completing a book on agricultural resettlement to Qinghai province, China in the 1950s He is currently researching a project on Socialist Leisure and City Planning: Movie Theaters, Book Stores and City Parks in Small Cities in the Twentieth Century Other research interests include the global history of international voluntary service Gilbert Rozman is a Musgrave Professor of Sociology at Princeton University He has published numerous books and his most recent books include: Russian Strategic Thought toward Asia (co-editor 2006); Japanese Strategic Thought toward Asia (co-editor, 2007); Strategic Thinking about the Korean Nuclear Crisis: Four Parties Caught between North Korea and the United States (2007); and South Korean Strategic Thought toward Asia (co-editor 2008) Currently he is working on a monograph concerning Chinese strategic thought toward Asia, and a comparative study of East Asian national identities 548 About the Contributors Laurence Schneider is professor emeritus at Washington University in St Louis His most recent book is Biology and Revolution in Twentieth Century China (2003) Douglas Stiffler received his Ph.D in modern Chinese history from the University of California, San Diego, in 2002 He is associate professor of history at Juniata College in Huntingdon, Pennsylvania During the academic year 2008–9, he was a Fulbright Research Scholar affiliated with Capital Normal University in Beijing, China He is currently working on a book manuscript entitled Socialist Modernity under Soviet Tutelage: the People’s Republic of China and the Soviet Union, 1949–1960 Péter Vámos is senior research fellow at the Institute of History of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences He received a Ph.D from the Hungarian Academy of Sciences He has authored and edited seven books and published numerous articles on the modern history and foreign relations of China, Sino-Hungarian relations, and the history of Christianity in China His latest book, Kína mellettünk? Kínai külügyi iratok Magyarországról, 1956 (Is China with Us? 1956) (2008), contains the Hungarian translation of over 160 Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs documents on Hungary from 1956 The present chapter is part of an ongoing project which aims at documenting and analyzing the relations between China and East-Central European Soviet bloc countries between 1949 and 1989 Vámos is a recipient of both the Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation for International Scholarly Exchange (RG004-EU-05) fellowship, and OTKA (K 78484) fellowship for his research concerning SinoHungarian and Sino-Soviet bloc relations You Ji is reader/associate professor at the School of Social Science and International Studies, the University of New South Wales He is author of three books and numerous articles The most recent ones include The 17th Party Congress and the CCP’s Changing Elite Politics, in ed Dali Yang and Zhao Litao, China’s Reform at 30 (2009); “China’s New Diplomacy, Foreign Policy and Defense Strategy,” in ed Pauline Kerr, Stuart Harris & Qin Yaqing, China’s New Diplomacy: Tactical or Fundamental Change? (2008); “Revolution in Military Thinking,” in ed Bo Huldt & Masako Ikegami, China Rising (2008) “Symbiosis: Redefining Civil-Military Relations in China,” in ed Wang Gungwu & Yongnian Zheng, China and the New International Order, (2008) He is member of the editorial board of the China Journal, Provincial China, Journal of Contemporary China and the advisory board for the series on contemporary China About the Contributors 549 Miin-ling Yu is associate research fellow in the Institute of Modern History at the Academia Sinica (Taipei, Taiwan) She has published a wide range of articles on the Sino-Soviet relations including Chiang Kai-shek’s visit to the Soviet Union and the Soviet cultural impact on the PRC Some of her articles are “Woman Holds the Plow?—Female Tractor Driver in the PRC,” “A Soviet Hero, Pavel Korchagin, Comes to China,” and “A Reassessment of Jiang Jieshi and the Policy of Alliance with the Soviet Union.” Her research interests include comparative history, history of the Soviet Union and modern China, and Sino-Soviet cultural relations Currently she is writing a book on making the new socialist man in the PRC Jian Zang is professor in the History Department at Peking University She is the editor in chief of a prize winning book, Jinbainian Zhongguo funu lunzhu zongmu tiyao (A Bibliographical Guide to Essays and Works on Chinese Women in the 20th Century, 1996) She is also the co-editor of Qingchun fangchengshi50 ge Beijing nu zhiqing de zishu (Personal Stories Told by Fifty Beijing SentDown Female Students, 1995) She has published numerous articles on a wide range of topics related to Chinese women and Chinese women in comparative perspectives During the coming academic year, she will be a visiting scholar in the Chinese Department at the Free University Berlin, where she will work on an oral history book project concerning German women Sinologists and their research connections with China Shengfa Zhang is a professor at the Institute of Russian, Eastern European and Central Asian Studies, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences His field of research is contemporary world history and the history of international relations He was a visiting scholar at the Center of International Studies of Princeton University in 2003, and a visiting scholar at the Saint-Petersburg State University in 2005 He is the author of Sidalin yu lengzhan (Stalin and the Cold War, 2000 & 2007), and co-author of Suweiai wenhua yu Suweiai renmin (The Soviet Culture and the Soviet People, 1991) He has also edited Sulian lishi dangan xuanbian (Collection of Historical Archives of Soviet Union, vols 17, 18, and 19, 2002) His new book, Ershi shiji dongxifang guanxishi (The History of International Relations between the East and West, is forthcoming) Minglang Zhou is associate professor and director of the Chinese Program at the University of Maryland, College Park He is the author of Multilingualism in China: The Politics of Writing Reform for Minority Languages, 1949–2002 (2003), and editor of Language Policy in the People’s Republic of China: Theory and Practice since 1949 (2004), and Affirmative Action in China and the U.S.: A Dialogue on Inequality and Minority Education (2009) He has guest-edited 550 About the Contributors an issue of Journal of Asian Pacific Communication (2006, vol 16 [2]) on the theme of language planning and varieties of Modern Standard Chinese as well as an issue of Chinese Society and Education (2008, vol 41 [6]) on the topic of linguistic diversity and language harmony in twenty-first century China He has also published two dozen articles on the sociology of language in China Recently he has won a 2009 American Philosophical Society Sabbatical Fellowship for his project on Between Integration and Segregation: Changing Models of Nation State Building and Language Education for Minorities in China ... Published with the generous support of the Weatherhead East Asian Institute and the Harriman Institute for Russian, Eurasian, and Eastern European Studies All rights reserved No part of this book... Sino-Soviet Relations Sino-Soviet Relations during the Mao Years, 1949–1969 Lorenz M Lüthi The Main Causes for the Return of the Chinese Changchun Railway to China and Its Impact on Sino-Soviet Relations. .. to the funding provided by the Harriman Institute for Russian, Eurasian, and Eastern European Studies and the Weatherhead East Asian Institute, both at Columbia We are grateful to the anonymous
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Xem thêm: Asian european relations , Asian european relations , Chapter 1. Sino-Soviet Relations during the Mao Years, 1949–1969, Chapter 2. The Main Causes for the Return of the Changchun Railway to China and Its Impact on Sino-Soviet Relations, Chapter 3. “Only a Handshake but No Embrace”: Sino-Soviet Normalization in the 1980s, Chapter 4. Instilling Stalinism in Chinese Party Members: Absorbing Stalin’s Short Course in the 1950s, Chapter 5. The Soviet Model and the Breakdown of the Military Alliance, Chapter 6. The Transplantation and Entrenchment of the Soviet Economic Model in China, Chapter 7. “Get Organized”: The Impact of two Soviet Models on the CCP’s Rural Strategy, 1949–1953, Chapter 8. The Soviet Model and China's State Farms, Chapter 9. “Labor Is Glorious”: Model Laborers in the People's Republic of China, Chapter 10. The Soviet Impact on “Gender Equality” in China in the 1950s, Chapter 11. Soviet-Chinese Academic Interactions in the 1950s: Questioning the “Impact-Response” Approach, Chapter 12. “Three Blows of the Shoulder Pole”: Soviet Experts at Chinese People’s University, 1950–1957, Chapter 13. Lysenkoism and the Suppression of Genetics in the PRC, 1949–1956, Chapter 14. Between Revolutions: Chinese Students in Soviet Institutes, 1948–1966, Chapter 15. Coming of Age in the Brave New World: The Changing Reception of How the Steel Was Tempered in the People’s Republic of China, Chapter 16. Film and Gender in Sino-Soviet Cultural Exchange, 1949–1969, Chapter 17. China’s Concurrent Debate about the Gorbachev Era, Chapter 18. The Fate of the Soviet Model of Multinational State-Building in the People’s Republic of China, Chapter 19. The Influence of the Collapse of the Soviet Union on China’s Political Choices

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