Jal swaraj case studies in community empowerment

156 10 0
  • Loading ...
1/156 trang
Tải xuống

Thông tin tài liệu

Ngày đăng: 20/01/2020, 08:06

Jal Swaraj Case Studies in Community Empow erment Meeta is with the Indian Administrative Service She has considerable experience in rural and tribal development administration Currently she is Controller at the Semi Conductor Laboratory, Mohali, Punjab She can be contacted at meeta29@hotmail.com Rajivlochan teaches and researches Contemporary Indian History at the Panjab University He lectures on themes from Contemporary Indian History at the Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration, Mussoorie He has published on development issues and community action He has also been active in various movements for the empowerment of people He can be contacted at mrajivlochan@hotmail.com Jal Swaraj Case Stud ies in C ommu nity Emp ower me nt M EETA and R AJI VLO CHAN YASHWANTRAO CHAVAN ACADEMY OF DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION Rajbhavan Complex Baner Road Pune 411007 2009 © YASHWANTRAO CHAVAN ACADEMY OF DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, 2009 www.yashada.org YASHADA is an autonomous Administrative Training Institute funded by the Government of Maharashtra and the Government of India It trains administrators, conducts research and runs a publishing programme First published 2009 Keywords Jal Swaraj, drinking water, community empowerment, Maharashtra The moral rights of the authors to be known as the creators of this work have been asserted No part of this book may be reproduced or circulated, except for the purpose of ‘fair use,’ in any form whatsoever without the consent of the publisher ISBN 978-81-89871-07-9 The contents of this book reflect the views of the authors and not necessarily reflect the views of the organisations for which they work Detailed Table of Contents List of Tables List of Maps Foreword 12 Plan of this book 14 Methodology CHAPTER Managing water: For the people by the people Involving the community Objective of this study The five year plans The example of Tamilnadu Water availability in the 1950s Minimum Needs Programme Breakdowns and problems Trying out compulsory democratisation Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission National Agenda for governance Strong points of community led management Herculean task and bureaucratic solutions Conundrums The state of Maharashtra Legislating the use of water Jal Swaraj: the international initiative CHAPTER Government Initiative at Work in the Jalgaon Regional Water Supply Scheme Cost norms and practicalities The institutional context Expenditure on water scarcity Tackling scarcity Zillah Parishad and tariffs Scheme Design Lowering engineering specifications General points re Scheme design 16 18 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 27 28 29 31 33 34 35 39 40 46 46 46 47 49 51 52 54 56 59 Scheme design and capital costs Operation and maintenance mechanisms The Economics of the Scheme Chapter A self reliant community in Ratnagiri Closeness to Mumbai Individual initiative Working Towards a Shared Goal Finding resources Getting the technical details right Contributory labour and slow steps Replicating the Model Contribution from the Agriculture University Learning from others Raising funds Contributing labour Benefactors from Mumbai Creating institutional structures Finances of the schemes Dealing with high electricity and maintenance costs Social homogeneity Religio-moral undercurrent Self reliance Chapter Effective financial management in Sangli A water short but prosperous region A service provider created by the people Individual initiatives Making use of government assistance The technical details Setting up a society for management Removing political competition Establishing a reasonable tariff Operations Chapter Working on a small scale among the poor in Parbhani Sakartala Social Environment 60 60 66 76 76 76 77 78 79 85 86 86 88 89 89 90 91 92 94 95 98 99 100 102 102 103 104 105 106 107 107 108 109 116 120 120 121 121 Earlier experience of drinking water management Garnering Support Community management Operation & Maintenance Sanitation and Waste Management Empowering Women Future Tasks Kehadtanda Social Environment The physical infrastructure Community Management Planning the Drinking water supply scheme Operation & Maintenance Sanitation Waste Management Empowering Women Future Plans Conclusion Learning Points Involving stakeholders Communicative Action Enabling features Consensus building Divorcing politics from management Technical expertise Sound scheme design Need for government subsidies An ethical issue 122 122 123 124 126 127 128 128 129 129 130 132 133 134 135 135 136 137 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 Glossary 148 Sources 151 Index 153 Acknowledgements 156 List of Tables Table 1: Allocation under the Calamity Relief Fund and the National Contingency Calamity Fund for 2001 to 2005 38 Table 2: Expenditure on supplying water to the villages of the 80-village scheme 50 Table 3: Operating staff establishment costs (1997-98) 63 Table 4: Operating Expenses of Jalgaon 80 Village Water Supply Utility 67 Table 5: Operating Revenues of Jalgaon 80 Village Water Supply Utility 68 Table 6: Operating Revenues of Jalgaon 80 Village Water Supply Utility: change over previous year 70 Table 7: Percentage break up of Operating Costs of Jalgaon water supply utility 74 Table 8: Profile of Devke and Chikhalgaon villages in Ratnagiri district 81 Table 9: Rate of self-imposed Water Tax per household in wadi-specific water supply schemes 94 Table 10: Expenditure on the Ganeshwadi-Saiwadi Water Supply Scheme 96 Table 11: Monthly maintenance costs 96 Table 12: Caste composition: Devke and Chikhalgaon 99 Table 13: Pattern of landholding, Devke and Chikhalgaon 99 Table 14: Tax assessment: panchayat wise in the Madgole scheme 110 Table 15: Profile of water supply scheme: wadis consistently in deficit 112 Table 16: Profile of water supply scheme: wadis reporting a surplus in some years 113 Table 17: Ratio of standpost connections and household connections 115 Table 18: Operating Costs of the Madgole Regional Water Supply Society 117 Table 19: Operating Revenues of the Madgole scheme 118 Table 20: Operating Profits of Madgole PWS Taluka Atpadi, Dist Sangli 119 List of Maps Map 1: India: states Map 2: Maharashtra districts Map 3: Case study locations Map Drought prone region in Maharashtra Map 5: Schematic map of the 80 v scheme 10 11 15 36 55 Map 1: India: states Divorcing politics from management accountable but the ultimate criterion of their success must be efficiency in service delivery and in this case, providing water; it cannot be how less or more democratic the organisation is As we see in the above case studies, issues of politics especially of keeping politics out, issues of long term costs, issues of design and issues of social ethics are far more important in contributing towards the success of any water supply scheme than is its democratic organisation And one of the most important elements of any democracy, namely politics, practically sounds the death knell for operational success Divorcing politics from management In the preceding case studies, we have seen the examples of various communities and in one case, a local self government agency which did succeed in their self appointed task of managing their drinking water supplies We are sure that there would be many more, if only someone were to chronicle their work But the one point that stands out in all these narratives is the fact that these communities could succeed in this task only by divorcing politics from the management of the scheme Running the scheme requires delegation of authority and quick decision-making, often on a daily basis and this in turn requires consensus Faction fighting makes consensus difficult to achieve The most clear cut example of this phenomenon comes from the Madgole scheme in Sangli where the villagers elected Tukaram Anyaba Chavan to the management of their water supply authority but he was defeated in the election for village sarpanch Similarly in the Ratnagiri narrative, Laxman Shankar Gorivale of Devka village, showed a consistent distaste for things political after suffering a similar electoral defeat And once drinking water management is divorced from politics, it is little different from any other enterprise Perhaps this is one reason that these water supply schemes were generally taken up by numerically small and socially cohesive communities; this meant that the possibilities of dissent were reduced to that extent Once the scale of operations 142 Technical expertise increases, individual stakes too increase and this in turn might motivate individuals to indulge in faction fights and to work against the collective Interestingly the significance of this point has often been recognised in the domain of politics if not academia The Maharashtra government has recently launched an incentive scheme for villages which manage to reduce conflict and to reduce to nil police cases registered in the village There was some response to this scheme; it would be interesting to know how village communities responded to such an offer Technical expertise The other feature that drinking water management does seem to require, in order to be successful, is the availability of technical expertise, from the stage of inception and throughout its maintenance The quality of expertise contributes to the finesse with which the construction is done which in turn determines the longevity of the scheme Moreover, maintaining the scheme, whether by way of repairing leaking pipes or burnt motor windings, requires constant effort and skill and skills are costly This was something the local communities realised very fast So much so that the villagers of Chikhalgaon actually pooled money to send one of the village youth to a training program in a private ITI This one step, they say, reduced their maintenance expenditure almost by half Yet this kind of training was not really factored into most government schemes Many training programs were organised but mostly for sensitising people to the need to take charge of their scheme, to hold committee meetings and to vote in committee elections Generating awareness while an important first step, needs to be followed up with the requisite technical support In the absence of such support, community effort may well falter The existence of technical skills among the rural population then, would considerably increase the sustainability of any public program involving water supply 143 Sound scheme design Sound scheme design We also found that the issue of sound scheme design contributes significantly to the success of the scheme This is clearly borne out by the Jalgaon example Here was a scheme which assumed and rightly so that electricity is available for a maximum of ten hours in the day in rural areas and designed the pipes and pumps to supply all water required within this time limit It also planned its capacity with the next thirty years in mind instead of the next fifteen years These features enabled the scheme to survive for a decade till the vast increase in the numbers of users far outstripped its ability to supply water The scheme also showed that where drinking water is supplied reliably, people are willing to pay for what they use But reliability in turn depends upon design In contrast other schemes which assumed a twenty four hour supply of electricity and reduced pipe capacity, could not survive This is one issue where community involvement is definitely needed Asbestos cement pipes might be cheaper than cast iron but if the maintenance cost of the latter is far lower, then surely that is a factor which needs to be taken into account in the design of the scheme Left to themselves, government agencies however tend to scrounge on capital costs with the result that long term maintenance costs often increase Project cost should normally mean costs over the entire time period of the scheme; for the government however project cost means initial capital investment The reason is not far to seek: funds being limited, it makes political sense to set up five schemes within the cost of three; the political benefits of such a strategy are evident But communities which are likely to be burdened with the cost of maintaining a user unfriendly scheme, would think differently One of the positive fallouts of the Jal Swaraj kind of experiment has been the involvement of stakeholders in scheme design and government engineers found time after time that the community took an active interest in and contributed positively to the whole process quite apart from whatever learning both parties acquired 144 Need for government subsidies Need for government subsidies Once the two factors of social and political consensus and technical expertise are available, communities have a much higher chance of success But even so, drinking water supply is a costly affair It is now accepted wisdom in the government and in the international bureaucracy that people should pay for drinking water and that willingness to pay is not a problematic issue What is less discussed is that piped water supply schemes supplying water to individual households are a costlier affair than merely reaching water to the public standpost but that the former is also far the preferred option among communities There are four main reasons for this preference; one the higher convenience of getting water at your door step, two the feeling that people with household connections are more accountable to the community since sanctions can be more easily applied in such cases through disconnection, three that taking water from the public standpost creates quarrels among village women and four that public standposts are rather unhygienic and maintaining cleanliness becomes a problem But individual house networks require constant maintenance and incur higher costs both for maintenance and augmentation Government policy seems to say that once the initial capital investment is made, communities would be able to manage the finances on a no profit no loss basis, but this idea is misplaced All the communities which have been described in this book face an uphill task in maintaining their schemes and every so often they need to gather funds either for some major repair work or for installing supplementary facilities Water tariff charged in all cases is only about sufficient to cover current maintenance and repair costs; it does not generally allow for a reserve fund to build up The Madgole scheme presents one instance where an explicit effort was made to build up some capital reserves but they faced an uphill task Those involved felt that this was too much to demand This would also raise questions about the viability of the privatisation of these schemes; it does 145 An ethical issue not seem as though people would be willing to pay the extra costs this would entail Willingness to pay has its limits apparently It could be argued that piped water supply being costlier should be far more heavily taxed than the stand posts but socially and politically speaking such an argument has low acceptability In none of the communities described is the ratio of tax for household connections to standpost connections more than 2:1 or 3.4:1 So the problem of funds still remains As of now, governments not generally offer cash incentives or loans for communities which are able to maintain their water supply schemes most of the time Such an offer would be a very welcome step towards addressing this issue An ethical issue In recent times, governments have said that piped water networks which bring water to individual homes rather than a few public spots are far too costly to maintain and therefore communities should only be financed for schemes where water is taken to the public stand post and no further This in not really a financial issue but an ethical one and it has to with social policy Might we dare suggest that actually providing safe and easy source of drinking water to the people in the comfort of their houses has little to with improving their health or improving their finances Instead, it is simply one of those things which improve the quality of life Often times in the past arguments have been made that there is a relationship between good health and a reliable supply of water The entire water and sanitation programme of the government is based on this premise Now, we did not focus on the health aspect in the present study But a pilot survey done earlier by us and the recent Evaluation Report of the World Bank suggests that the correlation between health and piped drinking water supply insignificant The question that we would like to raise is this: Is it fair to assume that people, by reason of their location in a rural area, should not by definition have access to piped drinking water supply which is an essential 146 An ethical issue component of a good quality of life? The answer to this question lies in the realm of the moral economy alone On that governments need to take a call 147 Glossary BPL Below Poverty Line, a criteria followed by the government in India to enumerate the very poor Calamity relief fund Founded in 2001 under the aegis of the ministry of agriculture, government of India, and was to initially run until 2005 after which it was to become a part and parcel of the state government The objective was to have a designated fund in each state for meeting the expenditure for providing immediate relief to the victims of cyclone, drought, earthquake, fire, flood and hailstorm The central government was to support 75% of the non-plan yearly allocations DFID Department for International Development, is a part of the UK government that manages Britain’s aid to poor countries ESR Elevated Service Reservoir Free riders Those who consume more than their fair share of resources or shoulder less than a fair cost of production thereby leading to non-production or inefficient production of a public good Gram Panchayat The village level tier of the Panchayati Raj system IDA The international development association (IDA) is the part of the world bank that helps the world’s poorest countries Established in 1960, IDA aims to 148 reduce poverty by providing interest-free credits and grants for programs that boost economic growth, reduce inequalities and improve people’s living conditions Khatedar Lit One whose name is mentioned in the cultivator’s list of the government lpcd Litres per capita per day Maharashtra Jeevan Pradhikaran The Maharashtra water supply and sewerage board was constituted on the 1st January, 1997 under the Maharashtra water supply and sewerage board ac, 1976 for rapid development and proper regulation of water supply and sewerage service in the state of Maharashtra The name of the board was changed as Maharashtra Jeevan Pradhikaran with effect from 103-1997 Minimum needs programme The concept of the minimum needs programme emerged and crystallised out of the experience of the previous five year plans that neither growth nor social consumption can be sustained, much less accelerated, without being mutually supportive It was first introduced in the fifth five year plan (1974-80) and by the sixth five year plan (1980-85) it was adopted by a number of state governments as well The minimum needs programme identified eight components for focus: elementary education, rural health, rural water supply, rural roads, rural electrification, housing Assistance to rural landless labourers, environmental improvement of urban slums, nutrition Mld Million litres daily National contingency calamity fund Constituted by the government of India for the purpose of dealing with the natural calamities of cyclone, drought, earthquake, fire, flood and hailstorm, considered to be of severe nature requiring expenditure by the state government in excess of the balances available in its own calamity relief fund The national fund is administered by the ministry of home affairs, government of India NGO Non-government organization 149 Nullah Rivulet RWSS Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Sarpanch Elected head of the gram Panchayat TCL Chlorinated lime powder used for disinfecting water in wells and pots to make it safe for human consumption Wadi Minor settlement, also referred to as a village but usually a part of a larger revenue unit Zapti warrant Lit Confiscation warrant Zillah Parishad The district level tier of the Panchayati Raj system 150 Sources Dhote, Shalini, 2006, “A study on batch evaluation of tribal villages under the Jal Swaraj Project, YASHADA, Pune Dhote, Shalini, 2007, “Impact Assessment Report on Jal Swaraj Project, YASHADA, Pune Government of Maharashtra, 2004, Second Memorandum to the Government of India on Drought Relief and Mitigation in Maharashtra (2004), Relief and Rehabilitation Department, Government of Maharashtra Impact assessment of Maharashtra rural water supply and sanitation project (Jalgaon 80 village scheme) for the Water and Sanitation Group DFID India and the Government of Maharashtra, Taru Leading Edge, 1998 Jal Swaraj, 2003 Project Implementation Plan Maharashtra Water and Sanitation Department, Government of Maharashtra, Mumbai Jal Swaraj, 2006 Guidelines Maharashtra Water and Sanitation Department, Government of Maharashtra, Mumbai (in Marathi) Meeta and Rajivlochan, 1994, “Social innovation and the religio-moral under current: a brief look at gramavikas in Ralegan Shindi”, In Economic and Political Weekly, November 19, 1994, Meeta and Rajivlochan, 2006, “The moral imperative in rural development”, In Rural Development and Social Change, eds R R Prasad and G Rajanikanth, Discovery Publishing House, New Delhi 151 Misra, Smita, 2006 India water supply and sanitation: bridging the gap between infrastructure and service Background paper, Rural Water Supply and Sanitation, World Bank Report Pattanayak, S K et al 2008 India: Of Taps and Toilets: Evaluating Community-Demand-Driven Projects in Rural India, Report No: 43344-IN, Social, Environment & Water Resources Management Unit, Sustainable Development Department, South Asia Region, World Bank Phansalkar, Sanjiv and Vivek Kher, 2006, ‘A Decade of the Maharashtra Groundwater Legislation: Analysis of the Implementation Process’, 2/1 Law, Environment and Development Journal (2006), available at http://www.lead-journal.org/content/06067.pdf last accessed in March 2009 Planning Commission of India, 1980, “Accessibility of the poor to the rural water supply – a quick evaluation study – 1980”, Programme Evaluation Study no 111, Planning Commission of India, New Delhi, 1980 Planning Commission of India, 1996, “Evaluation report on accelerated rural water supply programme”, Programme Evaluation Study no 165, Planning Commission of India, New Delhi, 1996 Planning Commission of India, 2002, India assessment 2002: water supply and sanitation, Planning Commission Government of India, New Delhi, 2002 Project Appraisal Document On A Proposed Credit In The Amount Of Sdr 128.8 Million (Us$181.0 Million Equivalent) To India For The Maharashtra Rural Water Supply And Sanitation “Jalswarajya” Project July 17,2003; World Bank, Rural Development Sector Unit, South Asia Regional Office United Nations Development Programme, 2007, Human Development Report 2007/2008: fighting climate change: human solidarity in a divided world, United Nations Development Programme, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2007 Vaidyanathan, A., 2007, Water policy in India: a brief overview Occasional paper series no 6, Center for Public Policy, Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore 152 Index Accelerated Rural Water Supply Scheme, 24 agencies, 17, 18, 19, 20, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 46, 51, 60, 99, 136, 141, 143 arrears, 99, 112 managing, 112 Bangladesh, 51 Bombay Village Panchayat Act 1958, 47 buffaloes, 70 capital cost and performance outcomes, 46 case studies summary of, 14 cent per cent grant, 24 collective action, 77 communicative action Jurgen Habermas, 138 community, 1, 4, 11, 12, 13, 15, 18, 20, 21, 23, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 60, 71, 74, 75, 77, 78, 82, 86, 90, 101, 118, 119, 120, 121, 125, 126, 130, 132, 133, 136, 137, 138, 140, 143, 155 compost pits, 95, 125, 133 concessional rate, 92 consensus, 12, 33, 44, 99, 105, 118, 119, 137, 139, 140, 141, 144 Constitutional Amendment 73rd, 30 defecation, 124, 125, 132, 133 Democratisation compulsory, 19 Development Organisation Trust, 120 drinking water, 4, 13, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 32, 33, 34, 35, 38, 39, 45, 47, 49, 50, 55, 56, 71, 75, 84, 92, 103, 118, 120, 129, 130, 135, 136, 139, 141, 142, 143, 144, 146 health, 23 empowerment, 1, 4, 30, 133 finances, 93 five year plans rural areas and drinking water, 23 social services, 23 water for good health, 23 Five Year Plans, 21 free labour, 121 free rider, 138 problem of, 73 free riders inability to curb, 139 funding agencies Bangladesh experience, 51 evaluation studies, 19 feed back studies, 19 153 Gram Panchayat, 47, 51, 52, 61, 63, 64, 65, 67, 68, 69, 70 Gram Sabha, 64, 90, 120, 121, 122, 129, 130 household, 78, 86, 87, 90, 91, 93, 94 household connection needed more, 112 Indira Mahila Bachat Gat, 119 Individual, 75 inhabitants, 82, 101, 102, 105, 106, 127, 134 Jal Swaraj case study, 15 Jalgaon, 14, 45 Jurgen Habermas, 138 Khandesh, 14 Madras, 21 Mahalanobis, P C, 22 and the NSS, 22 Maharashtra state profile, 34 Maharashtra Jeevan Pradhikaran, 47, 56, 58, 60, 83, 86, 103, 148 Mantralaya, 47 matric, 121 Millennium Development Goals, 29 Minimum Needs Programme, 24 targets for drinking water, 24 Nashik, 46 tries to fit in with cost norms, 56 National Agenda for Governance, 29 National Drinking Water Mission, 27 National Sample Survey, 22 P C Mahalanobis, 22 NGO, 98 official oversight, 98 operation and maintenance, 15, 25, 30, 31, 33, 135, 137 Operation and Maintenance, 51 Panchayati Raj, 30 political competition, 19 Pant, K C, 32 piped water in Nashik, Jalgaon and Dhule, 51 reasons for, 51 politics, 11, 15, 76, 100, 141, 142 Programme Evaluation Organisation, 26 public private partnership shift to, 23 rain water harvesting, 38 Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission, 27 Ratnagiri, 14 scheduled caste, 119 standpost lower rates, 112 stand-post, 91 sugarcane cultivation, 38 tariff norms for water supply, 52 taxation, 33, 70, 106, 114 Tilori-Kunbi, 75 toilets, 124, 125, 132, 133 UNDP, 37 User groups elections, 19 village profile, 78 wadi, 75, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 88, 91, 92, 93, 98, 102, 103, 105, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 117, 138 wadis, 75, 76, 77, 78, 84, 85, 88, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 97, 102, 108, 110, 111, 112, 113 Water user groups managing, 19 Water and Sanitation Decade, 27 water scarcity and local politics, 51 water supply avoiding government, 77, 83 changing role of government, 27 cheaper rates than ZP, 112 chronic scarcity, 48 democratisation, 28 differential taxation, 33 five year plans, 21 free or paid, 33 government commitment, 33 India Assessment 2002, 30 lack of maintenance, 26 maintenance costs, 32 new strategies, 30 problem with donors, 31 responsibility of government, 30 154 sans government help, 15 strengths of community participation, 31 superior access in India, 28 un/metered, 34 user groups, 19 Water supply schemes conception and management, 20 water tax, 90, 93, 94 community imposed, 90 watershed development, 38 welfare, 18 widows, 82, 92 Zillah Parishad Act and water tariffs, 52 155 Acknowledgements We had been working on various aspects of community formation since the early 1990s, of which conflicts over drinking water were but one small component Shri Ratnakar Gaikwad, IAS insisted that that information be shared with a larger audience and in a manner that helped others understand the intricacies of rural life better He subsequently provided us the opportunity to conduct additional field studies reported in this book His kind, persuasive and able guidance is something that we humbly acknowledge Dr N Ramaswami, IAS provided help in accessing various bits of information used in this book The field investigations of Mrs Shalini Anil Kadu, MDS, provided an important backdrop for our own field work She was also kind enough to share her own insights into the rather complicated dynamics of rural society rift along various political axes yet coming together for achieving singular civic successes Shri V Ramani, IAS, provided important moral support to continue with this study and encouraged our curious enthusiasms about society To all of them, our grateful thanks Shri Udit Vinayak and Abhay Vikram of the Yadavindra Public School, SAS Nagar, helped in tabulating some of the data and displayed surprising cartographic abilities to provide free hand rendition of various maps that are used in this book Our informants, spread all over Maharashtra, were kind enough to share with us their hopes and aspirations, their successes and mistakes They welcomed us in their midst, at times even during the charged atmosphere of local elections—all the while explaining to us in great detail how the elections and other political contestations had nothing to with the task of running their drinking water supply schemes Quite a few of them also insisted on anonymity and preferred that our demonstration of gratitude should be in the form of a book that would be of practical value Some of the MLAs and MLCs, current and former, to whom we talked were more insistent and categorical in their demand: please write something that would be of practical value to everyone in society Our thanks to them are in the form of an effort to be able to live up to their expectations ... access to safe drinking water This was in line with the importance attached to drinking water the world over so much so that reaching safe drinking water to the people was defined as being part of... and the Government of India It trains administrators, conducts research and runs a publishing programme First published 2009 Keywords Jal Swaraj, drinking water, community empowerment, Maharashtra... physical infrastructure Community Management Planning the Drinking water supply scheme Operation & Maintenance Sanitation Waste Management Empowering Women Future Plans Conclusion Learning Points Involving
- Xem thêm -

Xem thêm: Jal swaraj case studies in community empowerment , Jal swaraj case studies in community empowerment

Mục lục

Xem thêm

Gợi ý tài liệu liên quan cho bạn