Spaces of global capitalism a theory of uneven geographical development

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SPACES OF GLOBAL CAPITALISM SPACES OF GLOBAL CAPITALISM _ David Harvey This edition published by Verso 2019 First published by Verso 2006 Published as Spaces of Neo-liberalization by Franz Steiner Verlag in 2005 © David Harvey 2005, 2006, 2019 All rights reserved The moral rights of the author have been asserted 10 Verso UK: Meard Street, London W1F 0EG US: 20 Jay Street, Suite 1010, Brooklyn, NY 11201 versobooks.com Verso is the imprint of New Left Books ISBN-13: 978-1-78873-465-3 ISBN-13: 978-1-78873-466-0 (UK EBK) ISBN-13: 978-1-78873-467-7 (US EBK) British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress Typeset in Bembo by Hewer Text UK, Ltd, Edinburgh Printed and bound by CPI Group (UK) Ltd, Croydon CR0 4YY CONTENTS Introduction: Hettner-Lecture 2004 in Heidelberg PETER MEUSBURGER and HANS GEBHARDT Neo-liberalism and the restoration of class power DAVID HARVEY Notes towards a theory of uneven geographical development DAVID HARVEY Space as a key word DAVID HARVEY Notes Index INTRODUCTION Introduction: Hettner-Lecture 2004 in Heidelberg Peter Meusburger and Hans Gebhardt The Department of Geography, University of Heidelberg, held its eighth ‘Hettner-Lecture’ from June 28 to July 2, 2004 This annual lecture series, named after Alfred Hettner, Professor of Geography in Heidelberg from 1899 to 1928 and one of the most reputable German geographers of his day, is devoted to new theoretical developments in the crossover fields of geography, economics, the social sciences, and the humanities During their stay, the invited guest-speakers present two public lectures, one of which is transmitted via teleteaching on the Internet In addition, several seminars give graduate students and young researchers the opportunity to meet and converse with an internationally acclaimed scholar Such an experience at an early stage in the academic career opens up new perspectives for research and encourages critical reflection on current theoretical debates and geographical practice The eighth Hettner-Lecture was given by David Harvey, Distinguished Professor of Anthropology at the City University of New York Graduate Center David Harvey is widely recognized as one of the most innovative and influential geographical thinkers of the last 40 years His Explanation in geography (1969) provided a major contribution to the methodological debate over geography as a spatial science that captivated geographers in the 1960s Harvey’s subsequent move from the UK – where he had lectured at Bristol University – to the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore coincided with a profound shift in the intellectual foundations of his research With Social justice and the city (1973), Harvey produced a pioneering text in critical urban studies that explored the relevance of Marxist ways of thinking to account for and challenge poverty and racism in Western cities His The limits to capital (1982), a geographical extension of Marx’s theory of capitalism, firmly established Harvey as leading Marxist geographer with his reputation extending well beyond the confines of the discipline Harvey returned to urban issues in The urbanization of capital (1985) and Consciousness and the urban experience (1985), before embarking on his most successful book to date, The condition of postmodernity (1989), a materialist critique of postmodernism written while he held the Half-ord Mackinder Chair in Geography at the University of Oxford More recently, Harvey has revisited and further explored issues of social justice and the idea of utopia in Justice, nature and the geography of difference (1996) and Spaces of hope (2000) His latest books are Paris, capital of modernity (2003) and The new imperialism (2003) During the Hettner-Lecture 2004 David Harvey presented two public lectures entitled ‘Free market capitalism and the restoration of class power’ and ‘Towards a general theory of uneven geographical development’,1 both of which are published here in revised form, together with an essay on ‘Space as a key word’ and a short photographic documentation Three seminars with graduate students and young researchers from Heidelberg and nineteen other European and US universities took up issues raised in the lectures The seminars were entitled ‘The new imperialism’, ‘Geographical knowledges/political powers’, and ‘Space as a key word’ We should like to express our gratitude to the Klaus Tschira Foundation for generously supporting the Hettner-Lecture Particular thanks are due to Dr h.c Klaus Tschira, our benevolent host in the Studio of the foundation’s magnificent Villa Bosch We would like to thank Prof Dr Angelos Chaniotis, Vice-Rector of Heidelberg University, and Prof Dr Peter Hofmann, Dean of the Faculty of Chemistry and Earth Sciences, for their welcome addresses at the opening ceremony in the university’s Alte Aula The Hettner-Lecture 2004 would not have been possible without the full commitment of all involved students and faculty members We thank Tim Freytag and Heike Jöns for their effective organisational work and the planning and chairing of the seminar sessions with graduate students and young researchers We are also grateful to the students who helped with the organisation of the event The concerted effort and enthusiasm of all participants once more ensured a successful HettnerLecture in Heidelberg NEO-LIBERALISM AND THE RESTORATION OF CLASS POWER Bremer, Paul 10, 54 Brenner, R 31–2 Bretton Woods system 14 Britain City financiers 24 economic crisis in 1970s 14 economic expansion in 1990s 42 as hegemonic center of capital accumulation 94, 105 intelligence on oil-producing countries 21 left political power in 1970s 15 model of neo-liberalism 33 neo-liberal turn under Thatcher 12, 13–14, 15–17, 29–30, 48 Burawoy, M 144–5 Burke, Edmund 72 Burkett, Paul 87–8 Bush, George W 9, 11, 56–7, 60 business Chinese Communist Party 40 climate in Thatcher’s Britain 16 in mission of neo-liberal state 25, 26, 106 US coalition with elite class 19, 59 Cabot, John 139 California, energy crisis 80 Callaghan, James 16 Cancun Conference 41 capital accumulation aim of neo-liberal state 26, 27 aim of US measures in Iraq 11 by dispossession 41–50, 52–3, 75, 91, 110 experiments by European left parties 14–15 historical-geographical trajectory 65–6, 81 Marx’s theory 115–16 material embedding of processes 75, 78, 82–3, 88, 94–5, 113–15 and nature 87–9 Polyani’s view 81 and regime of rights 56 in space and time 75, 77, 95–109, 123 capitalism Braudel’s conception 79–80 class formation in China 40, 42 class power and surplus generation 90–1, 93 commodification 113–14 creation of abstract discourses 83 crises of 94 geopolitics of 107–9 and neo-liberalism 15, 30, 44, 46 production of scale 104–5 as progressive movement 74 “self-organizing” concentration in space 98 and Thatcher’s organization of democratic consent 16 and uneven geographical development 115 see also global capitalism Carter, Jimmy 15, 18 Cassirer, Ernst 129–30, 130, 131 Catalonia 105 Central America 22 see also Nicaragua Chandler, D 50–1, 53–4, 99–100 Chaniotis, Angelo Chechnya 66 child labor 52 Chile 12–13, 43, 56 China 55, 58, 68, 93, 99, 113, 144 accumulation practices 44, 48, 49, 56, 108 economic reform program 34–41 neo—liberalism 57, 66, 108 rise of nationalism 60 see also Pearl River Delta; Tiananmen Square Christian right 19–20, 60 CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) 12, 22 the city 89 City University of New York “civil society” 28 civil wars 64 class movements 65–6 class power capitalism and surplus generation 90–1, 93, 95 Marxist theory 112 neo-conservative agenda for 59–60 and neo-liberalism 13–14, 31, 40, 42, 43, 46, 48, 66 restoration in US in 1970s 18–19, 24, 44 class relations alliance formation 103, 106, 108–9, 110 and authoritarianism 28 and China’s economic evolution 35 class struggles 64–5, 106 Marxist theory 112, 115, 145 undermining regionality 103 and uneven geographical development 75, 109–10 Clinton, Bill 32, 33, 60 coercion and accumulation by dispossession 92–3 and neo-conservativism 58, 59, 61 Cold War 30, 41, 51, 58 colonialism accumulation by dispossession 93 exploitative practices 72, 74 struggles against 64 territorial administrative structures 105 commodification capitalism 81, 113–14 in neo-liberal project 43, 44 commodities 82, 92, 96–7, 100, 113–14 common property rights 45 common sense 83–4, 85, 86 Communism, structural inequalities in China 40 competition aim of China’s economic reforms 34 and anarchy 58 and monopoly 25, 28–9, 66, 99–100 spatial 97–8 territorial 85, 112 conflicts around capital reproduction 112–13 undermining regionality 103 see also political and social struggles consent and hegemony 16 and neo—conservativism 59 consumption conditions of physical infrastructures 101–2 local experiments with new forms 64 neo-liberal suppression of indigenous forms 43 regionality 102 speed-up innovations 100 credit system and landed capital 101, 103 as means of primitive accumulation 43 crimes against humanity 55–6 cultural forms/histories, commodification 44, 92 cultural nationalism 60–1, 63 cultural theory, and relational concepts 146 cultures, undermined by capitalist forces 72 “culture wars” 67 debt crises 47 Deleuze, Gilles 125 democracy deficit in “democratic” countries 67–8 social movements for 68 see also social democratic state Democratic Party (US) 19 Deng Xiaoping 34 depression (1930s) 109 deregulation as answer to stagflation in US 15, 18 policies of neo-liberal state 25, 45–6 Descartes, René 121 developer capital 103 developing countries debt crises 47 repression of protest movements 49 and US imperial power 23 dialectics 76 Marxian theory 146 Diamond, Jared 73 dispossession, accumulation by 41–50, 52–3, 75, 91, 92–3, 110, 111 divisions of labor 82 geographical 98 Du Bois, W.E.B 128 Duménil, G 13, 24, 31–2 Eastern Europe 68 East/Southeast Asia authoritarian control and neoliberalism 34 financial crisis 80 investment in Chinese manufacturing 39 modernization and development 72 “tiger” economies 30, 42 East Timor 53 ecological systems energy flows 123 uneven impacts on human development 87–8, 88 economic growth interregional development 109 neo-liberal regime of rights 56 economics and reconstruction of Chile’s economy 12 Thatcher’s ideology 17 Economist 10 Edsall, Thomas 18–19, 20 Egypt 68 Einstein, Albert 121, 122, 140 Engels, Friedrich 85 Enron 24, 46, 80 environmentalism 114 and uneven development 72–3, 89 and universalism 53 environmental resources degradations 71 depletion of commons 44 ethics committees 53–4 Euclid 121 Euler, Leonhard 122 Europe investment in Chinese manufacturing 39 left’s reaction to economic crisis 14–15 neo-conservative turn 41 neo-liberal pressures on 31, 33 postwar decolonization of powers 22 rise of capitalist class 91 rise of nation state 105 social democratic state 14 European Union 60, 105 Explanation in Geography (Harvey) 3, 121 exploitation 145 Falklands/Malvinas war 30 Falwell, Jerry 19–20 Federal Reserve Bank (US) 27, 30, 46–7, 68 Volcker shock 17–18 financial crises effects on people’s lives 80 management and manipulation of 46–8 financial institutions importance to neo-liberal states 24–5, 26–7 relationship with corporations 31, 32 financialization 24–5, 32, 45–6 Fordism 144 Ford Motors 37 Foreign Affairs 51 foreign investment 32 channeled into China 36–7, 38–9, 109 inflow in Thatcher’s Britain 16 Foucault, Michel 81 Fourier, Jean Baptiste 144–5 France 15, 30, 60 freedom emphasis in neo-liberal state 27–8, 28, 29, 59 and Thatcher revolution 16 and US policies in Iraq 9–11, 11 see also human rights free market Reagan’s policies for 18 reforms in Chile 12 and uneven geographical development 71 US policies in Iraq 10, 11 Freytag, Tim Friedman, Milton 12, 15 Gauss, Karl Friedrich 122 General Motors 37, 39 genetic resources, privatization process 44 Geneva Convention 10 Genoa 147 geographers dangers of embracing relational concepts 146–8 standpoint regarding concept of space 120, 129 geographical divisions of labour 98 geographical inequalities 71, 101 geographical scale 104–5 geometry, and relative notion of space 121–2 geopolitics, and capitalism 94, 107–9, 110 Germany 32, 105 see also West Germany global capitalism and class power 93 and neo-liberalism 26, 29–34, 71 and reterritorialization 105–6 and September 11 events 137 global crises 109 global justice movement 50, 64 global-local relations 144 God, and spatio—temporality 123 “good sense” 84 governance established by regional alliances 103 in neo-liberal state 27, 58 role of the state 106 governments, suspicion of 54 Gowan, P 31–2 Gramsci, Antonio 16, 83–4, 86 Greenspan, Alan 46–7 Ground Zero 125, 126 spatio-temporal perspectives on redesigning 136–8, 147 “growth machine politics” 103 growth rates, aggregate and global 42 Habermas, J 79, 81–2 Hague Convention 10 Haiti 53 Harvey, David 3–4 Hayek, Friedrich August von 15 hegemony centers of capital accumulation 94, 105 and consent 16 US preservation of 29 Hettner, Alfred Hettner-Lecture, University of Heidelberg 3, 4–5 Hindu National Party 60–1 history, and events of 9/11 137 Hofmann, Peter Hofstadter, R 58 Hong Kong 37, 105–6 housing see social housing human rights and moral values 59 and neo-liberalism 28, 50–1, 66 UN Charter 57 and universalism 53–4 Huntington, Samuel 61 Hussein, Saddam Husserl, Edmund 81–2 identity, spatio-temporal understandings 128–9 IMP (International Monetary Fund) 14, 16, 26, 27, 33, 47, 56, 68 movements against 64, 80 structural adjustment programs 23, 48, 94, 109 imperialism exploitative practices 72, 74 as necessary for capitalism 91 neo-liberal international organizations 56 as progressive movement 74 struggles against 64 US tradition 21 incarceration, US state strategy 26, 49 India appropriation of assets 45, 94 class transformations and neo- liberalism 41, 42, 66 destruction of rural economy and industries 49 Hindu National Party 61 practices of accumulation by dispossession 43, 49 social movements for democracy 68 individualism and anarchy 58 emphasis in neo-liberal state 27–8, 29, 51 Thatcher’s organization of democratic consent 16, 17 Indonesia 62, 80 Institute for Economic Affairs, London 15 intellectual property rights 43, 44, 99 inter-ethnic violence 64 investment banks 21, 22–3, 37 Iran 22, 61, 68 Iraq “freedom” conferred on by US 9–11, 54, 56 human rights used to justify intervention in 53 rising call for self-determination 66 Islam see radical Islam Israeli-Palestine conflict 60, 110, 111 Italy 14–15, 41, 94, 105 Japan 16, 72, 93 and neo-liberalism 31, 33 rise of nationalism and moral sense 60, 61 success in global economy in 1980s 30, 31, 32, 42 Java 80 Johns Hopkins University Jons, Heike Joseph, Keith 15 judiciary, in neo-liberal state 28 justice as a right 54–5 social movements for 68 Kaldor, Mary 59 Kant, Immanuel 124, 136 Keynesianism 14, 15, 30, 33, 38, 40 King, Rodney 59 Kissinger, Henry 12 Klaus Tschira Foundation Korea see South Korea Kosovo 53 Kulaks 74 Kuwait 21 labor capitalist commodification 113 and collapse of manufacturing in China 37–8, 39 effect of Reagan’s policies 18 geographical/territorial divisions 98, 100–1, 104 movements 62–3 neo-liberal policies 25, 43 and social relations of value 144 spatio-temporalities 142, 144–5 US flexibility of markets 32–3 land and China’s economic evolution 39–40 and physical infrastructures 101–2 and relational space 126 surplus values 92 landed capital 102, 103 Langer, S 130 Latin America 12, 22, 47, 62 see also Brazil; Chile law see legal action Lefebvre, Henri 77, 85–6, 130–1, 131–2, 133, 140 the left, reaction to economic crisis of 1970s 14–15 legal action 51 Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm 121, 123, 124, 125, 131 Lenin, Vladimir Ilich 140, 144 Lévy, D 13, 24, 31–2 “the lifeworld” 79, 81–2 The Limits to Capital (Harvey) 4, 115 London City financiers’ power 24 effect of privatization of social housing 48 Long Term Capital Management 27 Los Angeles riots 59 Lösch, August 96 Lukacs, Georg 140 Luxemburg, R 91 Mach, Ernst 140 Malaysian Federation 61 Malvinas see Falklands/Malvinas war Manhattan 102, 134 see also Ground Zero manufacturing collapse of enterprises in China 37 Pearl River Delta 112 Mao Zedong 34 market economy/forces and anarchy 58 in Braudel’s conception of capitalism 79 China’s economic reforms 34–5 Polyani’s view 80–1, 113–14 market exchange 96–7 Marxian thought failure to address space—time problematics 140–1 political economy 125 Marxism approach to uneven development 72 author’s studies 4, 115 Lefebvre’s project for 85–6 theory of class conflict 112, 115 Marx, Karl 61, 82, 85, 88, 100, 139 abstract and concrete in theory 76, 86–7 on capital accumulation 43, 75, 115–16 on class struggles 54, 114 theory of values 141–2 material space 130, 131 Médecins sans FrontiÒres 53 Mellon, Andrew 47 memory Benjamin’s view 137–8 collective 125, 138 Mercosur 105 Mexico 17, 113, 144 expulsion of peasant populations 43 financial crisis and structural adjustment 23–4, 46, 47, 80 privatization of ejidos 48 see also Zapatista uprising Middle East conflict 111 militarism/militarization 58–9 military dictatorships 22 military humanism 53 military power 106–7 miners’ strike, Britain (1984–5) 29 Mitchell, Don 147–8 monetarism global diffusion 33 Japan and West Germany 30–1 Thatcher’s policies in Britain 15–16 monopoly, and competition 25, 29, 66, 99–100 Montesquieu, Baron de La Brede et de 72–3 moral majority movement 20, 59–60 moral values in neo-conservative agenda 59–60, 67 and neo-liberalism 60–1 Mozambique 80 multinational corporations 29, 39, 100 Munch, Edvard 132 music industry, pillaging of regional traditions 92 NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) 80, 105 nationalism 58, 60–1 national liberation movements/struggles 73, 74, 109–10 nation states 105, 106 natural resources 91–2 nature 74, 87–9, 113 neo-colonialism 72, 74 neo-conservatism alternatives 61–8 response to neo-liberalism 57–61, 65 neo-liberalism alternatives 61–8 apparatus imposed on Iraq by US 11 and authoritarian control 34, 40, 41, 57, 61 Chilean experiment 12–13 and China’s economic evolution 34–41 contradictions and oppositions 28–9, 50–7, 59, 66 in historical geography of global capitalism 29–34 and restoration of class power 13–14, 31, 42, 64–5, 66 resurgence of accumulation by dispossession 41–50 rise and consolidation of 15 state’s mission and policies 25–9, 106 and Thatcher revolution 16–17 uneven geographical development 33–4, 41, 42 US moves towards 20–1, 23–4 US policies affecting other countries 32–3 Netherlands 94, 105 New Deal 17 Newton, Isaac 121, 123, 124, 140, 141 New York City economic crisis in 1970s 14 investment banks 21, 22–3 New York Times 11 NGOs (non—governmental organizations) 28, 51–2, 68 Nicaragua 21–2 niche markets 102 Nixon, Richard 15 Nobel Prize for economics 15 Northern Ireland 103 oil OPEC price rise and embargo 14, 20–1 US interests in Middle East 10, 22 Oklahoma bombing 59 Olympic Games 38 OPEC (Organization of Petroleum—Exporting Countries) 14, 20–1 oppositional movements, to neo- liberalism 49, 62–4, 71 Ottoman Empire 105 Palestine see Israeli-Palestine conflict Paris, Basilica of Sacre Coeur 125, 126, 139 Paris, Capital of Modernity (Harvey) 4, 115–16 Park, Robert 89 PATCO strike, US 18 patents 43, 99 Pearl River Delta 112–13 pension rights, neo-liberal attacks on 43, 45, 45–6 philosophy, and concept of space 120, 126 physical infrastructures 101–2 China’s projects 38, 40 Pinochet, Augusto 12, 16 policing 26, 49 political action committees (PACs) 19 political and social movements and accumulation by dispossession 110–11 animation by collective memory 138 hostility towards 25–6, 60 need for material presence 147 struggles for justice amd democracy 54–5, 63–4, 68 political and social struggles 63–4, 73, 75, 80, 109–15 battle over Ground Zero 138 Marx’s view 54, 114 Pollin, R 31–2, 32 Polyani, K 80–1, 113–14 port facilities 102 Portugal 15 postmodernism 129, 146 power hierarchy in neo-conservatism 58 and preservation of hegemony 29 territorial and capitalistic logics of 107–9 private property rights 56–7 privatization China’s economic reforms 36, 38, 40 and NGOs 52 policies of neo-liberal state 25, 44–5, 48 state pension rights 43 Thatcher’s policies 16, 29 production local experiments with new forms 64 and spatial competition 97–8 suppression of indigenous forms 43 proletariat 90, 95, 147 property and absolute spaces 126 and China’s economic evolution 35, 39–40 property rights 43, 44, 45, 56–7, 99 public-private partnerships 26, 27 governance in China 40 public spaces 147–8 public utilities, privatization 44 Quebec City 147 radical Islam 58, 59 Reagan, Ronald 12, 18, 20, 23, 30, 40, 60, 138 redistributive politics 14, 43–4 regionality 102–4, 104–5 and geopolitics of capitalism 108–9, 110 religion see Christian right; Hindu National Party; radical Islam Republican Party (US) 19–20 rights see human rights; property rights riots against capitalist practices 80 following beating of Rodney King 59 Rousseau, Jean-Jacques 73 Roy, Arundhati 45, 49 Russia 40, 41, 44, 56, 64–5, 66 Sachs, Jeffrey 73 Sandino, Augusto César 21 Saudi Arabia 21, 138 Scandinavia, left political power in 1970s 15 Seattle, anti-globalization revolt 48, 59, 147 September 11 2001 events 59 see also Ground Zero Shanghai 38 Silicon Valley 85 Singapore 31, 34, 61, 105–6 slavery/slave trade 43, 56 Smith, Neil 77, 87 social democratic state common property rights 43 differences with neo-liberal state 25, 26 Europe 14 social groups, creation of public spaces 147–8 social housing, privatization 48 social inequalities effect of Deng’s economic reforms 34 effect of Reagan’s policies 18 increase due to neo-liberalism 31, 42–3 and need for theory of uneven development 71 socialism, Lefebvre’s view 86 Social Justice and the City (Harvey) 4, 120–1, 130 social movements see political and social movements social processes and conception of rights 55, 67 material enbedding of 63, 77–90, 88, 113–15 social relations, labor and values 141–2, 144 social solidarities breakdown under neo-liberalism 58, 60 hostility of neo-liberal state towards 25–6, 51 Thatcherite attacks on 16, 17 social struggles see political and social struggles Somoza, Anastasio 21–2 South Africa 41, 62, 68 Southeast Asia see East/Southeast Asia Southern Africa 66 South Korea 31, 34, 62, 68, 80, 93 Soviet Union 74, 144 space absolute concept 121, 126 aspects of monopolistic competition 99 author’s understanding of 121, 126–9, 133–6 meanings and contexts 119–20 and movements in market exchange 96–7 and regionality 102 relational concept 121, 123–5, 126 relative concept 121, 121–3, 126 social, literary and cultural theories 129–31 in theory of uneven geographical development 77 and urban processes under capitalism 120–1 see also spatialities space-time/spatio-temporality author understanding of 125–6, 133–6 and concretization of political movements 147–8 and critical/political possibilities 139–41 ecological systems 123 matrix for Marxian theory 141–6 relationality 123–4, 125–6, 146–8 and relativity 122–3, 125–6 and representation 131–2 and site of Ground Zero 136–8 understandings of identity 128–9 Spain 14, 15 Spinoza, Baruch de 125 the state neo-liberal configuration 106 and neo-liberal processes of accumulation 43, 44–5 orchestration of financial crises 47–8 and protection of rights 55 redistributive politics 14, 48–50 and surplus generation 90, 93 territorial systems of administration 105–7 Steinberg, Saul 122–3 Stiglitz, J 80 structural adjustment programs 23–4, 46, 47–8, 80, 94, 109 surpluses 90, 95, 144 and devaluation 94 natural resources 91–2 surveillance 26, 49 Taiwan 31, 34, 37, 68 Taliban 138 technology transfers, aim of China’s economic reforms 35 terrorism 134 see also “war on terror” Thailand 80 Thatcher, Margaret 12, 15–17, 26, 29–30, 48 theory and case study work 78–9, 86, 115 conception of 75–6 Thompson, E.P 140 Three Gorges Dam project 38 Tiananmen Square 36, 51, 125, 126 Tibet 38 tourism 44, 92 trade unions 25–6, 30, 31 transport 96, 99, 100–1 TRIPS agreement 44 Tschira, Klaus UN Charter 57 unemployment caused by financial crises 47 collapse of manufacturing in China 37–8, 39 uneven geographical development accumulation by dispossession 93, 95 approaches to thinking about 71–5 capital accumulation 65–6, 96 and capitalism 115 and embedding of social processes 77–90, 113–15 investments in transport systems 101 market exchange 97 and multinational corporations 100 neo-liberalism 33–4, 41, 42 and production of regionality 104 and regional conflict 111 as result of class struggles within states 106–7 resulting from political/social struggles 73, 109–15 structure of argument 75–7 and struggles around regionality 112–13 unified theory 75–6, 116 United Nations see UN Charter United States (US) corporate welfare programs 49 and crimes against humanity 55–6 economic expansion during 1990s 32–3, 42 “freedom” conferred on Iraq 9–11 as hegemonic center of capital accumulation 94, 105 imperial tradition 21–2 interstate highway system 38 investment in Chinese manufacturing sector 39 management of financial crises 46–7 model of neo-liberalism 33 neo-conservativism and the “moral majority” 59–60 neo-liberal policies 12, 13–14, 15, 17–25, 29, 43, 44 politics and nationalism 58–9 possibility of working class politics 62–3 problems during neo-liberal turn 29, 30 restoration of class power 18–19, 24, 42, 44 savings and loans crisis (1987–8) 27 and space of Ground Zero 137, 138 state strategy of incarceration 26, 49 “war on terror” 66 see also California; New York City universalism and human rights 53–4 NGOs’ dedication to 52, 53 US projection of American values 68 University of Bristol University of Chicago 12, 15 University of Heidelberg see Hettner-Lecture University of Oxford urbanization agglomeration economies 98 China 38, 49 geographical investments 101 use values 92, 93 values Marx’s concept 141–4 representation through money 145–6 Veneroso, F 47 violence see inter-ethnic violence; riots Volcker, Paul, monetary policy in US 17–18, 46–7 Waco tragedy 58 Wade, R 47 wage labor 90, 144 Wall Street 32, 48, 136 Wang Hui 36, 39–40, 40, 57 “war on terror” 59, 66 “Washington Consensus” 33 Weber, Max 96 West Germany 30–1, 31, 42 Whitehead, A.N 78, 125, 147 Williams, Raymond 119, 140 Wittfogel, Karl 140 World Bank 33, 50, 56, 64, 68 World Social Forum 64 World Trade Center, New York, terrorist attacks on 59 WTO (World Trade Organization) 26, 27, 28, 56, 64, 68 aims and objectives 33, 50 China’s accession to 40–1 TRIPS agreement 44 Zapatista uprising (1994) 48, 49, 63, ... than an ordinary union: it was also a white collar union that had the character of a skilled professional association and which was, therefore, an icon of middle class rather than working class... maintaining adequate and stable rates of capital accumulation The neo-liberal state looks to further the cause of and to facilitate and stimulate (by tax breaks and other concessions as well as... crisis of capitalism was interpreted as a crisis of governance And the fact that the Labour Government, under Callaghan, had agreed to the imposition of an austerity program – along corporatist
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