Summary of doctor of psychology dissertation: Mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children

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Research purpose: To research theoretical background and the reality of the mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children. On that basis, the dissertation recommends some psychological - pedagogical impact methods in order to improve the mother tongue speaking skill for children. MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING HANOI NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION -o0o - NGUYEN THI HAI THIEN MOTHER TONGUE SPEAKING SKILL OF KINDERGARTEN CHILDREN Speciality : Professional Psychology Classification : 62.31.04.01 SUMMARY OF DOCTOR OF PSYCHOLOGY DISSERTATION Hanoi - 2016 The dissertation is completed at: FACULTY OF PSYCHOLOGY & PEDAGOGY - HANOI NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION Scientific supervisors: Prof PhD Tran Huu Luyen, University of Languages and International Studies, Vietnam National University, Hanoi Assoc Prof PhD Nguyen Thi Hue, Hanoi National University of Education Reviewer 1: Assoc Prof PhD Nguyen Hoi Loan, University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Vietnam National University, Hanoi Reviewer 2: Assoc Prof PhD Phan Thi Mai Huong, Institute of Psychology Reviewer 3: Assoc Prof PhD La Thi Bac Ly, Hanoi National University of Education The dissertation will be defended in front of the University Dissertation Examiner Council at Hanoi National University of Education at …, on … 2016 It is possible to learn about the dissertation at: National Library, Library of Hanoi National University of Education LIST OF PUBLISHED WORKS Nguyen Thi Hai Thien (2015) Some psychological theories on the use of Vietnamese in communication of nursery children Journal of Education Issue 361 (Part 1), p - Nguyen Thi Hai Thien (2015) Expression of mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children Journal of Education Issue 365 (Part 1), p 27 - 29 Nguyen Thi Hai Thien (2015) Reality of word use of pre-nursery class children Journal of Science Hanoi National University of Education Volume 60, Number 8B, p 248 - 256 Nguyen Thi Hai Thien (2015) Level of using Vietnamese phonics to express ideas of kindergarten children Summary record of science seminar titled “Psychology and Pedagogy in the career of Vietnamese people development”, Faculty of Psychology and Pedagogy, Hanoi National University of Education, p 527 - 532 Nguyen Thi Hai Thien (2016) Mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children Journal of Social Psychology, Issue 2, p.107 - 116 Nguyen Thi Hai Thien (2016) Predictors of mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children Journal of Social Psychology, Issue 3, p 14 - 22 FOREWORD Necessity of the research: To exist and develop, people need various skills, of which is language skill because it is not only means of communication and thinking, but also tool of psychological, cultural, empirical storage, helping people transfer the skill of reflecting reality in detail, directly, sentimentally to abstractly, indirectly and physically For each individual, language skill both helps to establish specific competence in language and to create instrumental competence for general psychological activities (through and via language by which high-classed psychological functions are established and strengthened) Being a part of skill language, the mother tongue speaking skill also takes important role as above, both serving to grasp thoroughly the mother tongue and acting as means of communication, human's culture and experience apprehension and for lifelong learning In addition, the mother tongue speaking skill has further roles not available in any second language or foreign language because it is basis and condition for people to receive other languages subsequently; simultaneously to contribute to bringing up spirit and quality of each individual right from the first communication Early childhood age in general or nursery age in particular is a stage of convenience and fruitful achievements in language development However, the mother tongue speaking skill of children is still restricted at certain extent (such as non-standardized pronunciation, speaking without proper grammar or using words incorrectly, etc.) Training children to speak mother tongue by adult is still shortcoming (or lack of concern, or training with non-standardized viewpoints, inappropriate content and method for each age) This leaves behind not only consequences for each individual but long-term social corollary Understanding features and characteristics of children's speaking skill, identifying method for measuring such skill, apart from theoretical meaning, help to directly evaluate, diagnose, interfere, foster and develop language of children; further remedy such aforesaid restriction; contribute to development and educational psychology However, in our country, study in such issues is few From the above mentioned reasons, we decided to research on the “Mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children” Research purpose: To research theoretical background and the reality of the mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children On that basis, the dissertation recommends some psychological - pedagogical impact methods in order to improve the mother tongue speaking skill for children Research subject and object - Research subject: Expression and level of the mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children - Research object: 195 kindergarten children (3 - years old) at Hoa Thuy Tien Practical Nursery School (Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay, Hanoi) and Tan Hoi Nursery School (Dan Phuong, Hanoi) in two academic years (2013 - 2014 and 2014 - 2015); 195 fathers (or mothers) of researched kindergarten children; 86 nursery teachers (pre-nursery class, nursery class, kindergarten class) of two nursery schools Scientific hypothesis: The mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children is a complex skill which is expressed in four basic skills: 1- the skill of using the mother tongue phonics to express ideas; 2- the skill of using the mother tongue vocabulary to express ideas; 3- the skill of using the mother tongue grammar to express ideas; 4- the skill of using the mother tongue to express ideas in accordance with speech situation These four component skills have close relationship with each other The skill of using phonics to express ideas of the children is the best and the skill of using vocabulary to express ideas is the poorest The mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children is affected by many subjective and objective factors in which, the level of grasping thoroughly the speaking language of the children, the method of teaching children to grasp the mother tongue thoroughly and the way of interaction and communication between adults and children are the three most influential factors It is possible to improve the mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children by creating the speaking environment and providing sample speech for children in accordance with the speech situation Research tasks: (1) To establish a theoretical background for researching the mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children: to clarify trends of researching the mother tongue speaking skill; to establish the concept of evaluation tools, criteria, expressions and levels of the speaking skill; to identify factors affecting the mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children; (2) To identify the reality of the mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children, subjective and objective factors affecting the mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children; (3) To recommend some psychological - pedagogical impact methods in order to improve the mother tongue speaking skill for kindergarten children Limits of research scope - Limits in research subject: (1) The mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children is exploited in the aspects of component skills; (2) Focus on researching basic expressions which are the skill of using the mother tongue phonics to express ideas, the skill of using the mother tongue vocabulary to express ideas, the skill of using the mother tongue grammar to express ideas, and the skill of using the mother tongue to express ideas in accordance with speech situation; (3) The mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children is assessed by criteria: correctness, fluency and flexibility; (4) The mother tongue in this research is Vietnamese - Limits in research object: (1) The research is conducted with 195 kindergarten children (3-5 years old); (2) The kindergarten children researched under this topic are children of pure Vietnamese parents who speak Vietnamese as the mother tongue and normally developing in term of language - Limits in research location: The topic is conducted at 02 nursery schools in Hanoi including 01 semi-public school in inner Hanoi (Hoa Thuy Tien Practical Nursery School, Cau Giay, Hanoi) and 01 public school in the suburbs of Hanoi (Tan Hoi Nursery School, Dan Phuong, Hanoi) Methodology and research methods: On the basis of applying the basic methodological principles (act principle, system principle, and development principle), the dissertation combines the following research methods: theoretical research method, observation method, talk method, perception experiment method, expert method, and case study method, impact experiment method, and method of mathematical statistics New contributions of the dissertation - In term of theories: The dissertation: (1) Establishes the concepts: speaking skill, mother tongue speaking skill, mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children in which it emphasizes the act nature of the speaking skill under the viewpoint of a product from performing the speaking actions, activities; (2) points out component skills of the mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children; (3) identifies criteria for evaluating the mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children (correctness, fluency, flexibility and efficiency) and levels of the mother tongue speaking skill of children (from very low to very high); (4) establishes the exercises system and perception experiment cases assuring the reliability to evaluate the speaking skill of children; (5) mentions basic subjective and objective factors affecting the mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children These results contribute to the clarification of theories on the mother tongue speaking skill and contribute to the establishment of Linguistic psychology and Development psychology in our country - In term of practice: The dissertation: (1) Indicates that the mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children at present is at medium level (though children can perform some minimum requirements of the speech act but it is not fluent and flexible) in which the best component skill of children is the skill of using phonics to express ideas; (2) Identifies the agreeable correlation between the component skills and the criteria for evaluating the mother tongue speaking skill; (3) Affirms the change in the mother tongue speaking skill of children in positive, gradually progressive direction from pre-nursery class to kindergarten class with different contents and change levels; (4) Mentions the most influential factors towards the speaking skill of children including: the level of grasping thoroughly the speaking language of the children, the method of teaching children to grasp the mother tongue thoroughly and the way of interaction and communication between adults and children; (5) Recommends and experiments impact methods (create the speaking environment and providing sample speech in accordance with speech situation) that improves the mother tongue speaking skill of children in a meaningful manner These results contribute to establishing contents and methods of educating the mother tongue speaking skill for kindergarten children in the direction of organizing activities, creating activity environment for children to practice their speaking skill in many different cases and circumstances Structure of the dissertation: The dissertation includes the foreword, chapters, conclusion and recommendation, list of published works, reference and appendix In the main contents, there are 26 tables, charts and diagrams of data CHAPTER 1: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND FOR RESEARCHING THE MOTHER TONGUE SPEAKING SKILL OF KINDERGARTEN CHILDREN 1.1 Overview of researches on the mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children The formation and development of children’s language are the issues attracting great concerns of researchers in different fields of science both inside and outside the country There are many meticulous, detailed, valuable research works in one or some aspects of these issues However, most of intensive researches are on linguistics (although linguists concern about the close relationship between language and psychology, especially for thinking), or apply linguistic results in nursery education without actual concerns about its psychological nature Therefore, the research will study deeply the development of kindergarten children’s language in general, and the mother tongue speaking skill of children in particular under the psychological viewpoint 1.2 Some basic theories on the mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children 1.2.1 Skill: It is the application of individual existing linguistic knowledge, action/act experience to efficiently conduct action/act in certain conditions The skill has different characteristics; the topic focuses on characteristics: correctness, fluency and flexibility as the basis for evaluating the mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children 1.2.2 Speaking skill: The speaking skill has the nature of act which is both evaluated in term of technical operation (of speech actions) and evaluated in term of capacity (speech acts) of an individual Accordingly, the speaking skill is the application of individual existing linguistic knowledge, action/act experience to efficiently conduct action/act in certain conditions of using phonics, vocabulary and grammar in accordance with regulations of a particular language to express ideas in certain conditions and speech situations 1.2.3 Mother tongue speaking skill: It is the application of individual existing mother tongue speaking knowledge, action/act experience to efficiently conduct action/act in certain conditions of using phonics, vocabulary and grammar in accordance with regulations of the mother tongue to express ideas in certain conditions and speech situations 1.2.4 Mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children - The mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children: It is the application of individual existing mother tongue speaking knowledge, action/act experience of kindergarten children to efficiently conduct action/act in certain conditions of using phonics, vocabulary and grammar in accordance with regulations of the mother tongue to express ideas in certain conditions and speech situations - Expression of the mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children: To evaluate the mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children, we must rely on actions in which children know how to use and can use their experience in the mother tongue in conducting speech action/act (know how to and can do) Particularly: + Skill of using the mother tongue phonics to express ideas: (1) Know how to pronounce phoneme in accordance with the regulations of the mother tongue; (2) Know how to pronounce rhythm of words; (3) Know how to pronounce intonation of sentences; (4) Know how to put logic stress of sentences; where Know how to pronounce phoneme and know how to pronounce rhythm of words are the most important expressions because they are typical characteristics of Vietnamese syllable + Skill of using the mother tongue vocabulary to express ideas: (1) Know how to use original meaning (synonym) of vocabulary in speech situation; (2) Know how to use grammar features of vocabulary (word and phrase); (3) Know how to use antonym; (4) Know how to use poly-semantic words; (5) Know how to use means of rhetoric; where the most basic expression is to use original meaning of vocabulary to express ideas because meaning of vocabulary is the decisive factor in children’s vocabulary understanding and use + Skill of using the mother tongue grammar to express ideas: (1) Know how to use sentence order; (2) Know how to develop sentence component; (3) Know how to use different types of sentence depending on speaking purposes; (4) Know how to use expletive; (5) Know how to use intonation suitable to speaking purposes; where the most important expression is know how to use sentence order because this is the most basic grammar method to make sentence in Vietnamese + Skill of using the mother tongue to express ideas in conformity to speech situation: (1) Know how to express ideas suitable to communication role (playing role); (2) Know how to express ideas in a brief and understandable manner; (3) Know how to develop spoken ideas in accordance with speech situation; (4) Know how to express ideas clearly and fluently in speech situation; where the most basic expressions are know how to express ideas suitable to playing role and know how to express ideas in a brief and understandable manner - Evaluation criteria for and level of the mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children + In term of criteria: Each skill of expression and the mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children in general are evaluated via criteria: correctness, fluency and flexibility In which, the correctness is expressed in the fact that children make no mistake in using phonics, vocabulary, grammar and the mother tongue to express ideas in accordance with the regulations; the fluency is expressed in the stability, sustainability, non-confusion, non-hesitation when children use phonics, vocabulary and grammar and the mother tongue to express ideas; the flexibility is expressed in the softness, creativeness of conducting the mother tongue speaking skill in different speech situations and circumstances; + In term of level: Each skill of expression and the mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children in general are evaluated via levels: very low, low, medium, high, very high + In term of evaluation method: criteria (correctness, fluency, flexibility) have the same importance in evaluating the speaking skill via exercises and perception experiment cases This evaluation method is both applied to each component skill and applied to the mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children in general 1.3 Factors affecting the mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children: The mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children is affected by many subjective factors (physical characteristics of children, speaking demand, interest in words, ability of imitating other’s speech, level of grasping thoroughly the speaking language of the mother tongue, etc.) and objective factors (language environment, cultural difference in language communication, mother tongue teaching method of relatives and kindergartens; activities in which children participate, relationship between children and communicated subject, etc.) Summary of chapter 1: The mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children are researched under different viewpoints In foreign countries, there are many meticulous research works about this issue but research works, especially under psychological viewpoint in Vietnam, are insignificant The mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children: (1) is the application of individual existing mother tongue speaking knowledge, action/act experience of kindergarten children to efficiently conduct action/act in certain conditions of using phonics, vocabulary and grammar in accordance with regulations of the mother tongue to express ideas in certain conditions and speech situations; (2) can be evaluated via criteria (correctness, fluency, flexibility) and at levels (very low, low, medium, high and very high); (3) is governed by many different subjective and objective factors CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH ORGANIZATION AND METHOD 2.1 Research organization: The research is organized through the following stages: Theoretical research; Design of survey tools for the mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children; Trial survey; Official survey; Experiment of impact; Data processing and dissertation writing 2.2 Research method 2.2.1 Theoretical research method: (1) Systemize, clarify trends, viewpoints of research in foreign countries and inside the country on issues related to skill and the mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children; (2) Systemize some psychological theories related to the concepts of skill, speaking skill, mother tongue speaking skill, and mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children; (3) clarify subjective and objective factors affecting the mother tongue speaking skill of children; (4) Establish a theory framework for the researched issue, and then affirm the research viewpoint that the mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children is actually the oral speech action/act skill of kindergarten children 2.2.2 Practical research method a Observation method: Listen to speech sample, observe behaviors, gestures of children in speaking to evaluate the correctness, fluency and flexibility in conducting the speaking skill; also supplement qualitative information about some factors affecting the mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children The observation is conducted by both direct method (by observer) and indirect method (by camera) with particular targets and attached report The observation results are graded and evaluated by levels in the following table: Level Very low Low Medium High Very high Criteria Correctness Flexibility Fluency Correctness Flexibility Fluency Correctness Flexibility Fluency Correctness Flexibility Fluency Correctness Flexibility Fluency Expression Completely wrong/ Almost wrong Very imitative, rigid, strained Very confused More mistake and correctness Not flexible Confused Ratio of mistake - correctness is equal or nearly equal Yes but not really clear Yes but not really clear Almost correct Flexible Hardly confused Completely correct Very flexible Completely not confused Point point points points points points To calculate the difference between levels of the scale, we deduct the highest point (5 points) by the lowest point (1 point) of the scale then divide by levels Hence, the difference of each level is 0.8 From this, levels of the scale are defined as follows: (1) Very low level: Average point < 1.8; (2) Low level: Average point from 1.8 to nearly 2.6; (3) Medium level: Average point from 2.6 to nearly 3.4; (4) High level: Average point from 3.4 to nearly 4.2; (5) Very high level: Average point from 4.2 to b Perception experiment method: Learn about the reality of expression and level of the mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children as the basis for impact experiment in the later stage This method is implemented concurrently with observation method by using the system of exercises and perception experiment case Criteria and evaluation scale are the same as the observation method c Expert method: Design Questionnaires for experts; collect suggestions from some experts in the field of psychology, linguistics and nursery education in order to determine component skills in the mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children, influential factors as well as conditions, methods for forming and training the mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children This method is conducted in the stages of establishing theoretical basis of the topic; designing exercises/perception experiment cases; explaining some research findings related to linguistics d Talk method: (1) For children: Ask and listen to children talking about their families, personal hobbies; their thinking and feeling about things and events in their daily life; (2) For parents/teachers: Talk with, listen to comments, evaluation, sharing of some parents or teachers about personality, speaking manner, behavior of some children at home and at kindergarten; note sample speech or interesting conversations between children and others told by parents or teachers in order to evaluate more thoroughly about the level of each component skill and the mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children especially developing sentence composition are difficult grammar requirement for kindergarten children so they can hardly it In general, the mobilization of grammar experience shows the “offset” feature clearly (without using complicated approaches, children will change intended ideas into simpler and more familiar approaches) d Kindergarten children’s skill of using mother tongue to express ideas in accordance with speech situation: Kindergarten children initially know how to use mother tongue to express ideas in accordance with speech situation (2.64) Among the expressions of this skill, children know how “express ideas in accordance with playing role” (3.08) and “express ideas in a brief and understandable manner” (2.64), but meet difficulties in the expression of “developing ideas in accordance with speech situation” (2.21) Therefore, if they are suggested, instructed by adults, children can mobilize their mother tongue experience more to develop ideas and take turns of speech in communication e Correlation between the mother tongue speaking skill of kindergarten children expressions: The component skills in the mother tongue speaking skill of children has agreeable and tight correlation (r = 0.822 or more, with p
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