Lecture Advertising and promotion: An integrated marketing communications perspective (10/e): Chapter 18 - George E. Belch, Michael A. Belch

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Chapter 18 - Measuring the effectiveness of the promotional program. The main goals of this chapter are: To understand reasons for measuring promotional program effectiveness, to know the various measures used in assessing promotional program effectiveness, to understand the requirements of proper effectiveness research, to evaluate alternative methods for measuring promotional program effectiveness. Chapter 18 Measuring the  Effectiveness of the  Promotional  Program Copyright © 2014 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education Arguments for and Against Measuring  Effectiveness Reasons to measure Reasons effectiveness effectiveness measures are not taken • Avoid costly mistakes • Costs involved • Evaluate alternative • Research problems strategies • Increased advertising efficiency • Determine if objectives are achieved • Disagreement on what to test • Objections of creative department Lack of time Copyright â 2014 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education What, Where, and How to Test Copyright © 2014 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education Testing Process  Concept generation and testing  Rough art, copy, and commercial testing  Pretesting of finished ads  Market testing of ads Copyright © 2014 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education Figure 18.5 ­ Weaknesses Associated  with Focus Group Research Copyright © 2014 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education Types of Rough Art, Copy, and  Commercial Tests  Comprehension and reaction tests: Assess the  reaction an ad generates to ensure that it is not  offensive  Consumer juries: Use consumers representative of  the target market to evaluate the probable success  of an ad Copyright © 2014 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education Limitations of the Consumer Juries  Method  Consumer may become a self­appointed expert  Number of ads that can be evaluated is limited  Halo effect: Overall rating is influenced by the  judgment on one or few characteristics of the ad  Preferences for types of advertising may  overshadow objectivity Copyright © 2014 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education Figure 18.8 ­ Gallup & Robinson’s  Impact System Copyright © 2014 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education Portfolio Tests  Expose a group of respondents to a portfolio  consisting of control and test ads  Limitations  Factors other than advertising creativity and/or  presentation may affect recall  Ability to recognize the ad when shown may be a  better measure than recall Copyright © 2014 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education Readability Tests  Communications efficiency of the copy in a print  ad is tested without reader interviews  Flesch formula: Assesses readability of a copy by  determining the average number of syllables per  100 words  Limitations  Copy may become too mechanical  Direct input from receiver is not available Copyright © 2014 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 10 New Print Pretesting Measures  PreTesting Groups’ People Reader methodology  Provides mocked­up magazines to consumers and  measures their responsiveness to each ad  Uses hidden cameras to record behavior   Link  Uses a comprehensive set of diagnostic questions to  evoke viewer reactions to the ads Copyright © 2014 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 11 Pretesting Finished Broadcast Ads Copyright © 2014 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 12 Physiological Measures  Indicate receiver’s involuntary response to the ad  Pupil dilation  Pupillometrics: Measures dilation and constriction of the pupils in  response to stimuli  Galvanic skin response (GSR)  Electrodermal response (EDR): Measures the skin’s resistance or  conductance to a small amount of current  Brain Waves  Electroencephalographic (EEG): Determine electrical frequencies in  brain  Alpha activity: Degree of brain activation   Hemispheric lateralization: Distinguishes between alpha activity in the  left and right sides of the brain  Brain scan imaging ­ Examine physiological reactions to ads and brands Copyright © 2014 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 13 Posttests of Print Ads Advantages of inquiry tests • Implementation is inexpensive • Provide some feedback about the general effectiveness of an ad or medium used Disadvantages of inquiry tests • Inquiries may not be a true measure of the attentiongetting or informationproviding aspects of an ad • Ineffective for comparing different versions or specific creative aspects of an ad Copyright © 2014 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 14 Posttests of Broadcast Commercials Advantages of day-after recall tests • Natural setting provides a more realistic response profile • Provide norms that allow advertisers to Disadvantages of day-after recall tests • Have limited samples, high costs, and security issues • Favor unemotional appeals compare how well their ads are • Program content may influence recall performing • Respondents are aware of the test and • Persuasive and diagnostics measures are also available will be more attentive • Recall is not a measure of acceptance or predictive of sales Copyright © 2014 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 15 Factors That Make or Break Tracking  Studies Properly defined objectives Alignment with sales objectives Properly designed measures Consistency Random samples Continuous interviewing Evaluate measures related to behavior Critical evaluative questions asked early to eliminate bias Copyright © 2014 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 16 Factors That Make or Break Tracking  Studies Measurement of competitors’ performance Skepticism about questions asking where the ad was seen Building of news value into the study Moving averages spot long-term trends and avoid seasonality Data reported in terms of relationships Integration of key marketplace events with tracking results Copyright © 2014 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 17 Problems with Current Research  Methods  Accomplishing some factors important to good  copy testing require more effort  Most current methods do little more than provide  recall scores  Lab measures ­ Artificial and vulnerable to testing  effects   Field measures ­ Result in a loss of control Copyright © 2014 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 18 Essentials of Effective Testing  Establish communications objectives  Use a consumer response model  Use both pretests and posttests  Use multiple measures  Understand and implement proper research Copyright © 2014 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 19 Measuring the Effectiveness of  Nontraditional Media Shopping cart signage • Much less effective than claimed Ski resort-based media • Measures are combined with sales tracking data to evaluate its effectiveness In-store radio and television • Software has been introduced to measure the effectiveness Other media • Resources are available to measure impact of IMC elements Copyright © 2014 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 20 Measuring the Effectiveness of  Sponsorships Exposure methods • Monitor the quantity and nature of the media coverage obtained for the sponsored event • Estimate direct and indirect audiences Tracking measures • Evaluate the awareness, familiarity, and preferences produced by sponsorship based on surveys Copyright © 2014 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education 21 ... Hemispheric lateralization: Distinguishes between alpha activity in the  left and right sides of the brain  Brain scan imaging ­ Examine physiological reactions to ads and brands Copyright © 2014 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved... consisting of control and test ads  Limitations  Factors other than advertising creativity and/ or  presentation may affect recall  Ability to recognize the ad when shown may be a  better measure than recall... Use a consumer response model  Use both pretests and posttests  Use multiple measures  Understand and implement proper research Copyright © 2014 McGraw-Hill Education All rights reserved No reproduction
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Xem thêm: Lecture Advertising and promotion: An integrated marketing communications perspective (10/e): Chapter 18 - George E. Belch, Michael A. Belch, Lecture Advertising and promotion: An integrated marketing communications perspective (10/e): Chapter 18 - George E. Belch, Michael A. Belch, Figure 18.5 - Weaknesses Associated with Focus Group Research, Figure 18.8 - Gallup & Robinson’s Impact System

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