Introduction to the eurasian economic union

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EvgenyVinokurov IntroductiontotheEurasianEconomicUnion EvgenyVinokurov EurasianDevelopmentBank,StPetersburg,Russia ISBN978-3-319-92824-1 e-ISBN978-3-319-92825-8 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-92825-8 LibraryofCongressControlNumber:2018947386 ©TheEditor(s)(ifapplicable)andTheAuthor(s)2018 Thisworkissubjecttocopyright Allrightsaresolelyandexclusivelylicensedbythe Publisher,whetherthewholeorpartofthematerialisconcerned,specificallytherightsof translation,reprinting,reuseofillustrations,recitation,broadcasting,reproductionon microfilmsorinanyotherphysicalway,andtransmissionorinformationstorageand retrieval,electronicadaptation,computersoftware,orbysimilarordissimilarmethodology nowknownorhereafterdeveloped Theuseofgeneraldescriptivenames,registerednames,trademarks,servicemarks,etc in thispublicationdoesnotimply,evenintheabsenceofaspecificstatement,thatsuchnames areexemptfromtherelevantprotectivelawsandregulationsandthereforefreeforgeneral use Thepublisher,theauthors,andtheeditorsaresafetoassumethattheadviceandinformation inthisbookarebelievedtobetrueandaccurateatthedateofpublication Neitherthe publishernortheauthorsortheeditorsgiveawarranty,expressorimplied,withrespectto thematerialcontainedhereinorforanyerrorsoromissionsthatmayhavebeenmade The publisherremainsneutralwithregardtojurisdictionalclaimsinpublishedmapsand institutionalaffiliations Covercredit:AlekseiNaumov/AlamyStockVector ThisPalgraveMacmillanimprintispublishedbytheregisteredcompanySpringerNature SwitzerlandAG Theregisteredcompanyaddressis:Gewerbestrasse11,6330Cham,Switzerland “IntroductiontotheEurasianEconomicUnionbyEvgenyVinokurovisamustreadforall expertsandpractitionersspecializingintheEurasianspace IntroductiontotheEurasian EconomicUnionbyEvgenyVinokurovincludesallwhatyouneedtoknowaboutitsevolution, structure,policiesandpractices Balanced,reliableandclearlywritten,thisbookisan essentialcompaniontostudentsandallinterestedintheregion Easytofollowbutcomplex incontent,thisisanultimateintroductiontotheEurasianEconomicUnionshowingits development,successesandfailures Perfectforstudentsandgeneralpublic.” —PiotrDutkiewicz,ProfessorofPoliticalScienceCarletonUniversity,Ottawa “TheEurasianEconomicUnionhasbecomeanimportantinstrumentinRussia’sregional andglobalstrategies Itshistoryandmechanismsareheredescribedverythoroughlyand readably Avaluablehandbookforscholarsanddiplomats EvgenyVinokurovisforsurethe bestpersonasaninsidertoexplainitalltotheoutsider AnyfutureprospectsforEU-Russian relationshavetotakethisnewregionalintegrationorganisationintoaccount” —MichaelEmerson,CentreforEuropeanPolicyStudies,Brussels “IntroductiontotheEurasianEconomicUnionclosesanimportantgapintheresearchon post-Sovietregionalismandincomparativeregionalismstudiesingeneral Itisa comprehensivesurveyofvariousaspectsofthefunctioningoftheEAEU–fromthe institutionalaspectsandtheexternaleconomicrelationstothehistoryoftheorganization anditsplaceamongotherregionalalliances Thestudymanagestocombineadeepand detailedanalysiswithbeingclearandopentoawideaudience Beingbasedonasoberand non-ideologicalapproachtotheEAEU,itisarealencyclopaediaofthecurrentstateofthe post-Sovietregionalism–amustreadforthestudentsofpost-Sovieteconomyandpolitics!” —AlexanderLibman,UniversityofMunich Introduction 25Years:IntegrationRequiresPatience ThisbookisontheEurasianEconomicUnion(EAEU)—itscontent;evolution;organization; economicintegrationissues;operationofcommonmarketsforgoods,services,capital,and labour;andforeigneconomicrelations Istrivetoprovideabalancedanalysisusingavariety ofapproaches NotonlydoIproviderichdataabouttheeconomics,politics,institutions, commonmarkets,andforeigneconomicrelationsoftheUnion,butIalsotrytoexplainwhy Eurasianintegrationprocesseshavedevelopedthewaytheyhaveandnototherwise Inthe lastchapterofthebook,Iindicatethepotentialobjectivesandlikelyproblemsofthenext years TheEAEUisayoungregionalorganization Itbeganfunctioningasacustomsunionin 2011 Itbeganoperatingasanaspiringeconomicunionin2015 Memberstatesestablished theEAEUbasedonacertainunderstandingoftheirlong-termpoliticalandeconomic objectives Inthiscontext,itsmainpurposeistohelpmemberstatesrealizethepotentialof regionaleconomicties,modernizenationaleconomies,andcreatetheconditionsnecessary toenterglobalmarkets Establishingasinglemarketforgoods,services,capital,andlabouris themainaimofEurasianintegration AdditionalinfrastructuresupportingEurasian integration—CourtoftheEAEU,EurasianDevelopmentBank,EurasianFundforStabilization andDevelopment—isalreadyfunctioningwithintheEAEU Initiativestoformpolitical institutions(e.g.,aparliament)arenotontheagenda TheEAEUrepresentsaseriousachievementforitsmembersafterseveral“integration falsestarts”inthe1990s–2000s Memberstatesmustovercomeamultitudeofobstaclesin thefuture,buttheUnionisalreadyarealitytoday Thisassertionengendersnoparticular objectionsifcriticsdonotholdtheEAEUtoinflatedstandards,forexample,donotcompareit withtheEuropeanUnion—the“model”ofregionalintegration IfreadersplacetheEAEU besideotherregionalintegrationprojectsofvaryingdepthandsuccess—suchasNAFTA, MERCOSUR,ASEAN,andtheGCC—itiseasiertoanalysetheevolutionoftheEurasian integration TheEAEUhassignificantsuccesses,buttherearealsolimitationsonitsfurthergrowth In 2015,thephaseofrapidinitialprogresscametoanend(Iwillshowthisintheanalysis below) In2016,theintegrationblochititsfirstwaveofconflictanddifficulty Willitbeable toadvancefurther?Willitretrogress?ThepurposeofthisbookistodiscusstheEAEUin termsoffactsandharddata Ideologically,PresidentofKazakhstanNursultanNazarbayev’sspeechinMarch1994at MoscowStateUniversitymaybecalledthestartingpointfortheimplementationofthislargescaleinterstateproject(seeSect 1.​1;officially,thestartingpointis2007—seeSect 1.​2) He proposedanintegrationparadigmthatwasfundamentallynewatthetime:moretowardsa EurasianUnionbasedoneconomicsandcommondefence ThemechanismsoftheCommonwealthofIndependentStates(CIS)workedthroughout theentiredecadeofthe1990s,activelysuppressingvariousdestructivedisintegration processes Industrialcouncilsfortransportationandelectricalenergy,whichlargelyhelped maintainthetechnologicalintegrityofrailwaysystemsandpowergrids,playedaspecialrole YettheCISfailedtosolvetheproblemofa“civilizeddivorce” In1995,Belarus,Kazakhstan,andRussiasignedtheCustomsUnionTreaty However,the CustomsUniondidnotactuallystartworking Thiswasthefirstfalsestart In2000,fivestates—Belarus,Kazakhstan,Kyrgyzstan,Russia,andTajikistan— establishedtheEurasianEconomicCommunity(EurAsEC) Leadershavesignedmorethan 100agreementsthroughtheframeworkoftheEurAsEC Moreover,theEurAsECservedasthe institutionalspringboardfortheinitiativesof2006–2010 Forexample,thecommissionto createtheCustomsUniontechnicallyworkedwithintheEurAsEC TheEurAsECwasofficially abolishedon1January2015inparallelwiththeestablishmentoftheEAEU In2003,Belarus, Kazakhstan,Russia,andUkrainesignedatreatytoformtheSingleEconomicSpace This initiativealsofailedtotakeoffduetotheOrangeRevolution Thiswasthesecondfalsestart InOctober2007,Russia,Belarus,andKazakhstansignedanagreementtocreatea commoncustomsterritoryandformtheCustomsUnion(CU) Theyexpectedtheactionplan adoptedatthattime,withrespecttothecreationoftheCU,totaketwoyears Therewere understandabledoubtsabouttheprospectsofthelatestattempt However,on19December 2009,theheadsofthesethreestatessignedtheJointDeclarationoftheFormationofthe CustomsUnion,andon1January2010,theCommonCustomsTarifftookeffect Asearlyas 2011,theCUofBelarus,Russia,andKazakhstanbeganitsnormaloperation,andon1January 2012,17agreementsformingthebasisoftheSingleEconomicSpace(SES)tookeffect These agreementsgovernedanumberofkeytopicsintheeconomicconvergenceofthe“Eurasian troika”—fromcoordinatingmacroeconomicpolicytolabourmigration Finally,on1January2015,theTreatyontheEurasianEconomicUniontookeffect The treatycodifiedandexpandedallprioragreementsregardingboththeworkoftheCustoms Unionandthedevelopmentofadditionalareasofintegration ItenshrinedtheEAEU’s institutionalstructure(seeChap 3)anddetailedaroadmapfortheeliminationof exemptionsfromthecommonmarket(Chap 4) TheEurAsECformallyterminatedatthe sametime Newinstitutionsentirelyswallowedupitsmandateandjurisdiction Armenia joinedtheintegrationunionon2January2015,andKyrgyzstanjoinedon8May2015(the decisionwasratifiedandenactedinAugust2015) StructureoftheBook Thebookhassixchapters Chapter1isabriefexcursionintothehistoryofpost-Sovietintegrationsincethe1990s, includingthedisintegrationprocessesofthe1990sandpartofthe2000s Everythingstarted withthe“civilizeddivorce”oftheformerSovietrepublicsandtheresponsiblepoliticians’and technocrats’persistentattemptstosavecriticalelementsoftrade,economic,and infrastructuralrelationshipsbetweencountries Several“integrationfalsestarts”— unsuccessfulattemptstoinaugurateeconomicintegration—followed Intheend,thislast attemptprovedsuccessful:thebookoutlinesthepathfromtheCustomsUnionCommission andenactmentoftheCommonCustomsTarifftothesigningoftheagreementsontheSingle EconomicSpaceand,finally,totheenactmentoftheTreatyontheEurasianEconomicUnion Chapter2beginswithabriefdescriptionofmemberstates’economiesandtheir dependenceonthelargesteconomyoftheregion Russia’senormousinfluenceintheUnion, bothintermsofeconomyandpopulation,presentscertainchallengestotheintegration project(butitalsocreatesseveralopportunitiesthatpromotestability) Importantly,theraw materialdependenceoftheUnion’seconomy,whetherdirectorindirect,hashuge significanceforcommontradepolicyandthebuildingofcommonmarkets Next,Ibriefly characterizethehighdensityofeconomictiestojustifytheneedforintegration,separately consideringindicatorsofeconomicconvergenceandtrendsinpublicopinionregarding questionsofeconomicintegration Chapter3presentsadetaileddescriptionofEAEUinstitutions—mainlytheSupremeand IntergovernmentalCouncils,EurasianEconomicCommission,aswellastheEAEUCourt, EurasianDevelopmentBank,andtheEurasianFundforStabilizationandDevelopment The underlyingdocument—theEAEUTreaty—isexaminedindetail Chapter4examinesthecommonmarketsforgoods,services,labour,andcapital The commonmarketisthe“heart”oftheintegrationproject Thebookexaminestrendsinmutual tradeandmutualinvestments Itevaluatestheprogressofeliminatingexemptionfromthe commonmarkets(EAEUTreatyroadmap) Then,itconsidersthecomplexbutsingularly importantquestionofunifyingandminimizingtradebarriers Idescribehowthesingle labourmarketissetup,howitfunctions,andwhatitsconstituentpartsare(aquestionthat affectsthelivesofmillionsofmigrantworkersandtheirfamilieseveryday) Finally,thetext setsforthapproachesforcoordinatingthecurrency,budgetary,andmonetarypoliciesof EAEUmemberstates Chapter5addressestheEAEU’sforeigneconomicrelationships:itsexpansion,the formingnetworkoffreetradezones,andrelationshipswiththeEuropeanUnion,United States,andChina Chapter6,theconcludingchapterofthebook,providesanunderstandingofthetheory andideologyofEurasianintegration,itsobjectivesinthecomingyears,asetofinternational comparisons,andabriefdiscussiononthedifficultchallengesthattheEAEUislikelyto encounter Iwouldalsoliketodrawthereader’sattentiontotheAppendix Itisachronologyof Eurasianintegrationfor1991–2017(withapproximatelyonepageperyear),inwhichI highlightthemostsignificanteconomicandpoliticalevents Inwritingthisbook,Istrivedtobeasconciseaspossible Theobjectivewastoprovidethe marketwithabookforawideraudience—economists,politicalscientists,expertson internationalaffairs,sociologists,students,andgeneralaudiencewiththeinterestinthe EAEUandthediverseprocessesinandaroundit Nevertheless,Iwarnyouupfrontthat certainpartsofthebookmaystillbe…well,boring Thismainlyappliestothesectionsin Chap 3ontheEAEUinstitutions—theCommission,Court,andtheIntergovernmentaland SupremeCouncils Furthermore,readingadescriptionoftheEAEUTreatymayalsobeboring Youhavebeenforewarnedandthusforearmed:youcanleafthroughthesesectionswhen readingandthenusethemlaterasareference ButIfeltIcouldnotexcludethisinformation fromthecomprehensivetreatmentoftheEurasianUnion Thevirtualabsenceofapublishedbookthatservesasafull-fledgedintroductiontothe EAEU—abookthatstudentsandspecialistsfromvariousfields(economists,political scientists,expertsoninternationalaffairs,andsocialscientists)couldusetoacquaint themselveswiththeEAEU—motivatedmetoprepareandpublishthiswork Thiscanbe explainednotonlybytheEAEU’syoungagebutalsobythewidespreadscepticismtowards Eurasianintegration Ihopemymonographwillhelpdispelsomeofthisscepticism:theEAEU isanentirely“normal”andactiveregionalorganizationwithitsownsuccessesandfailures Withoutclaimingtomakeacompletesurveyoftheliterature,Iwillmentionfour substantialmonographs—DragnevaandWolczuk(2013),VymyatninaandAntonova(2014), DutkiewiczandSakwa(2015),andLane(2017) Thefirstofthesebooksmainlyaddresses legalandinstitutionalmatters Thesecondisaneconomicanalysiswithahorizonthrough 2012;thethirdanalysestheeconomic,political,social,andsecuritydevelopmentsinthe regionwiththeparticularfocusonthecountrylevelwithahorizonthrough2013;thelastone isabouttheEAEU’spotentialroleintheglobalcommunityanditsforeignpolicy Furthermore,achapterbyHancockandLibman(2016)inTheOxfordHandbookof ComparativeRegionalismdeservesspecialmention Itisexcellentinitscontentandbalanced initsopinions Acknowledgements ThisbookisachildofresearchpursuedbytheCentreforIntegrationStudies,anin-house think-tankoftheEurasianDevelopmentBank IamthusindebtofallcolleaguesattheCentre Iamalsogratefultonumerouscolleaguesaroundtheworldwhosecommentsstrengthened theargumentsandlogicofthismonograph IwouldliketoexpressdeepgratitudetoAnna Isakovaformeticuloustechnicalassistance References Dragneva,R andWolczuk,K (eds.)(2013) EurasianEconomicIntegration:Law,Policyand Politics Cheltenham:EdwarElgar Vymyatnina,Y andAntonova,D (2014) CreatingaEurasianUnion:EconomicIntegration oftheFormerSovietRepublics Basingstoke:PalgraveMacmillan Dutkiewicz,P andSakwa,R (eds.)(2015) EurasianIntegration:TheViewfromWithin Abingdon:Routledge Lane,D (ed.)(2017) TheEurasianProjectinGlobalPerspective London:Routledge Hancock,K J andLibman,A (2016) Eurasia In:Börzel,T A andRisse,T (eds.)The OxfordHandbookofComparativeRegionalism Oxford:OxfordUniversityPress,pp 202–224 Libman,A andVinokurov,E (2012) Holding-TogetherRegionalism:TwentyYearsof Post-SovietIntegration Basingstoke:PalgraveMacmillan ListofAbbreviations ACF Anti-CrisisFundoftheEurasianEconomicCommunity APEC Asia-PacificEconomicCooperation ASEAN AssociationofSouth-EastAsiaNations BRI BeltandRoadInitiative BRICS agroupoffivecountries:Brazil,Russia,India,China,andSouthAfrica CAEC CentralAsianEconomicCommunity CCT CommonCustomsTariff CEFIR CentreforEconomicandFinanсialResearch CFE TreatyonConventionalArmedForcesinEurope CIS CommonwealthofIndependentStates CJSC closedjoint-stockcompany CSTO CollectiveSecurityTreatyOrganization CU CustomsUnion EAEU EurasianEconomicUnion EAPC Euro-AtlanticPartnershipCouncil EAU EurasianUnion(atermusedin1990s–2000s) EBRD EuropeanBankforReconstructionandDevelopment EDB EurasianDevelopmentBank EEC EurasianEconomicCommission EFSD EurasianFundforStabilizationandDevelopment EU EuropeanUnion EurAsEC EurasianEconomicCommunity FDI foreigndirectinvestment FTA freetradearea GCC CooperationCouncilfortheArabStatesoftheGulf GDP grossdomesticproduct GUAM aregionalorganizationconsistingoffourcountries:Georgia,Ukraine,Azerbaijan,and Moldova HSCode HarmonizedSystemCode IMEMO PrimakovNationalResearchInstituteofWorldEconomyandInternationalRelations (RussianAcademyofSciences) IMF InternationalMonetaryFund IT informationtechnologies MERCOSUR SouthernCommonMarket NAFTA NorthAmericanFreeTradeAgreement NATO NorthAtlanticTreatyOrganization NTB non-tariffbarrier OJSC openjoint-stockcompany PJSC publicjoint-stockcompany PPP purchasingpowerparity PRC People’sRepublicofChina RO regionalorganization SACU SouthernAfricanCustomsUnion SCO ShanghaiCooperationOrganization SEEC SupremeEurasianEconomicCouncil(SupremeCouncil) SES SingleEconomicSpace TNC transnationalcompany UESCA UnitedEnergySystemofCentralAsia UN UnitedNations UNCTAD UnitedNationsConferenceonTradeandDevelopment USA UnitedStatesofAmerica USRB UnionStateofRussiaandBelarus USSR UnionofSovietSocialistRepublics VAT value-addedtax WIIW ViennaInstituteforInternationalEconomicStudies WTO WorldTradeOrganization EDBCentreforIntegrationStudies(2016d) MonitoringofMutualInvestmentsinCISCountries2016 ReportNo 39 Saint Petersburg:EurasianDevelopmentBank Availableat:https://​eabr.​org/​en/​analytics/​integration-research/​cii-reports/​ monitoring-of-mutual-investments-in-cis-countries-2016/​ EDBCentreforIntegrationStudies(2016e) RegionalOrganizations:TypologyandDevelopmentPaths ReportNo 37 Saint Petersburg:EurasianDevelopmentBank Availableat:https://​eabr.​org/​en/​analytics/​integration-research/​cii-reports/​regionalorganizations-typology-and-development-paths/​ EDBCentreforIntegrationStudies(2017a) EurasianEconomicIntegration–2017 ReportNo 43 SaintPetersburg:Eurasian DevelopmentBank Availableat:https://​eabr.​org/​en/​analytics/​integration-research/​cii-reports/​eurasian-economicintegration-2017/​ EDBCentreforIntegrationStudies(2017b) MonitoringofMutualInvestmentsinCISCountries2017 ReportNo 45 Saint Petersburg:EurasianDevelopmentBank Availableat:https://​eabr.​org/​en/​analytics/​integration-research/​cii-reports/​ monitoring-of-mutual-investments-in-cis-countries-2017/​ Edovina,T (2017) Wemustpayfortheopeningofpartnercountries’marketsbyloweringduties EECMinisterinchargeof TradeVeronikaNikishinaonplanstoexpandfreetrade Kommersant,February10 Availableat:http://​www.​kommersant.​ru/​ doc/​3214431.​ EurasianDevelopmentBank(EDB)(2006) CharteroftheEurasianDevelopmentBank AnnextotheAgreementEstablishingthe EurasianDevelopmentBankdated12January2006 Availableat:https://​eabr.​org/​upload/​iblock/​c91/​f oundation-documents.​ pdf EurasianEconomicCommission(EEC)(2013) AnnotationtotheResultsofResearchon“DeterminationofProspectivePartners ofCustomsUnion’sMemberStatesforConcludingFreeTradeAgreements” Moscow:EEC Availableat:http://​www.​ eurasiancommissi​on.​org/​ru/​NIR/​Lists/​List/​Attachments/​35/​18_​12_​2013_​annot.​pdf EurasianEconomicCommission(EEC)(2014) EurasianEconomicUnion QuestionsandAnswers FiguresandFacts Moscow: EEC Availableat:http://​www.​eurasiancommissi​on.​org/​ru/​Documents/​eaes_​voprosy_​otvety.​pdf EurasianEconomicCommission(EEC)(2015a) MemorandumonTradeandEconomicCooperationbetweentheEurasian EconomicCommissionandtheGovernmentofMongoliaisSigned June17 Availableat:http://​www.​eurasiancommissi​on.​org/​ en/​nae/​news/​P ages/​17-06-2015-2.​aspx EurasianEconomicCommission(EEC)(2015b) Onstatusofeliminationofthebarriersformutualaccesswhichprevent 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(1999) TheEurasianIdeaofChokanValikhanov EurasianCommunity,2,pp 26–31 PresidentofRussia(2016) ApproveddraftdocumentsoftheSupremeEurasianEconomicCouncil December26 Availableat: http://​kremlin.​ru/​supplement/​5153(officialwebsiteofthePresidentofRussia) RIANovosti(2016a) EEC:EAEUCountriesBeginNegotiationswithSerbiaontheFreeTradeArea May31 Availableat:https://​ ria.​ru/​world/​20160531/​1441164875.​html RIANovosti(2016b) Shuvalov:TheGreaterEurasianPartnershipwillnotbeaCounterpositiontotheTPP September5 Availableat:https://​ria.​ru/​economy/​20160905/​1476106027.​html Shleifer,A andTreisman,D (2004) ANormalCountry ForeignAffairs,2(83),March–April,pp 20–38 Sterzhneva,M (1999) TheEuropeanUnionandtheCIS:ComparativeAnalysisofInstitutions Moscow:MoscowPublicScience Fund TASS(2016) PutinCallsfortheCreationofaGreaterEurasianPartnership June17 Availableat:http://​tass.​ru/​pmef-2016/​ article/​3376295 Teng,E J (2013) Eurasian:MixedIdentitiesintheUnitedStates,China,andHongKong,1842–1943 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Availableat:https://​eabr.​org/​en/​analytics/​integration-research/​ciireports/​edb-system-of-indicators-of-eurasian-integration/​ Vymyatnina,Y andAntonova,D (2014) CreatingaEurasianUnion:EconomicIntegrationoftheFormerSovietRepublics Basingstoke:PalgraveMacmillan [Crossref] WorldBankGroup(2016) MigrationandRemittances:RecentDevelopmentsandOutlook MigrationandDevelopmentBrief26, April Availableat:http://​pubdocs.​worldbank.​org/​en/​6613014604004279​08/​MigrationandDeve​lopmentBrief26.​pdf Index3 A Abkhazia Abkhaz–Georgianconflict ACF,seeAnti-CrisisFundoftheEurasianEconomicCommunity Afghanistan Africa AfricanDevelopmentBank Agreement freetradeagreement tradeandeconomicagreement Agriculture Alekseev,Nikolai America CentralAmerica LatinAmerica NorthAmerica SouthAmerica AndeanDevelopmentCorporation Anti-CrisisFundoftheEurasianEconomicCommunity(ACF),seeEurasianFundfor StabilizationandDevelopment(EFSD) APEC,seeAsia-PacificEconomicCooperation Armenia ASEAN,seeAssociationofSouth-EastAsiaNations Asia CentralAsia EastAsia SouthAsia WesternAsia SeealsoEurasia AsianDevelopmentBank AsianInfrastructureInvestmentBank Asian-Pacificregion Asia-PacificEconomicCooperation(APEC) AssociationofSouth-EastAsiaNations(ASEAN) Atambaev,Almazbek Automotiveindustry Azerbaijan Armenian-Azerbaijaniconflict B Baikonur BalticStates Banks national(central) regionaldevelopmentbanks Barriers non-tariffbarrierstotrade tariffbarriers technicalbarriers tradebarriers Belarus BeltandRoadInitiative(BRI) Beltransgaz Belyaninov,Andrey Berdymukhamedov,Gurbanguly BlackSeaFleet BlackSeaTradeandDevelopmentBank Border control crossing region Brazil,Russia,India,China,SouthAfrica(BRICS) BRI,seeBeltandRoadInitiative BritishEmpire,seeUnitedKingdom Business bigbusiness businessactivity businesscommunity businesscycles businessenvironment/climate medium-sizedbusiness relationshipbetweenbusinessandgovernment smallbusiness C CAEC,seeCentralAsianEconomicCommunity Cambodia CaspianSea Caucasus CBR,seeCentralBankoftheRussiaFederation,BankofRussia CCT,seeCommonCustomsTariff CentralAsianEconomicCommunity(CAEC) CentralAsianEconomicUnion,seeCentralAsianEconomicCommunity CentralBankoftheRussiaFederation,BankofRussia(CBR) CFE,seeTreatyonConventionalArmedForcesinEurope Chemicalsector Chile China CIS,seeCommonwealthofIndependentStates CollectiveRapidReactionForceoftheCSTO CollectiveSecurityTreatyOrganisation(CSTO) Commoncustomstariff(CCT),seeCustomsCodeoftheEAEU;CustomsUnion Commonmarket(forgoods,services,capital,andlabour)oftheEAEU commonelectricitymarket commonfinancialmarket commonlabourmarket commonmarketfordrugsandmedicalproducts commonmarketforoil,oilproducts,andgas eliminationofexemptions CommonPowerSystemofCentralAsia CommonwealthofIndependentStates(CIS) SeealsoPost-Sovietspace;SingleEconomicSpace Comprehensivetradeandeconomicagreement Construction CooperationCouncilfortheArabStatesoftheGulf(GCC) CSTO,seeCollectiveSecurityTreatyOrganisation CU,seeCustomsUnion CustomsCodeoftheEAEU CustomsUnion(CU) SeealsoSingleEconomicSpace(SES) D Dugin,Alexander E EAEUinstitutions CourtoftheEAEU Seealso EurasianEconomicCommunity,Courtof EurasianEconomicCommission(Commission,EEC) EurasianIntergovernmentalCouncil(IntergovernmentalCouncil) SupremeEurasianEconomicCouncil(SupremeCouncil,SEEC) EAEUTreaty EAPC,seeEuro-AtlanticPartnershipCouncil EBRD,seeEuropeanBankforReconstructionandDevelopment Economic/financialcrisis anti-crisisprograms effectsoftheeconomiccrisis globaleconomiccrisis andintegration andregionalorganizations Economicgrowth EDB,seeEurasianDevelopmentBank Education cooperationinthefieldofeducation educationalexchange educationalties EFSD,seeEurasianFundforStabilisationandDevelopment Egypt Electricpower SeealsoCommonPowerSystemofCentralAsia Elites businesselites economicelites governmentelites nationalelites EU,seeEuropeanUnion EurAsEC,seeEurasianEconomicCommunity Eurasia CentralEurasia GreaterEurasia NorthernEurasia SeealsoCommonwealthofIndependentStates(CIS);Post-Sovietspace EurasianDevelopmentBank(EDB) SeealsoSCODevelopmentBank EurasianEconomicCommunity(EurAsEC) Courtof EurasianFundforStabilisationandDevelopment(EFSD) Eurasianism neo-Eurasians EurasianPartnership Eurasianscepticism Euro-AtlanticPartnershipCouncil(EAPC) Europe EasternEurope WesternEurope SeealsoEuropeanUnion(EU) EuropeanBankforReconstructionandDevelopment EuropeanUnion(EU) EuropeanCommission EuropeanParliament/EUParliament Euroscepticism Export F FDI,seeForeigndirectinvestment FederalCustomsServiceoftheRussianFederation Finance Finland Finogenov,Igor Florovsky,George Foreigndirectinvestment(FDI) Freetradearea(FTA) FTA,seeFreetradearea G Gas SeealsoPipeline Gazprom GCC,seeCooperationCouncilfortheArabStatesoftheGulf Georgia Georgian-SouthOssetianconflict Georgia,Ukraine,Uzbekistan,Azerbaijan,Moldova(GU(U)AM) Germany Glazyev,Sergey Globalization Gumilev,Lev H Harmonizedsystemcode(HScode)oftheEAEU Healthcare Hu,Jintao Hydropowerplant,seeElectricpower I IMF,seeInternationalMonetaryFund Import importsubstitution India Inflation Informationtechnology(IT) Infrastructure Institutions developmentinstitutions financialinstitutions globalinstitutions institutionsofEurasianintegration supranationalinstitutions Integration continentalintegration disintegration economicintegration Eurasianintegration holding-togetherintegration integrationbuilding post-Sovietintegration regionalintegration Seealso Regionalism reintegration Inter-AmericanDevelopmentBank InternationalMonetaryFund(IMF) InterRAO Investments direct Iran IslamicDevelopmentBank Israel IT,seeInformationtechnology Italy J Japan Jointventure K Karimov,Islam Kazakhstan Khristenko,Viktor Kyrgyzstan(KyrgyzRepublic) L Labour labourmigration remittancesfrommigrantworkers Liberalization liberalizationofaccesstofinancialmarkets Seealso Trade Lukashenko,Alexander LUKOIL M Macroeconomicpolicy financialpolicy fiscalpolicy monetarypolicy coordinationofmonetarypolicy exchangeratepolicy Management governingbodies publicadministration supranationallevelofgovernance Marketeconomy Medvedev,Dmitry MERCOSUR,seeSouthAmericanCommonMarket Metallurgy ferrousmetals non-ferrousmetals Migration migrationflows migrationregime MinistryofInternalAffairsoftheRussianFederation Modernization Moldova Monetarypolicy monetarypolicyregimes Mongolia MTS N NAFTA,seeNorthAmericanFreeTradeAgreement Nagorno-Karabakh Nationalidentity Nation-building NATO,seeNorthAtlanticTreatyOrganization Nazarbayev,Nursultan NewDevelopmentBank SeealsoBrazil,Russia,India,China,SouthAfrica(BRICS) NewZealand Non-profitorganization NordicInvestmentBank NorthAmericanFreeTradeAgreement(NAFTA) NorthAtlanticTreatyOrganization(NATO) NorthernandCentralEurasia Nuclearpowerplant,seeElectricpower O Oil SeealsoPipeline Oilrefinery P Pakistan Panarin,Alexander Pankin,Dmitry Pension pensionmobility singlepensionspace People’sRepublicofChina(PRC),seeChina Peru Pipeline Policy foreignpolicy growthpolicy nationalpolicy policycoordination publicpolicy tradepolicy Post-Sovietspace SeealsoCentralandEasternEurope;CommonwealthofIndependent(CIS)States;Northern andCentralEurasia Powerline(powertransmissionline),seeElectricpower PRC,seePeople’sRepublicofChina Pumped-storagehydropowerplant,seeElectricpower Putin,Vladimir R Radarstation Railways railwaycorridors RAOUES Regime investmentregime nationaltreatment visa-freeregime Regionalintegrationagreement Regionalism holding-togetherregionalism SeealsoIntegration,Regionalintegration Regionalorganization(RO) effectivenessofregionalorganizations interstateassociation typesof “ActiveRO” “AlternativePath” “Coma” “DiscussionForum” “Integrationrhetoric” “Zombie” RepublicofArmenia,seeArmenia RepublicofBelarus,seeBelarus RepublicofKazakhstan,seeKazakhstan RepublicofTajikistan,seeTajikistan Revolution Orangerevolution RID,seeRegionalIntegrationDatabase RO,seeRegionalorganization Rusal Russia RussianEmpire RussianFederation,seeRussia S Sagintayev,Bakytzhan Sanctions Sargsyan,Tigran Savitsky,Peter SCO,seeShanghaiCooperationOrganisation SCODevelopmentBank SeealsoShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO) Serbia Services marketforservices servicesector tradeinservices SES,seeSingleEconomicSpace ShanghaiCooperationOrganisation(SCO) Shocks asymmetryofshocks externalshocks Shuvalov,Igor Siberia Singapore SingleEconomicSpace(SES) SouthAfrica SouthAfricanCustomsUnion(SACU) SouthAmericanCommonMarket(MERCOSUR) SouthKorea Sovereignty Stateregionalelectricpowerplant,seeElectricpower Subsidiarity Suleimenov,Olzhas T Tajikistan Tariff customsduties tariffpreferences Telecommunications Textileindustry Thailand Thermalpowerplant,seeElectricpower TNC,seeTransnationalcompany Tourism Trade foreigntrade freetrade mutualtrade regulationoftrade retailtrade tradeflows tradeliberalization traderegime SeealsoFreetradearea(FTA) Transnationalcompany(TNC) Transneft Transnistria Transnistrianconflict Transport airtransport maritimetransport motorvehicletransport railwaytransport transportcorridors transportationinfrastructure transportationpolicy Transportation gastransportation transportationofoilandoilproducts Transsib(Trans-SiberianRailway) TreatyonConventionalArmedForcesinEurope(CFE) Trubetskoy,Nikolai Turkey Turkmenistan U Ukraine UN,seeUnitedNations Unemployment UnionofSovietSocialistRepublics(USSR) collapseoftheUSSR SeealsoPost-Sovietspace UnionStateofRussiaandBelarus(USRB) UnitedKingdom Brexit Seealso EuropeanUnion(EU) UnitedNations(UN) UnitedStatesofAmerica(USA) Uralkali Urals USA,seeUnitedStatesofAmerica USRB,seeUnionStateofRussiaandBelarus USSR,seeUnionofSovietSocialistRepublics Uzbekistan V Value-addedtax(VAT) VAT,seeValue-addedtax Vernadsky,George Vietnam W Walikhanov,Shoqan WorldBank WorldTradeOrganization(WTO) WTO,seeWorldTradeOrganization Y Yakobson,Roman Yanukovych,Viktor Yushchenko,Viktor Footnotes Vinokurovetal (2009) LibmanandVinokurov(2012) Note:Pagenumbersfollowedby‘n’refertonotes ... On29May2014,atameetingof the Supreme Eurasian Economic Council(SEEC), the presidentsof the memberstatesof the CUand the SESsigned the Eurasian Economic Union Treaty,whichsignified the Eurasian economic project’stransition to anew,deeperlevelof... InOctober2007,Russia,Belarus,andKazakhstansignedanagreement to createa commoncustomsterritoryandform the Customs Union (CU) Theyexpected the actionplan adoptedatthattime,withrespect to the creationof the CU, to taketwoyears Therewere... andenactmentof the CommonCustomsTariff to the signingof the agreementson the Single Economic Spaceand,finally, to the enactmentof the Treatyon the Eurasian Economic Union Chapter2beginswithabriefdescriptionofmemberstates’economiesandtheir
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Xem thêm: Introduction to the eurasian economic union , Introduction to the eurasian economic union ,  The History of Eurasian Integration: 1991–2016,  Economic and Social Ties,  Common Markets Within the Eurasian Economic Union: Movement of Goods, Services, Labour, and Capital,  Eurasian Economic Union: Foreign Economic Relations,  A “Normal” Regional Organization: Explaining Eurasian Integration