Smart economy in smart cities

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Advances in 21st Century Human Settlements Series Editor Bharat Dahiya Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand More information about this series at http://​www.​springer.​com/​series/​13196 Editor T M Vinod Kumar Smart Economy in Smart Cities International Collaborative Research: Ottawa, St Louis, Stuttgart, Bologna, Cape Town, Nairobi, Dakar, Lagos, New Delhi, Varanasi, Vijayawada, Kozhikode, Hong Kong Editor T M Vinod Kumar School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi (SPA-D), Calicut, Kerala, India ISSN 2198-2546 e-ISSN 2198-2554 ISBN 978-981-10-1608-0 e-ISBN 978-981-10-1610-3 DOI 10.1007/978-981-10-1610-3 Library of Congress Control Number: 2016948791 © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd 2017 This work is subject to copyright All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made Printed on acid-free paper This Springer imprint is published by Springer Nature The registered company is Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd The registered company address is: 152 Beach Road, #22-06/08 Gateway East, Singapore 189721, Singapore Foreword I This publication, Smart Economy in Smart Cities, featuring four African cities comes at an opportune time when significant global agendas are being agreed This includes notably the Africa Agenda 2063 in 2014, the Sustainable Development Goals, the 21st Conference of Parties (COP 21) in 2015 and the United Nations Third Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development (Habitat III) this year To take full advantage of the epochal agreements, there is an urgent need to strengthen the capacities of African countries and cities to engage with the preparatory processes in order to ensure their views are taken into account For example, the preparation of the Habitat III Conference planned for October 2016 demands the empowerment of people and institutions with the right information and knowledge that helps to prioritize their needs in the global, national and local development agenda Close engagement with the development of a global agenda such as the Habitat III process that will be endorsed by member states of the United Nations is critical because it happens every 20 years Preparation and knowledge are therefore key to developing the framework to promote smart, sustainable, inclusive and prosperous human settlements The study of the four African cities draws on a robust set of concepts that include planning, housing, infrastructure development, economic development, environmental sustainability, social development, disaster exposure and resilience and peace and security The planning of African urbanization must take into consideration and learn from the accumulated knowledge on various conditions that make cities smart, green, ecological, livable and healthy; and the progressive emergence of the ICT infrastructures and their correlates such as social media and in general data revolution With the development of ICT infrastructures and their correlates, work places are becoming progressively spatially mobile Walkability and public space provision have also increasingly become a central part of planning of the city of the twenty-first century Furthermore, with the emergence of ICT infrastructures, the dichotomy between settlements, particularly between cities, towns and villages is becoming less relevant than it was traditionally perceived Various comparative advantages traditionally associated with urban setting such as diffusion of ideas, innovation, economies of scale and agglomeration of economies can now be achieved in sparse but connected settlements This is indicative of the pervasiveness of the ICT revolution in the region and in a sense signals the deepening of the era of digital urbanization in Africa Given the increasing penetration of digital technologies, all things being equal Africa’s urbanization may well be accelerated and achieved well before the predicted year of 2035 Clearly, digital urbanization will help to address various urban issues that African cities are facing which result from certain foundational weaknesses characterized by three main factors: (a) poor urban planning; (b) insufficient provision of basic services; and (c) inefficient urban policies We recognize that ICT alone cannot make a city smart; it is the way it is integrated in the city fabric that will determine the city smartness With an extensive use of ICT to access services, there will be few cars than before on the road making streets friendlier and healthy for walking and cycling Streets can be planned and designed as public spaces to serve communities for social interactions as well as mobility Hence, they can promote infrastructure development, enhance environmental sustainability, support high socio-economic development and promote social development, equity and social inclusion In the long term, it will reduce emissions of CO , promote the creation of lowcarbon cities, reduce land degradation and promote biodiversity Recently, African Ministers of Housing and Urban Development, convening in Abuja, Nigeria, in February 2016, adopted the Abuja Declaration which spelt out Africa’s position on Habitat III The Declaration contains six fundamental principles underlying the African perspective to the outcome of Habitat III which objective is to pursue an ambitious new, and transformative urban and human settlements agenda It will make sense to harmonize at the practical policy level the lessons learnt from the smart economy in Smart City studies with the objectives of the Common African Position on Habitat III In addition, we suggest that these studies be carried out in other African countries Prof Oyebanji Oyeyinka (Director, Regional Office for Africa) Foreword II The Power of Sharing Cities globally are positioned to identify, adopt and implement transformational solutions Technologies are changing the way cities are built, how citizens interact and move throughout the city, and how city services from health care to safety and from water to waste are delivered A city’s livability, prosperity and inclusiveness are central to sustainable progress globally and smart solutions are paving the way One of the greatest challenges we face today is ensuring that the work and experience in building Smart Cities worldwide can be shared across cities globally In order to share experience, we need a common ‘language’ and agreement on the definitions and practices that make up a smart community, so that we are all measuring the same dynamics At that point, processes become transferrable and improvable Standardized city data can become that common language ensuring city solutions can ‘travel’ globally Measurement is at the heart of the progressive Smart City A new international standard now under development within ISO, Indicators for Smart Cities , will outline a set of indicators to enable cities to facilitate and promote the integration and interoperability of city systems and build upon a core set of city indicators, already standardized in ISO 37120 Sustainable Development of Communities: Indicators for City Services and Quality of Life Standardized indicators for Smart Cities will enable cities to draw comparative lessons and facilitate city to city learning This standard will help cities to innovate and find technological and knowledge-based solutions to address urban challenges One of the great attributes of this book is that it brings together respected authors from around the world, to help drive knowledge and exchange This book describes programmes that experts have used with success in developing smart economies across a global array of cities These ‘beacons of success’ can be emulated by other cities globally if a common language—data—is available to inform city to city learning There are in fact two levels of benefits that readers will find in these chapters: Specific examples of solutions that can be adopted in other cities globally; and An overall emerging theme highlighting common elements that are needed in order to plan a universal strategic direction Standardized information on cities, gathered on a global scale, builds a strategic base of knowledge for city leaders to act It has the power to transform city building, to inform smart health care, allocate energy resources, achieve sustainable economic growth and raise incomes for all citizens Although a great deal of hypothetical work has been done, there is little empirical study available on how Smart Cities generate urban economic development This book opens that door, providing comparable information on what success looks like in different centres around the world Patricia McCarney (President and CEO of the World Council on City Data (WCCD); Professor of Political Science and Director of the Global Cities Institute at the University of Toronto, Canada) Foreword III The ‘Smart City’ idea comes from a long line of urban innovations that attempt to re-imagine the city and imbue it with fresh vision and purpose Garden cities, model neighbourhoods, new towns, national capital cities, techno-cities, socialist cities, sustainable cities, eco-cities, low-carbon cities, healthy cities and now Smart Cities are all attempts to specify more precise versions of utopia They all bring organization to the otherwise spontaneous clustering of people, homes, jobs and services that we call cities They are attempted to improve social order Garden cities focused on combining the benefits of town and country Socialist cities focused on erasing inequalities Eco-cities focus on minimizing ecological impact Low-carbon cities narrow this objective even further Healthy cities focus on improving health by design There is always a utopian objective in the re-envisioning device Smart Cities are a little different And because of this, it may prove that they are a more viable and long-lived notion ‘Smart’ is not an end in itself Why would we strive for ‘smart’ for its own sake? The perspective of this interesting collection of writings is on ‘smart’ for the sake of ‘smart economy’ Leaving the authors of the initial chapters to define what ‘smart economy’ means, the formula of the title illustrates that the notion of Smart Cities is essentially about means not ends A Smart City is an ITenabled city This is the simplest way of understanding the idea Expressed thus, it becomes less of a fad in urban planning doctrine or technology strategy and more of a phase of urban management whose time has come—a technological phase Sensor technology; big data; inexpensive highpowered computing; pricing technology; and governmental, legal and other institutional innovations, all mean that technology can be applied to urban management in dramatically new ways What happened in the factory several decades ago can now be applied to the city The efficiency of many parts of the urban management system can be increased by automation This has come gradually over the decades but has accelerated with nonlinear downward trends in the costs of computer processing; storage; communication and data capture; and upward trends in the speed, depth and scope of innovation in urban information and communications technology (ICT) applications Bridge and tunnel tolls became more feasible on high-volume highways with the advent, first of automatic barriers, then more so with auto-tolling scanners Number-recognition and other scanning technology and accompanying innovations in payment collection technologies made it possible to reintroduce the ancient idea of the road toll to city neighbourhoods as an alternative to hardengineering solutions to commuting ‘rat-runs’ and home-zone road safety Innovations in pricing technology means congestion pricing can become more sophisticated, with fees adjusting to congestion levels at different times and places Accompanying institutional and legal innovations allow experiments with the application of road pricing to different sub-markets and different spatial pricing boundaries, such as allowing retail owners in an urban block to set their own parking price to optimize parking congestion (setting the price regime so that parking lots are never too empty or completely full) Construction waste, to take another example, has traditionally been a deadweight loss for contractors and developers and society at large Demolition waste and expendable concrete formwork and other cast-offs in the building trade add costs to a construction project If they end up in a landfill, they become a social cost to the city ICT can turn this construction industry externality into consumer surplus by creating a market Builders need rubble and a good proportion of waste can be reused Set up a real-time market and you can probably halve the amount of waste going to landfill The editors and authors of this book call for a theory of Smart Cities and offer their case studies in the spirit of evidence building and theory building Responding to their challenge, a theory of Smart Cities may be based on the idea of missing markets Urban inefficiencies arise because of externalities—costs born by third-parties beyond the immediate parties to a transaction Urban externalities such as congestion in housing and transportation markets, air, noise, light and water pollution, infectious disease risk, fire risk are typically addressed by regulation Technology can fill a ‘missing market gap’, turning an externality into a commodity The insurance industry is an example of how missing markets (in risk) can be activated through a combination of legal, organizational, financial and technological innovations Risks that were once serious impediments to transacting in cities are turned into profit by the specialist skills of people working together in the insurance industry A mobile app-based market for construction waste exchange turns waste from a deadweight loss to society and the construction industry into private and public benefit All can gain if the market is structured correctly Road pricing has the effect of reducing the volume of road-congestion externalities such as noise, fumes, danger and time-loss at the same time as generating revenue that can be used to further moderate travel-based externalities, such as constructing landscape buffers, widening or narrowing roads, introducing cycling lanes In an industry, corporation or factory, the efficiencies introduced by smart technology are justified primarily on the basis of reduced costs or increase sales or profit In a city, they can be justified by achieving a better balance between the costs and benefits of living together in a city This includes reducing externalities, increasing social benefits, reducing the costs of urban management and raising the quality and effectiveness of urban management The basis of a theory of Smart Cities is found, therefore, in the application of technology to the business of city management This can be taken a step further A Smart City is one where ICT is used to reduce the costs of the transactions that are the heart of a city’s life and economy Cities exist because it is more beneficial for people to live in close proximity to each other It is better to live together than apart If that were not so, people would remain spread out evenly across the countryside People live together for economies of scale in production and consumption Transport communications technology (TCT) enabled people to move from the countryside as soon as the wheel was invented TCT enabled the division of labour, which in turn produced even greater economies of scale as labour became ever more specialized In a virtuous circle, more sophisticated TCT innovations led to more sophisticated city economies When cities developed into production and consumption hubs that transported buyers and sellers, raw materials, goods, services, tastes and customs and knowledge from across ancient empires, the knowledge specialization, labour division, product differentiation, wealth and income of cities grew as a result The role of technology-induced transaction cost reductions in making cities into the engines of economy and culture that they have been in every great empire is axiomatic to the history of civilization ICT now plays a similar role It reduces the costs of living and working in the city by making it easier to find a route to work, a suitable flat mate, supplier, customer, advisor, banker, factory site, shop premise, theatre, school, gym or even to find a marriage partner ICT also lowers the transaction costs of getting things into the city and of distributing urban products and services away from the city It enables cities to grow in relation to international and intercontinental as well as regional hinterlands Smart Cities and smart economies intertwine in cause and effect It is more likely that smart urban management technology will be invented, trialled and adopted in a city that hosts an entrepreneurial industrial culture On the other hand, Smart City technology can encourage smart economic development as explored in detail in the case studies of this book The evidence from the literature on in comparison to Varanasi city at large Further, the study identifies and clusters the various innovation hubs to form a network of innovation zones Hence, this case study indicates ecological innovation to be a driver of the economy, leading to sustainable and resilient overall growth Culture-driven smart economic development has been discussed by illustrating the major creative-cultural industrial hubs from the City of Varanasi These are the creative centres of cultural products which is famous for, namely silk “saree” (traditional female clothing), betel-leaf (traditional mouth freshener) and wooden toys It also discusses the case of porcelain pottery from the nearby town of Chunar These household-based industries are essentially small in scale The creative workers almost lack support and protection from the government, and they have to compete with other stronger market forces and mainstream forms of manufacturing A large section of the city’s economy is composed of such small-scale household industries which have been instrumental in building its economic base for centuries now Moreover, such products have turned into traditional items with high cultural value and are appreciated by a large number of tourists and exporters alike Thus, Varanasi can be a good example of culture-driven smart economic development, given adequate support from the government in framing appropriate cultural policy strengthening such industries Challenges lie in adopting the strengths of modern advancements in technology and management—particularly, ICT-based services, organizational and managerial networks—for such traditional production processes Unwise adoption of the so-called smart modern tools and techniques, without appropriation, may have the danger of “commercialization of creative arts” which might be detrimental to the very root of these industrial processes—creativity and diversity of cultural expression The smart growth of Varanasi is being envisaged by adopting a bipartite approach, as detailed below Digitally upgrading the core infrastructure of the city based on the technology triad of “Information and Communication Technology” (ICT), “Internet of Things” (IoT) and “Geospatial Technologies” (GT) Enabling the citizens to amalgamate the inherent strengths of the traditional economy that ranges from knowledge-based institutional services to unique cultural products along with the smart infrastructure To create a supportive ecosystem for entrepreneurial activities, innovation and economic growth, the “technology triad”, as discussed above, need to be grafted over the traditional knowledge and skill system, thus strengthening the existing economy of Varanasi into an innovation-driven Smart Economy In a nut-shell, Varanasi sets a good example of a city whose smartness does not rely only on the modern advances in technology, but largely upon its strength in traditional economies and knowledgebase Such an evolution from the traditional base makes the city’s economy more resilient and the development “smarter” 41.2.7 India: Vijayawada City Study The Census of 2011 shows city population of Vijayawada and Guntur are, respectively, 10.5 and 7.5 lakhs The Vijayawada region is characterized by 10 urban centres of different sizes located along the river The proposed capital region is spanning 7068 km2 in 29 Mandals (sub-districts) in both the district of Krishna and Guntur The focus of the smart economic approach in case of Vijayawada is on embeddedness of the economic activities on the spatial fabric This was targeted through achieving spatial efficiency The spatial efficiency is achieved through innovation, time efficiency and inclusion The innovation is achieved through proposing innovative clusters The idea behind the clusters is to link the local product with global value chain market i Innovation: The smart economic plan has proposed nine specialized clusters (a) Integrated Food Processing Cluster: Keeping into consideration the rich agricultural base of the region, the food processing cluster will help the local agro products to get marketed in the global market This cluster focuses on increased productivity through technological advancement (b) Integrated Auto Engineering Cluster: Reviving the existing auto cluster and integrating it with engineering cluster This cluster has a huge potential for absorption of labour force (c) Vijayawada Pharma Cluster: Hyderabad is listed among the top priority location for Pharmaceutical hub, but simultaneously Vijayawada is emerging as a second preference because of upcoming capital as well as centrally located in the Coastal Andhra The region has already observed influx of floating population due to hospital tourism The proposed pharma cluster is planned to capitalize the opportunity of hospital tourism ii Time Efficiency: To achieve time efficiency, the plan proposed Multi-Modal Logistic Park A Multi-Modal Logistics Park provides all types of transportation facilities at a place for the end user or defined as a rail, road-based inter-modal traffic handling facilitation comprising container terminals, bulk break cargo terminals, warehouses, facilities for mechanized handling, inter-modal transfers, aggregation/desegregation, etc to handle freight traffic The key components of a Multi-Modal Logistics Park are warehousing, transport and value-added services The potentiality lies in: (a) Connected to National Highway (b) Major junction for lorry operations for several decades with 1000 vehicles carrying goods throughout country daily (c) Well connected to largest junction in South India, over 300 express, passenger and freight trains passing through it daily (d) Expansion of Gannavaram Airport is bound to give a fillip to growth of entire south coastal A.P (e) High availability of labour but low or managerial workforce iii Inclusion: Initiation of Guntur start up village which will enable skill development activities among the local residents Skyrocketing smartphone usage, a rapidly spreading internet, a burgeoning middle class and massive online distribution platforms will help to grow this It will also include Skill Development Institutions With the help of these three interlinked approaches, the area will achieved a smart economic growth 41.2.8 Italy: Bologna Study Bologna is a metropolitan area and the regional capital of Emilia-Romagna of Italy The goal of the Bologna study was to understand how and what changes the Smart Economy in Smart Cities brings to social, cultural development and ecological management More, in particular, research has tried to understand some interrelated questions, such as (i) identify the key factors and their role in making Smart Economy in Smart Cities; (ii) understanding the inter-linkages between Smart Economy in Smart Cities with social development, cultural preservation, heritage conservation, ecological management on the other About Smart Economy in a Smart City, the study hypothesis describes the Smart Economy as characterized by the use of ICT in all activities Smart Economy is characterized by: (i) innovation and new approach to economic activities; (ii) capacity to generate entrepreneurship; (iii) aptitude of the city to create new economic imaging, branding and trademark; (iv) productivity of labour and capital; (v) labour market flexibility; (vi) international embeddedness; (vii) transformations bought by economy in the transformation of Smart City This study shows that metropolitan city of Bologna has a good economy as its levels of per capita income at €34,000 are well above the EU27 (The European Union of 27 states) averages of €24,500 However, there is an obvious weakness in the quality of governmental policies and practices that appear to be hindering innovation in the region According to Regional Innovation Scoreboard 2014, metropolitan area is an “innovation followers” area This is a discrete position in Europe and has a leader position in Italy Bologna is the regional capital of Emilia-Romagna, a region that aims to increase the competitiveness of the service sector and to turn it into a real leader of service innovation in Southern Europe and also into one of the main innovation actors at European level For this, Emilia-Romagna policy makers intend to reinforce the service sector and the proactive integration of services into the manufacturing sector and thus boost the region’s competitiveness and its capacity to face the societal challenges of the future Regional assets and baseline with the strong manufacturing sector, such as automobile, food production, ceramics Usually, the regional economy shows strong entrepreneurial activities with many start-ups mostly located in clusters There are, however, several challenges that the region of Emilia-Romagna has to face, as suggested by ESIC’s report 2014 In particular, ESIC study identifies some key challenges, such as the size of the start-ups that remain small and, especially for the smallest service companies are highly dependent on the region’s manufacturing sector The market for services is fragmented with numerous micro-enterprises vying to provide low value-added services to local manufacturing firms On average, a service firm in Emilia-Romagna employs the equivalent of only 3.5 workers Only a few services companies in these complementary industries have managed to move up the value chain to provide innovative services to clients beyond Emilia-Romagna itself The region remains a net importer of business services and productivity, and wages in the services sector are relatively low compared with those in manufacturing There is no services cluster in the region with the exception of a tourism cluster situated on the Adriatic coast Emilia-Romagna is currently not providing the best possible environment for innovation, as it is performing at a below average level in four of the five dimensions of structural indicators The only exception is in “innovation and business model generation” within the region In particular, its levels of high-tech patent applications and of innovators collaborating with others are very poor However, in business R&D expenditure and employment in strong clusters, the region is performing very well About the metropolitan area of Bologna, the result can be summarized as follows The entrepreneurial activities have many start-ups, a high share of small and very small businesses, widespread entrepreneurial attitude Many start-ups remain small and are highly dependent on large manufacturing companies In terms of knowledge development and transfer, we have identified as strengths/assets the sharing of GDP spent on research and development has risen sharply, a high number of patent applications On the opposite side, the weaknesses/challenges concern the low number of high-tech patents, and the share of employees with higher education still lower than comparable regions and EU27 Innovation and business model generation shows an asset with strong local demand for innovative services from an internationalized manufacturing base Several challenges have been identified, such as the fact that many services are characterized by very low barriers to entry, which has increased pressure on wages and makes the development of brands and a competitive market position difficult due to the relatively high labour costs in Italy The outsourcing as a good starting point for developing the services sector Where delocalisation of the area’s manufacturing firms occurs, such outsourcing might help keep part of the value added of the manufacturing sector in the metropolitan area Another important challenge concerns the weaknesses of employment in service innovationintensive industries compared to Italy and EU27 In the area of IT, the metropolitan area does not have large companies that could attract investment or become the focus for the development of a cluster Also before the crisis, there was less of a need for smaller companies to develop their client bases and engage in innovation due to the benign competitive environment With this environment now was gone, some companies are struggling and others are adapting Financing innovation and growth have an asset with a high share of private R&D expenditure although there are weaknesses about the significant fluctuations in R&D over time with a particularly marked effect in the first years of the economic crisis As with for the regional economy, collaboration and networking show a strong asset of clusters in manufacturing demanding services, strong demand for services from manufacturing, network of universities and research institutions, although there is a weakness about the dependency of service companies on manufacturing companies Metropolitan area is part of the High-Technology regional Network created with the aim to boost the supply of qualified industrial research, increasing synergies between regional universities and research centres The Network stimulates the development of a critical mass of high-level industrial research and of a more efficient method for the transfer of new technologies from the research system to the industrial system In the intentions of the policy maker, the network combines the expertise of several research institutions in centres of excellence whose aim is to promote the shift of production systems, districts and value-chains towards a greater technological dynamism and a stronger commitment to R&D As innovation policy instruments at present metropolitan government are developing a strategy around two dimensions: development of the high-technology network and stimulation of demand for innovation These two dimensions are integrated by some measures addressing the upgrading of the regional industrial system and other actions addressing human capital development, innovation awareness and mentoring In terms of Innovation Policy Governance, metropolitan government in cooperation with the regional government are doing several efforts to plan actions and opportunities for innovation Innovation Policy revolves around an early acknowledgement of the importance of the implementation of the High-Technology Network, a very ambitious initiative that is turning one of the most industrialized regions in Europe into a knowledge economy, strengthening linkages between industry and research institutions and fostering business innovation activity In the near future, the metropolitan government aims to gradually increase the level of specialization of competencies available in the High-Technology network in order to better respond to innovation needs The regional administration needs to continue to rationalize the network, conjugating demand-based self-sustainability to a technology-push approach, promoting the identification of technologies that are becoming relevant in the international scenario but that not yet used in Emilia-Romagna because of some technological lock-ins The metropolitan administration needs to continue to invest in the upgrading of the regional industrial base stimulating demand for innovation There is a large base of potential innovators that must be made aware of the necessity to innovate and the opportunity offered by the Network to meet industry needs It is especially necessary to increase demand for innovation supporting firms’ absorptive capacity The employment of graduates is still low, and without an effective upgrading of the human capital, it will be much harder to stimulate demand for innovation The territory has a long tradition about the Third Sector, and Regional legislation supports nonprofit organizations with social aims with several benefits, such as fiscal benefit, the use of public buildings and the possibility to establish a memorandum of understanding with public bodies for the social promotion Bologna is developing a strategy in order to build a strong relation between “social world” and the governance of the city by using ICT Actually, it emerges that the ICT is being used as a tool to highlight and release the potential of this sector, with good results These results are also due to the parallel e-government process of modernization of the Municipality Rely on an e-government strategy, which made efficient the administrative processes, was crucial to get the collaboration of social organizations In fact, the use of ICT allowed solving many of the problems linked to the high complexity of the Third Sector For example, the people engagement is just the first step and the chance to engage properly is based, before all, on credibility A good government might be enough to make an administration credible, but to guarantee effectiveness in working on projects and producing results on a long time it is crucial to have efficient tools and a feedback process which takes into account the role and responses of citizens, like in the case of the iperbole2020 project The ICT if utilized properly can the job The case of Bologna seems to confirm that, and it worth for the city a position among the best cases in Europe Bologna case shows as the e-government and ICT when sharing the same path they can have positive effects, also on the social field The aspect that emerged more is that ICT helps the Smart City process by its capability to act strongly on the field, with the result to raise up local microeconomies spread over a very wide territory and related to non-profit organization When such organizations are many and form a strong network, like in the case of Bologna, there is the potential to act on great energies and leading them, by the use of ICT, in support of the whole city, with large benefit in terms of economy and social capital To summarize our research on Bologna, we can affirm that smart initiative does not guarantee any economic growth, especially in a context of the general crisis A good digital infrastructure can, of course, facilitate the circulation of information and offer new opportunities to economy and society, but it is not enough We have observed that the traditional, local social structure founded on cooperation may rather represent a very interesting starting point towards a new peer-to-peer organization of economy and society Notwithstanding, traditional social structures badly need an infrastructural update in order to effectively enforce new socio-economic strategies For example, the great spread of small enterprises with an average of 6–9 employees in the area of Bologna shows an outstanding adaptability and flexibility in a liquid context Nevertheless, these small companies would greatly benefit from an e-communication platform able to bring their forces together in the global market 41.2.9 Kenya: Nairobi Study Nairobi, the capital city is the largest city in Kenya is with 3,138,369 populations and 696 km2 area in 2009 The city was established in 1899 as a railway stop for Kenya–Uganda railway Nairobi is now the engine of Kenyan economy contributing between 45 and 60% of the gross Domestic Product Nairobi has got a youthful population that can sustain long-term economic growth Nairobi was named the most intelligent city in Africa by the Intelligent Community Forum in 2014 and 2015 A Smart City foundation is the collective of the core physical and policy components that a city is built upon, and without which it cannot function The key elements of a Smart City foundation include urban planning and design, basic infrastructure and policies The degree of provision of these elements, their quality and their inter-linkage defines how well city functions, how much time its citizens spend on economically productive activities, and in turn, the city’s level of and the potential for productivity Nairobi study discusses the evolution of the various components of Smart City foundation and highlights how the existing and future patterns are defining the city’s prospects for smart growth The key finding is that Nairobi’s rapid population and spatial growth has happened without adequate planning, which has greatly affected the basic services provision The distribution of the services is also unequal, with better access and reliability being evidenced in the wealthier neighbourhoods and limited access coupled with unreliable supply witnessed in the poor settlements These distribution patterns mean that the poor spends more time and resources accessing the services, thus limiting their productive hours and also reducing their disposable income that can be invested in income-generating and wealth-creating opportunities The study also identifies that as a fast technology consumer, Nairobi can leverage on various emerging approaches to basic service provision, which have already been tried and proven to work in the poorest parts of the city, the slums The integration of some of the emerging smart technologies, in addition to more core investments in the development of various city foundation components, will promote equitable growth for all residents, creating the required framework for smart economic growth Empirical evidence from both developed and developing countries points to a positive correlation between development in the physical, social and policy and regulation aspects of infrastructure and economic development The synergetic development of these components creates Smart City systems which promote smart mobility, smart environments, smart living; sets the platform for Smart People and Smart Governance and ultimately results in smart economic growth The emergent smart systems further promote inclusive growth, reduce natural disaster vulnerability and exposure and improve resilience among the urban poor Infrastructure development in Kenya, particularly investments in Information Communication Technologies (ICTs), electricity, and transport infrastructure have been in rapid positive transition These developments, which have been promoted by a friendly policy framework and hugely benefited from foreign assistance, have largely been beneficial for Nairobi, Kenya’s capital In just under two decades, Nairobi has grown to near universal mobile phone penetration, and internet connectivity is above 60 % The city is now one of the most important ICT innovation cities in Africa, with several incubation centres, a growing number of ICT professionals and a youthful population that is technology savvy These developments have opened Nairobi to many economic growth opportunities This study discusses the level of infrastructure development in Nairobi and Kenya in general, particularly developments in ICT, energy and transport and how these are giving the city a comparative advantage against other African cities for smart growth The key findings are that, with the exception of ICT, growth in other infrastructure sectors has been slow and largely unequal The chapter also identifies that adoption of ICTs has been working towards improving efficiency in the existing and although the progress is slow, the future prospects for high-efficient ICT-integrated systems are high A city’s future sustainable growth and prosperity depend upon its investment in education, health, peace, security and other social capital stocks Successful cities create a peaceful and secure environment for investment; encourage high human capital development through well-educated and healthy citizens; and such cities report lower levels of inequalities and poverty Advances in information and communication technologies in the past few decades have enabled globalization, which is itself associated with urban growth and development Recent studies have, however, also noted that globalization is making cities vulnerable in new ways, especially by opening them up to destructive networks that undermine security and development Smart Cities must continuously make efforts to raise the competencies and quality of its citizens and thereby improve its competitiveness, increase innovations and overcome other challenges such as unemployment, insecurity and lawlessness This study highlights the enormous efforts that Nairobi city has made in addressing and improving its safety and the social capital of its citizens through investments in technological advancements in health, education and security services as part of its developmental pathway to achieving a Smart City status The study discusses insights, challenges and opportunities presented by Nairobi’s demographic dividend, its growing human capital and improving security status alongside its emerging economic opportunities, which together are expected to turn the city into a globally competitive and Smart City Kenya intends to transition into a middle-income economy by 2030 According to the 2008 Kenya Vision 2030 strategy, this goal would be achieved by growing the country’s gross domestic product (GDP) at an average rate of 10 % per annum between 2012 and 2030 Eight years after enactment of the vision 2030 strategy as the country’s long-term growth blueprint, the country’s economy is still dragging behind, with an average GDP growth rate that is about half the target rate Recent reviews by the World Bank indicate that for Kenya to achieve the middle-income country status by the end of the planning period, her gross national income per capita needs to triple from the $1290 recorded in 2014 to $4125 by 2030; and her GDP needs to grow at a rate of about % until 2030 In a country where the productive sectors of the economy (manufacturing) are overshadowed by both agriculture and low-technology small-scale enterprises and informal activities, this goal seems far-fetched Recent investments in infrastructure development, and particularly information communication technologies (ICTs) have, however, opened a new growth trend, which when properly explored could trigger rapid economic growth, and help the country to achieve the 2030 goal The rapid adoption of ICTs in various economic sectors, particularly on the growth of ecommerce, e-finance and e-governance, coupled with friendly policies and rapidly emerging middleincome populations, are already causing an economic revolution, particularly in Nairobi—the country’s capital city and commercial hub This study explores Nairobi’s economic growth trajectory within the framework of Kenya’s longand short-term economic goals It identifies that an ICT drove smart economic growth revolution has started in the city, in both the formal and informal sectors, and establishes that there are massive opportunities for sustained growth These opportunities, which emanate from increasing investment in ICT infrastructure development, ICT education, an innovative population and suitable government policies, will greatly help shape the country’s economic growth in the next decade The chapter also identifies that challenges such as cyber security, a thin manufacturing sector, slow adoption of ecommerce, a hugely informal sector and little research on new technologies and their adoption are limiting the city’s smart transition; but that good progress is being made to improve the prevailing conditions 41.2.10 Nigeria: Lagos City Study The urban agglomeration of Lagos is part of the Lagos State that encompasses an area of 3577 km2 of which 787 km2 are lagoons and creeks It has a population of 17.5 million [5] Metropolitan Lagos, an area covering 37 % of the land area of Lagos State, is home to over 85 % of the State’s population and about one-third of Nigeria’s urban population [6] While the population density of the state is about 4193 persons per square kilometre, the density in the built-up areas of Metropolitan Lagos, made up of Lagos Island, the original city and the Mainland, is over 20,000 persons per square kilometre Despite the movement of the federal capital to Abuja in 1991, Lagos has remained as the country’s dominant economic, social and financial centre as well as the hub of national and international communications It is a thriving industrial and commercial centre with two seaports, local and international airports, and industries concentrated in the Apapa, Ikeja and Ilupeju industrial estates In 2006 Lagos contributed 30 % of Nigeria’s GDP, consumed more than 60 % of its energy, collected 65 % of its value-added tax (VAT) and accounted for 90 % of its foreign trade and 70 % of its industrial investments In addition, Lagos is a major educational centre, providing a well-educated and highly skilled labour pool The employment opportunities continue to attract both domestic and international migrants One major way to foster international integration in development is through information and communication technology (ICT) Incidentally, advancements in ICT in terms of mobile telephone and high-speed computer with networking facilities (intranet and internet) have practically redefined many aspects of our living To this extent, the ICT revolution has proven to be further beneficial to Lagos residents in the following ways: (i) Traffic monitoring; (ii) Environmental Data Collection and Monitoring and (iii) Security Controls and Crime tracking Another important aspect of the application of information and communication technology was the introduction of the Lagos State Government Electronic Banking System of Revenue Cycle Management (LASG EBS-RCM) project Partnering with the private sector, Lagos State used high-level technology to ensure more effective monitoring of collected revenue Revenue performance-enhancing measures included creating a robust database of taxpayers, eliminating ghost workers and plugging tax loopholes Nigeria has experienced a robust growth in her ICT sector over the past decade and has become a major attraction with technology companies With an improving investment and business environment, Lagos is developing an ICT-themed start-up ecosystem that is drawing international investment and has seen the launching of several incubators The ongoing and proposed investments in ICT in Lagos, coupled with the city’s huge manpower capacity are a sure way to boost the growth of a Smart Economy in Lagos Despite its potential to be a sustainable, inclusive and prosperous city, Lagos smartness has been hampered by its weak city foundation The city is not well planned with sufficient land allocated to streets and public spaces, and it lacks smart basic infrastructure and smart institutions and laws [7] Many settlements in the city lack a sewerage system and rainwater drainage facilities, and adequate waste management sites are missing, which are key components of smart basic infrastructure along with a connection to water and energy Flooding during rainy seasons as well as uncollected garbage is frequent phenomena in all parts of the city, but particularly in the poor settlements Frequent energy shortages also affect the city’s economy These challenges are associated with poor land administration and governance, characterized by a lack of transparency and corruption The fact that about Lagos metropolitan area accounts for more than 85 % of the entire state population and about a third of the total urban population in Nigeria has serious consequences for land use planning in the urban area It also has great implications for infrastructure and for other socio economic, cultural and administrative issues Among the key challenges facing Lagos include, a decaying infrastructure, widespread urban poverty, massive unemployment, pervasive security inadequacies, land tenure challenges, slum emergence and growth, high settlement density, conflicts in land use, narrow and poorly constructed streets without drainage, traffic congestion, flooding, environmental decay, technical inadequacies and lack of manpower, unreliable power supply and corruption Faced with continued slum proliferation associated with weak city foundation, the Government of Lagos State is developing various urban development programmes and projects that if adequately implemented will contribute to the smartness of Lagos as a city of the twenty-first century, a city which is sustainable, inclusive and prosperous At the time of independence, the focus of development in the country was simply sectoral and economic planning was favoured to conscious efforts aimed at resolving physical planning challenges National Development Plans, whose adoption had started a few years before independence with an objective to create policies, programmes and projects for achieving economic development in the country, become the independent government’s development pathway In response to the enormous transport challenges, the state government has embarked on heavy investment in the periodic maintenance and expansion of roads, construction of new roads, vehicular and pedestrian bridges, and implementation of Lagos Urban Transport Project The project was designed to create an efficient, effective, integrated, intermodal mass transit system, involving land, water and rail transport—and in the process, to contribute to poverty reduction The state government’s policy thrust on transportation development has been centred on providing a safe, efficient and sustainable integrated mass transit system, Improving transportation infrastructure and the traffic management system and Introducing rapid rail transportation The Lagos state government has also initiated various projects, which when fully implemented will promote the growth of a sustainable, inclusive and prosperous Lagos Among the main initiatives include Proposed development of “Lagos Smart City” and policy and institutional reforms The Lagos state government has initiated various policy and institutional reforms since 2000 to enhance the performance of various sectors and to spur the state’s rapid economic growth To address the housing challenge in the state, the government introduced the Real Estate Developers Association of Nigeria and a Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development in 2000 as well as restructuring the housing development system Computerized land registries have also been introduced in Lagos, and the state government has established an electronic documents management solution to fast-track title and mortgage documentation Environment sustainability—The Lagos state government is making several efforts to create a safe, friendly and sustainable environment conducive to residential, business and recreational purposes Disaster Preparedness—The policy targets of flood control; Develop a Storm Water Drainage Master Plan for the entire Lagos and implement by 2025; Develop a regulatory framework for wetlands management; Sustain, Improve and Promote the Involvement of Private Public Partnership; Develop Institutional frameworks and community involvement for the upgrade, maintenance and de-silting of primary and secondary urban storm-water drainage infrastructure networks; Develop frameworks for communication with stakeholders and institutions involved in storm-water infrastructure management; and Develop policy and guidelines on stormwater infrastructure management 41.2.11 Senegal: Dakar City Studies Dakar is located in the western part of Senegal Dakar urban agglomeration has a population of 2.8 million, while urban population of Dakar was 3.3 million in 2015 The population of the city is 1.2 million in 79.7 square kilometres The gross density of Dakar is 15,780 people per square kilometres in an area of 178.3 km2 Dakar has a concentration of nearly half of Senegalese civil servant population Nine out of ten employees in Senegal’s trade, transport, banking and industrial enterprises are in Dakar Therefore, converting the urban economy of Dakar to Smart Economy and making Dakar a Smart City makes a lot of sense Dakar’s youthful demography has got a potential to sustain longterm economic development in a Smart City However, the city is not well planned, with deficient physical and social infrastructure and proper legal foundation befitting the post-colonial era Dakar offers multiple opportunities as a hub of economic activities as well as a link to local, regional and global economies Today, with its population of 3.4 million, it has an added advantage associated with its high population density and its youthful population, two important drivers of economic productivity and growth Half of the national urban population live in the agglomeration of Dakar, and the city contributes nearly 55 % of the national Gross Domestic Product [3] (GDP) However, Dakar’s opportunities to be a Smart City are shadowed by human-made challenges, characterized by three main factors: (a) poor urban planning; (b) insufficient provision of basic services and (c) inefficient urban policies This has led to frequent occurrences of flooding and traffic congestion among others By affecting social development with inaccessibility of most services, the economic development of the agglomeration is severely affected with significant decline of productivity of the active population For these past 15 years, along the economic power of Dakar, the Senegalese government has taken various initiatives favourable to the development and use of ICT at all levels It creates legal institutional framework to support regulatory mechanisms on the development and use of ICT and introduces ICT platforms such as E-Governance, E-Education, and E-infrastructure and supports education and training on ICT Along the government programmes and policies on ICT, there are several other initiatives from private sectors, NGOs, Civil society, Academic that invest on the expansion of ICT and education to bridge the digital divide [4] Today mobile telephone is present in each household of the city of Dakar easing potential access to internet and multiple applications, and by 2030, access to other ICT infrastructures at the household level such as computer and internet will be quasi-universal offering opportunities to live in a digital city The penetration of ICT is particularly effective in education institutions where they are helping to bridge the gap in a context where national and local authorities have not been able to meet the growing demand from a massive young population ICT is slowly penetrating the employment sector, but it has been challenged by the fact that over three-quarters of the sector are informal ICT employs less than % of the job market, and most sectors have not yet fully integrated the ICT infrastructure in the service performance and delivery However, the informal sector can benefit from the ICT in many ways, particularly to ease financial transactions While developing projects aiming to tackle flooding and traffic congestion in the agglomeration of Dakar, national authorities have taken bold urban policies with the creation of seven polycentric urban centres in the outskirts Among these urban centres, features the Urban Pole of Diamniadio, which is already under implementation as part of the Plan Senegal Emergent (PSE), representing the first sustainable city model with the integration of climate risk resilience These urban centres will integrate various dimensions of the sustainable, inclusive and prosperous city model as illustrated in Fig 40.​1; they will, indeed, represent the first generation of Smart Cities in Senegal With the creation of urban centres supported by the ICT, Senegal is entering in the era of the end of big cities and the rise of digitally served urban centres and villages Dakar may remain the only Senegalese city with a population of more than million With the development of ICT, all the advantages associated to large cities with high densities, such as economy of scale, agglomeration of economies, diffusion of ideas and innovation will be obtained through digital towns and villages interconnected through the Internet In this situation, the planning of settlements must take into consideration the planning of other settlements, and calls for territorial planning which goes in tandem with intercity cooperation Occupations will be more technology intensive, and analogue economic jobs will give way to digital economic jobs Though this transformation is just starting in Dakar as in many developing countries, its development is irreversible, and we must anticipate living in a perfect digital country by 2050 or earlier as Senegal is committed to the development and use of ICTs The PSE that has the ambition to create six urban centres has anticipated in strengthening the smartness of Dakar through the development and use of the ICT to boost intercity cooperation as illustrated in Fig 40.​1, with the first Virtual University being introduced in the Urban Pole of Diamniadio, which is one of the new urban centres However, create digital urban centres, and benefit from ICT innovations and good practices, there is need to sustain the liberalization of the ICT in Senegal Harnessing ICT opportunities requires policies that lower the barriers to competition and market entry, in addition to investments in infrastructure and skills This will require investments in skills and infrastructure as well as reform on regulatory barriers by overcoming vested interests to encourage all firms to compete by investing in the ICT All this will require a strong rule of law, efficient bureaucracies, government stability, lack of corruption and a stable business environment that encourages domestic and foreign investors 41.2.12 South Africa: Cape Town Study The study on Cape Town brings a unique city setting: (1) one where segregationist development (apartheid) has been legally rooted in the city foundation and manifested through urban planning and design, institutions and laws and access to basic services and (2) followed by an inclusive postapartheid development through urban planning, housing, social development and economic development Although Cape Town has made commendable progress since the end of apartheid in 1990 that led to its awarding as the 2014 World Design capital, efforts are still needed to create a Smart City, a city which is sustainable, inclusive and prosperous The city of Cape Town is the oldest city in South Africa with recorded continuous settlement dating as far back as 1652 With a population of 3.7 million people in an area of 2461 km2, Cape Town is South Africa’s second most populous city after Johannesburg (4.4 Million) and the tenth most populous city in Africa South Africa has three capital cities: Pretoria, the administrative capital; Cape Town, the legislative capital; and Bloemfontein, the judicial capital Cape Town, as the legislative capital, is the seat of the nation’s Parliament that consists of the National Assembly and the National Council of Provinces As the provincial capital of the Western Cape region, Cape Town is home to about 64 % of the province’s 5.8 million population and represents about 80 % of its GDP Cape Town is a base for IT and manufacturing companies in the Western Cape region The share of the city’s population with access to internet increased from only 14 % in 2002 to 49.3 % of in 2011 With this growth, continued investment in the ICT sector by the local authority and the subsequent progress in ICT, media and call centre industries, Cape Town became the first African city to enter the Intelligent Community Forum’s “Smart21 Communities” in 2008 In its commitment to build an opportunity city, the city is heavily investing in the broadband infrastructure programme The programme was the single biggest capital expenditure item in the Corporate Services budget for the 2012/2013 financial year with an allocation of R61 million, and an additional R152 million for the 2013/14 and 2014/15 financial years The 7–10 years project is greatly expected to reduce telecommunication costs, improve connectivity speeds, link different sectors of the city via highspeed networks and improve the city’s competiveness both locally and internationally The network is further anticipated to create and establish 250,000 jobs throughout the Cape Town metropolitan area, improve business communication, facilitate high-speed data communications to municipal facilities and ultimately help drive economic growth, development and inclusion—especially in previously marginalized areas As the core of Smart Cities, Cape Town’s continued investment in ICT infrastructure and its plans to link both the public and private sectors with high-speed broadband network will not only create a “digitally inclusive and equal opportunity” society in which economic growth is possible, but will also cement the city’s place as the first Smart City in Africa Cape Town was the centre of the apartheid regime in South Africa that lasted from 1948 to 1990 and has been named as being among the most unequal cities in the world The City Foundation of Cape Town has historically been guided by a segregationist ideology manifested through institutions and laws, urban planning and design, and access to basic services and amenities Systematic segregation would continue into the late 19th and early twentieth centuries, effected through manipulation of urban planning and design principles, and sustained through a diversity of institutional setups and various laws and policies The long march to freedom and social inclusion was through both peaceful and violent protests held in the city between 1950s and 1990 when apartheid was officially abolished, each with varied outcomes With mounting economic hardships, international pressure and increased local protests throughout the 1980s, the government secretly began negotiations with Nelson Mandela, who had been jailed since 1964 Although police still used violence against peaceful protests, the momentum of the protests was unrelenting and would culminate in mass voting against the government by white Capetonians in the 1989 elections, the release of Nelson Mandela in 1990 and the subsequent repealing of segregationist laws The first multiracial democratic elections in 1994 won by the African National Congress and the enactment of South Africa’s new constitution, which enfranchised blacks and other racial groups, marked the official end of the apartheid system The dismantling of apartheid in the early 1990s came with calls for inclusive development in South Africa, mostly guided by Nelson Mandela’s ideal of a democratic and free society carried in his 1964 speech By the early 1990s, however, Cape Town’s urban form and structure had long been physically segregated, and over 3.5 million people had been forcefully removed from the “whitesonly areas” and shunted off to less desirable areas The task of promoting social inclusion in an already separated city bestowed upon the new “African” government was thus very hard to achieve, even more given that the new leadership did not take time to plan for long-term growth This challenge has persisted to date and with an inequality coefficient (Gini) of 0.67 in 2011/2012, Cape Town remains one of the most unequal cities in the world More than two decades later, aspects symbolic of apartheid segregation are still being adopted in the form of gated communities separated from the city by perimeter walls and security guards Although some strides have been made especially in the past decade, much remains to be done to avail equal growth opportunities for all city residents Cape Town has formulated and adopted several policies with an aim of making the city more sustainable, inclusive, livable, prosperous and smart In 2012, the city joined the livable streets movement in a bid to promote streets for all, and to make the city more livable and more pedestrian and cyclist friendly by reducing motorized transport As part of this movement, the city has already put in place policies within the Integrated Transport Plan and invested in the construction of pedestrian and cycling lanes as well as parks and other public spaces In addition, the city organizes “open streets-type events” for which car-free zones are temporarily set up to create safe public spaces in which citizens can experience and appreciate their city in a new way Four of such events had been set up between 2013 and 2015 and have greatly been received by the city dwellers and applauded for creating social spaces where people of all races interact 41.2.13 USA: St Louis City Study St Louis is a port city in the state of Missouri located in the west Bank of Mississippi River with a population of 319,294 in 2010 The St Louis metropolitan area includes the city, Missouri and Illinois with a population of 2,905,893 The economy of St Louis relies on services, manufacturing, trade, transportation and tourism The city produces more than 25,000 graduates and postgraduate As the Smart City movement takes hold, there is a very real window of opportunity for St Louis to increase its market share of creative persons [8] Increasing market share of creative persons, there will be increase in the probability that new successful businesses will be created and stay in the St Louis area The St Louis area central corridor should unite around the theme of building our Smart City platform, of building our innovation districts and neighbourhoods and of building our Smart City and the future St Louis The St Louis is building innovation districts and innovation neighbourhoods with a clear sense of urgency and purpose The urgency should come from the need for St Louis to end decades of socio-economic division by beginning to create an inclusive Smart Economy where all persons from all walks of life are able to participate in innovation districts or innovation neighbourhoods Then, as the neighbourhoods grow and ignite organic growth, the same socio- economic and technological capabilities can be brought to the rest of the St Louis region as the business case is proven Smart Economy and inclusive policies should also be developed for these innovation neighbourhoods and innovation districts In this way, St Louis area residents and businesses will be able to gather ideas and entrepreneurial opportunity from the entire region, not just the central corridor These kinds of policies would also send a clear message that St Louis understands that inclusion is a fundamental cornerstone of the Smart Economy, and of our success, without which we will certainly fail Interconnecting neighbourhoods would also have a positive sociological effect on the community since these new ultra-high-speed connections would cut across neighbourhood and political subdivisions and would be available to all persons within or around those neighbourhoods Furthermore, by including persons who are economically disadvantaged, St Louis connects a larger community of ideas and inspirations which ultimately result in accelerating the public sector innovation process and sense of public good There is a general lack of education and understanding about what a Smart City is and how to achieve socio-economic impact [9] Smart City educational programmes will need to be developed (similar to entrepreneurial educational programmes) that educate persons at the middle school and high school levels, through tech school, colleges and at the University level Professional and business programmes will also need to be developed for executives, managers and lay persons who are currently employed At this early stage of development for Smart Cities, it is crucial that St Louis adopts an easy to implement process to find and develop champions who can lead the development of Smart Cities at the entrepreneurial level These same champions should be spiffed, then funded and celebrated at all St Louis needs to be assertive and thoughtful in its Smart Cities initiatives We cannot simply adopt what has worked in other regions, although the lessons learned can be very useful There is a critical mass of entrepreneurial energy in this city that can be harnessed and directed towards the creation of a Smart City [10] St Louis needs to formally adopt that challenge as a region, set out specific goals and work to accomplish them Smart City initiatives should invest in both infrastructure and ecosystems Entrepreneurs who imagine and then pursue change are a critical component of success that needs to be intentionally nurtured This should be done across a broad number of interest areas where entrepreneur development efforts are led by champions The role of the champion is to find the funding and then create collaborative environments that are engineered to connect entrepreneurs with similar interests Leaders should put in place the infrastructure and also establish the incentives and environment that is inviting to entrepreneur development champions Winning Smart Cities will find the resources and creativity to create the most inviting regions that retain and attract Smart City entrepreneurs The leading Smart Cities will guide us in uncovering the new economic and social changes that are desired Smart City advocates and leaders must adopt a new paradigm for understanding, assessing and estimating the economic impacts of broadband deployment and utilization [3] This paradigm should extend beyond a standard calculation of job creation, wage distribution and capital investment to include a wide range of economic values generated by ultra-high-speed deployment These values include the increased utilization of real estate, cost savings through use of smart technologies, higher level of education attainment, transportation and security system improvements, and greater access to economic opportunities across a wider spectrum of socio-economic levels For the last two hundred years, the USA has passed through the first industrial revolution with a measurable degree of success As people moved from farms into cities, they received a public education and learned the necessary basic skills to work in factories, related businesses and industry Entrepreneurship, education and small business in all forms were central to this success In the coming Smart City industrial revolution, community engagement and education combined with advanced connected Smart technologies will widen the playing field to ultimately include a much greater degree of participation of more persons in the development of the Smart City as we reinvent who and what we are The long-term socio-economic impact of this opportunity is staggering Smart Cities are 90 % sociology and 10 % infrastructure Smart Cities that focus on educating and planning their Smart City in the early stages from an entrepreneurial and socio-economic impact perspective will realize the benefits of Smart City transformation sooner References Vinod Kumar, TM and Associates (ed) (2014) Geographic Information System for Smart Cities, Copal Publishing Group, New Delhi Vinod Kumar, TM (ed) (2015) E-Governance for Smart Cities, Springer, Singapore Republique du Senegal, Cities Alliance and UN-Habitat, 2010 Strategie de Development Urbain du Grand Dakar (Horizon 2025), Dakar, Senegal http://​www.​ist-africa.​org/​home/​default.​asp?​page=​doc-by-id&​docid=​5557 http://​www.​lagosstate.​gov.​ng/​pagelinks.​php?​p=​6 Okunlola, P., 2004 The power and the heartbeat of West Africa’s biggest urban Jungle, in UN-Habitat (2004), The State of the World’s Cities 2004/2005: Globalization and Urban Culture, Earthscan, London Mboup, G., 2015 Sustainable City Foundation – Key for Sustainable, Inclusive and Prosperous City, World Statistics Congress, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) Robinson, Rick “4 ways to get on with building Smart Cities And the societal failure that stops us using them: Procurement.” The Urban Technologist 11 October 2015 [Online] Available: https://​theurbantechnolo​gist.​com/​2015/​10/​11/​4-ways-to-get-on-withbuilding-smart-cities-and-the-societal-failure-that-stops-us-using-them/​# procurement [Accessed: 24-Apr-2016] Playing to Win in America’s Digital Cities June 2012 Kansas City Digital Drive, 2015 [Online] Available: http://​www.​ kcdigitaldrive.​org/​playbook/​preface/​ [Accessed: 19-Apr-2016] 10 An Independent Review And Evaluation of Chattanooga Electric Power Board’s Optical Fiber To the Home Project.” February 20, 2007 ... Cities in 2012–13; and coordinated the processing, analysis, and production of a joint publication between UN-Habitat and UNAIDS detailing HIV in Cities in 2013–14 Before joining UN-Habitat in. .. smart for its own sake? The perspective of this interesting collection of writings is on smart for the sake of smart economy Leaving the authors of the initial chapters to define what smart. .. grow in relation to international and intercontinental as well as regional hinterlands Smart Cities and smart economies intertwine in cause and effect It is more likely that smart urban management
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