Money and the church in medieval europe, 1000 1200 practice, morality and thought

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Money and the Church in Medieval Europe, 1000–1200 Religion and Money in the Middle Ages Edited by Svein H Gullbekk, Museum of Cultural History, University of Oslo, Norway Giles E M Gasper, Department of History, Durham University, UK Religion and Money in the Middle Ages explores the connections between two of the most dominant aspects of medieval society and culture: religion and money Recognising the importance of both multi- and single-disciplinary perspectives on the issues and questions connected to religion and money, the series accepts joint as well as individual authorship and editorship All disciplinary perspectives are welcome, particularly from archaeology, history (social, ecclesiastical, intellectual and economic), theology, anthropology and numismatics The series operates with a broad chronological range: in western European terms from late Antiquity to the Reformation While the geographical and cultural focus lies in western Christendom, the series will be open to cross-cultural comparative studies, and to treatments of money and religion in all religious communities within the period, within Christendom and without Of especial interest are studies which explore issues on the theory and practice of money within religious contexts, and those that further reveal the interconnections and contrasts, overlaps and distinctions, between these attitudes and practices are particularly encouraged How differences between theory and practice emerge, how they are reconciled, or how they remain unresolved, are further questions the series is keen to explore The range of source material available, and the centrality of both subjects to medieval life, culture, belief and activity, allow for breadth and depth of investigation and insight into the medieval past at its most intimate and in its largest institutions and social structures Money and the Church in Medieval Europe, 1000–1200 Practice, Morality and Thought Edited by Giles E M Gasper Department of History, Durham University, UK and Svein H Gullbekk Museum of Cultural History, University of Oslo, Norway © Giles E M Gasper and Svein H Gullbekk 2015 All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior permission of the publisher Giles E M Gasper and Svein H Gullbekk have asserted their right under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, to be identified as the editors of this work Published by Ashgate Publishing Limited Ashgate Publishing Company Wey Court East 110 Cherry Street Union Road Suite 3-1 Farnham Burlington, VT 05401-3818 Surrey, GU9 7PT USA England www.ashgate.com British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library The Library of Congress has cataloged the printed edition as follows: Money and the Church in Medieval Europe, 1000–1200: Practice, Morality and Thought / edited by Svein H Gullbekk and Giles E.M Gasper pages cm – (Religion and Money in the Middle Ages) Includes bibliographical references and index Catholic Church Europe Finance Money Europe Religious aspects Church history Middle Ages, 600-1500 Catholic Church Customs and practices I Gullbekk, Svein H., editor of compilation II Gasper, Giles E M (Giles Edward Murray), 1975- editor of compilation BX1950.M664 2015 261.8’5 dc23 2014037428 ISBN ISBN ISBN 9781472420992 (hbk) 9781472456816 (ebk–PDF) 9781472456823 (ebk–ePUB) Printed in the United Kingdom by Henry Ling Limited, at the Dorset Press, Dorchester, DT1 1HD Contents Prefatory Remarks   List of Illustrations   vii ix Introduction Money and the Church: Definitions, Disciplines and Directions   Giles E M Gasper Part I: Attitudes to Money within the Church 2Turpe lucrum? Wealth, Money and Coinage in the Millennial Church   Rory Naismith Contemplating Money and Wealth in Monastic Writing c 1060–c 1160   Giles E M Gasper 4Nummus falsus: The Perception of Counterfeit Money in the Eleventh and Early Twelfth Century   Greti Dinkova-Bruun 17 39 77 5A Herald of Scholasticism: Alan of Lille on Economic Virtue   93 Odd Langholm Part II: Buying, Selling and Building: The Use of Money by the Church 6Financing Cathedral-Building in the Middle Ages: The Eleventh to Thirteenth Centuries   Wim Vroom 107 vi Money and the Church in Medieval Europe, 1000–1200 The Church and Money in Twelfth-Century England   James L Bolton 121 The Church and Monetisation in Early Medieval Denmark, c 1060–1160   Bjørn Poulsen The Church, Markets and Money in Early Medieval England   159 S J and N J Mayhew 141 Part III: Money and Power: Coinage, Salvation and Ritual 10From HEINRICVS REX to ROTHARDVS ABBAS – Monastic Coinage under the Ottonians and Salians (c 911–1125)   Sebastian Steinbach 185 11Saints, Dukes and Bishops: Coinage in Ducal Normandy, c 930–c 1150   Jens Christian Moesgaard 197 12Saints, Sinners and … a Cow: Offerings, Alms and Tokens of Memory   Lucia Travaini 209 13 The Church and Money in Norway c 1050–1250: Salvation and Monetisation   Svein H Gullbekk Bibliography    Index   223 245 279 Prefatory Remarks Money and the Church in Northern Europe 1000–1200: Practice, Morality and Thought emerges from an extended collaboration between Svein H Gullbekk and Giles E M Gasper, on the subjects encompassed by the title We have found our particular disciplinary areas, of medieval numismatics and medieval cultural and intellectual history, increasingly in dialogue, and the volume that follows flows from that dialogue, set in a broader and deeper series of contexts This has  developed subsequently into a wide  spectrum of research  activities under the aegis of a project funded by the Norwegian Research Council, Religion and Money: the Economy of Salvation in the Middle Ages (2013–2016) with Svein H Gullbekk as principal investigator. The papers of which the present volume consists originally formed part of an international conference organised by the Museum of Cultural History, University of Oslo, and the then Institute of Medieval and Renaissance Studies (now Institute of Medieval and Early Modern Studies), Durham University The conference, ‘Church and Money c 1060–c 1160’ took place between 23 and 25 November, 2011, in Oslo, with the financial assistance of the two institutions, and the Samlerhuset Group Foundation The conference was the starting point for a longer process of collective and individual expansion of the papers, on a longer chronological scope and with a focus on north-western Europe What results is a collection of case studies and surveys, from a wide range of disciplinary perspectives, exploring the many dimensions to an understanding of money and how it was perceived and experienced in the High Middle Ages The contributions centre on the many roles of the church within those perceptions and experiences, in its institutions, its members both clerical and lay, and as the major repository of documentary record We hope to put the subjects of the church and money together in ways that will provide new and exciting insights into monetary history and the history of the church The High Middle Ages marks a period of dynamic growth and change in both histories and in terms of spiritual as well as material aspects In its case-studies this collection provides particular examples of how the church and money might be investigated, the variety of approaches that can be adopted and the different scholarly directions that can be taken and from which inspiration can be drawn The result, we hope, will be to provoke more questions, more interest and more engagement in this field The editors would like to thank the contributors for their patience and willingness to pour their expertise into this enterprise, jointly and singly To viii Money and the Church in Medieval Europe, 1000–1200 Håkon Roland, Anette Sættem, Johnny Kreutz, Timo Stingl, Eileen Sweeney, and Rachael Matthews we owe particular debts for help and advice GEMG and SHG List of Illustrations The plate section falls after page 292 10 Coin issued from the Danish Slagelse mint, 1020s Photo courtesy of the National Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen Detail from the prologue to Causa of Gratian’s Decretum, featuring a money-offering for a monastic oblate Durham Cathedral Library C.I.7 f 60r Photo courtesy of the Dean and Chapter, Durham Cathedral Fresco in the church of Fjenneslev, Sjælland, c 1125–50 The magnate Asser Rig is depicted giving God a church while his wife, Inger, gives a golden ring Map of the distribution of early coin stray finds inside the medieval area of Roskilde The red dots on the map are from the tenth century (1 arabic ‘cufic’ dirham from the ‘Provstevænget’ and the an Æthelred penny), the blue are from the eleventh century, and the green ones from the twelfth century Map kindly supplied by Jens Ulriksen, Roskilde Museum Penny minted in Emden, Hermann (Billunger), c 1045–60 Found near the cathedral of Ribe Photo: Ribe Museum Map of monastic mints in the Ottonian-Salian Empire (919– 1125) considering the numismatic material Hersfeld, Abbey Adelmann (1114–27) Penny 0.84 g +ANDERENANCO Cross with one pellet in each angle//+HEREVELDIA Building with three towers Source: Auction Fritz Rudolf Künker 130, Osnabrück 2007, no 2186 Hersfeld, Abbey Anonymous, eleventh century Penny 0.71 g +KAROLVS IMP Bust of Emperor Charlemagne with crossstaff//+SCS LVLLVS Bust of Saint Lullus with crosier Source: Auction Fritz Rudolf Künker 130, Osnabrück 2007, no 2185 Quedlinburg, Abbey Mathilde (966–99) or Adelheid (999– 1044) Penny 1.55 g +DGRA+REX Cross, O-D-D-O in the angles//SCS SERVACIVS Church-Building (Holzkirche), T-T at sides Source: Auction Fritz Rudolf Künker 130, Osnabrück 2007, no 1799 Otto-Adelheid-Pfennig, around 1000 Penny 1.55 g +DIGRA+REX Cross, O-D-D-O in the angles//ATEAHEHT Plate Detail from the prologue to Causa of Gratian’s Decretum, featuring a money-offering for a monastic oblate Durham Cathedral Library C.I.7 f 60r Photo courtesy of the Dean and Chapter, Durham Cathedral Plate Fresco in the church of Fjenneslev, Sjælland, c 1125–50 The magnate Asser Rig is depicted giving God a church while his wife, Inger, gives a golden ring Plate Map of the distribution of early coin stray finds inside the medieval area of Roskilde The red dots on the map are from the tenth century (1 arabic ‘cufic’ dirhem from the ‘Provstevỉnget’ and the an Ỉthelred penny), the blue are from the eleventh century, and the green ones from the twelfth century Map kindly supplied by Jens Ulriksen, Roskilde Museum Plate Penny minted in Emden, Hermann (Billunger), c 1045–60 Found near the cathedral of Ribe Photo: Ribe Museum Plate Map of monastic mints in the Ottonian-Salian Empire (919–1125) considering the numismatic material Plate (Av and Rv) Hersfeld, Abbey Adelmann (1114–27) Penny 0.84 g +ANDERENANCO Cross with one pellet in each angle//+HEREVELDIA Building with three towers Source: Auction Fritz Rudolf Künker 130, Osnabrück 2007, no 2186 Plate (Av and Rv) Hersfeld, Abbey Anonymous, eleventh century Penny 0.71 g +KAROLVS IMP Bust of Emperor Charlemagne with crossstaff//+SCS LVLLVS Bust of Saint Lullus with crosier Source: Auction Fritz Rudolf Künker 130, Osnabrück 2007, no 2185 Plate (Av and Rv) Quedlinburg, Abbey Mathilde (966–99) or Adelheid (999–1044) Penny 1.55 g +DGRA+REX Cross, O-D-D-O in the angles//SCS SERVACIVS ChurchBuilding (Holzkirche), T-T at sides Source: Auction Fritz Rudolf Künker 130, Osnabrück 2007, no 1799 Plate 10 (Av and Rv) Otto-AdelheidPfennig, around 1000 Penny 1.55 g +DIGRA+REX Cross, O-D-D-O in the angles//ATEAHEHT ChurchBuilding (Holzkirche) Source: Auction Fritz Rudolf Künker 130, Osnabrück 2007, no 1541 Plate 11 (Av and Rv) Stavelot, Abbey Anonymous, eleventh century Penny 1.03 g S REMACLVS EPS Bust of Saint Remaclus r with crosier// STABVLAVS Building Source: Auction Fritz Rudolf Künker 205, Osnabrück 2012, no 2435 Plate 12 (Av and Rv) Marsberg, Mint of the Corvey Abbey Saracho (1065–71) Penny 1.38 g +SCS PETRVS Bust of Saint Petrus//+HERESBVRG Wall with three towers Source: Auction Fritz Rudolf Künker 152, Osnabrück 2009, no 6235 Plate 13 (Av and Rv) Normandy, penny, Rouen, c 940, 1.24 g, type Dumas XV, 16, with the name of SaintOuen Source: Musée départemental des Antiquités de la SeineMaritime, inv 93.4.1 (Ó cg76 – Musée départemental des Antiquités – Rouen, cliché Yohann Deslandes) Plate 14 (Av and Rv) Normandy, penny, Rouen, c 965/975, 1.24 g, type Dumas XV, 19/Fécamp 6042 with the name of SaintRomain Maybe from the Fécamp hoard Source: Musée départemental des Antiquités de la Seine-Maritime, inv 92.13.2 (Ó cg76 – Musée départemental des Antiquités – Rouen, cliché Yohann Deslandes) Plate 15 (Av and Rv) Normandy, penny, Rouen, c 965/975, 1.14 g, type Dumas XV, 20/Fécamp 6044, with the name of SaintRomain Probably found Place du Vieux-Marché, Rouen, 1867 Source: Musée départemental des Antiquités de la Seine-Maritime, inv R.93.104.1 (Ó cg76 – Musée départemental des Antiquités – Rouen, cliché Yohann Deslandes) Plate 16 (Av and Rv) Normandy, penny, Rouen, c 980, 1.02 g, type Dumas XV, 23–24/ Fécamp 4147, with a monogram HGT that has been interpreted as Hugh, archbishop of Rouen Probably from the Fécamp hoard Source: Musée départemental des Antiquités de la Seine-Maritime, inv 79.1.2 (Ó cg76 – Musée départemental des Antiquités – Rouen, cliché Yohann Deslandes) Plate 17 Engraving showing (with some imagination) the grave of St Francis of Assisi at the moment of its discovery in 1818; coins are visible under the right arm Image from Compendio della vita del serafico Patriarca Francesco di Assisi un distinto ragguaglio sul reperimento e verificazione delle sue sagre spoglie rinvenute sotto l’altar maggiore della Chiesa Patriarcale dei MM.RR PP Minori Conventuali della stessa Città l’anno 1818, Assisi 1820 (anastatic reprint, no date) Plate 18 County of Anhalt, Albert the Bear margrave of Brandenburg (1157–70); bracteate (silver, 0.74 g) ADELBERTS MARCHI O; the margrave and his wife Sophie, standing Image courtesy of Jean Elsen & ses Fils sa, Bruxelles, auction 76 no 968 Plate 19 Caronno Pertusella (Varese), Chiesa della Purificazione Photo courtesy of Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici della Lombardia, Milano Plate 20 Caronno Pertusella (Varese), Chiesa della Purificazione, skeleton of the young cow discovered under the foundations Photo courtesy of Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici della Lombardia, Milano Plate 21 Caronno Pertusella (Varese), Chiesa della Purificazione, the head of the cow with the coin Photo courtesy of Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici della Lombardia, Milano ... breadth and depth of investigation and insight into the medieval past at its most intimate and in its largest institutions and social structures Money and the Church in Medieval Europe, 1000 1200 Practice,. .. Buying, Selling and Building: The Use of Money by the Church 6Financing Cathedral-Building in the Middle Ages: The Eleventh to Thirteenth Centuries   Wim Vroom 107 vi Money and the Church in Medieval. .. follows: Money and the Church in Medieval Europe, 1000 1200: Practice, Morality and Thought / edited by Svein H Gullbekk and Giles E.M Gasper pages cm – (Religion and Money in the Middle Ages) Includes
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Xem thêm: Money and the church in medieval europe, 1000 1200 practice, morality and thought , Money and the church in medieval europe, 1000 1200 practice, morality and thought , 10 From HEINRICVS REX to ROTHARD VS ABBAS – Monastic Coinage under the Ottonians and Salians (c. 911–1125), 13 The Church and Money in Norway c. 1050–1250: Salvation and Monetisation