A study on automated ribbon bridge installation strategy and control system design

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Thesis for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy A Study on Automated Ribbon Bridge Installation Strategy and Control System Design by Van Trong Nguyen Department of Mechanical System Engineering The Graduate School Pukyong National University October 2018 A Study on Automated Ribbon Bridge Installation Strategy and Control System Design 부유식 교량 설치방법 및 제어시스템 구축에 관한 연구 by Van Trong Nguyen Advisor: Prof Young-Bok Kim A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy In Department of Mechanical System Engineering, The Graduate School, Pukyong National University October 2018 Acknowledgments Foremost, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my advisor Professor Young-Bok Kim for the continuous support of my study and research, for his immense knowledge, motivation, patience, and his enthusiasm His endless kindness, insight supports, and strong motivation encouraged and helped me to accomplish my research and finish this dissertation scientifically With all my respect and from bottom of my heart, I wish my Professor and his family to have the long-lived health and happiness I would like to thank the members of my thesis committee: Prof Suk-Ho Jung, Prof Soo-Yol Ok, Prof Jin-Ho Suh, and Dr SangWon Ji who have provided wonderful feedback on my work and great suggestions for better contribution of my dissertation I am also grateful to Prof Kyoung-Joon Kim, my former Master advisor, and Dr Anh-Minh Duc Tran from Ton Duc Thang University for essential assistances Without their introduction, I would not have the chance to finish my study in Marine Cybernetics Laboratory Besides, I would like to thank all members of Marine Cybernetics Laboratory for their cooperation, encouragement, and friendship giving me a comfortable and active environment to achieve my work: Manh Son Tran, Nhat Binh Le, Duc Quan Tran, Eun-Ho Choi, DongHoon Lee, Dae-Hwan Kim, Mi-Roo Sin, Soumayya Chakir and all other foreign friends Thanks are due to all members of Vietnamese Students’ Association in Korea, especially Dr Huy Hung Nguyen, Dr Van Tu Duong, i Dr Phuc Thinh Doan, Dr Viet Thang Tran, Dr Dac Chi Dang for their vigorous supports and invaluable helps I would like to thank my parents, my older sister and all my close relatives for their encouragement throughout my life Without their supports, there will be a lot of difficulties for my to finish my graduate study seamlessly Finally, I owe more than thanks to my wonderful wife Thuy Linh Dang for her unconditional love, endless encouragement not only all the time of my study but also in whole of my life ahead Pukyong National University, Busan, Korea October 26, 2018 Van Trong Nguyen ii Contents Acknowledgment i Content iii Abstract vi List of Figures x List of Tables xvi Abbreviation xvii Nomenclatures xviii Chapter 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Introduction Background and motivation Problem Statements Objective and researching method Organization of dissertation Chapter 2.1 Induction of the Ribbon Bridge and Modeling 10 System description 10 2.1.1 Overview of the ribbon floating bridge 10 2.1.2 An automated installation and operation strategy for RFBs 11 2.2 The ribbon floating bridge model description 12 2.2.1 Mechanical design 12 2.2.2 2.3 Electrical design 15 The RFBs Modeling 20 iii 2.3.1 General Modeling for Control of the RFBs 20 2.3.2 The Pilot Model of the RFB Modeling for Control Design 22 2.4 2.5 System Identification 25 Summary 29 Chapter Observer-Based Optimal Control Design with Linear Quadratic Regulator Technique 30 3.1 3.2 3.3 Introduction Control System Framework Observer-based Control Design 3.3.1 State Observer Design 3.3.2 3.4 3.5 3.6 30 31 35 35 Optimal Controller Design 38 Simulation Results 42 Experimental Results 48 Summary 58 Chapter Motion Control Performance with Sliding Mode Control Design 59 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Introduction Sliding Mode Control of MIMO Underactuated System Simulation results Experimental results Summary Chapter 5.1 5.2 59 59 64 69 79 Conclusions and Future Works 81 Conclusions 81 Future works 82 References 84 Publication and Conference 88 iv A Study on Automated Ribbon Bridge Installation Strategy and Control System Design Van Trong Nguyen Department of Mechanical System Engineering, The Graduate School, Pukyong National University Abstract Recently, Ribbon Floating Bridges are widely utilized in transportation, especially for emergency restoration in both military and civil fields thanks to their great advantages of ability to transport heavy combat vehicles, trucks, quick installation, and low environmental impacts Since the installation and operation of the ribbon floating bridge are mainly carried by manual work, these jobs may contain high risks, particularly in dangerous situation and combat time Therefore, it is critical to propose an installation strategy and self-operation automatically This dissertation aims to present a new approach for automated installation and operation of the ribbon floating bridge by proposing a mathematical modeling and designing a control system with different approaches The floating bridge system consists a series of interior and ram bays connected that can be considered as the multi-link manipulator It is confirmed that there is no previous study related to this object although a lot of researchers paid attention to dynamic analysis Bev sides, the floating bridge systems normally work in continuous changing environment and are affected by various of uncertainties such as current flow, moving load, and other external disturbances that can lead to position displacement To successfully achieve the automatic installation and self-correction positional displacement of the ribbon floating bridge, the integrated propulsion systems are included and the yaw motion of every single bay is measured by the incremental encoder The ribbon floating bridge is loaded in one riverside and then is rotated to the desired position across the river In order to maintain the structure and operation of the bridge system, it is required to ensure the linearity of the whole bridge and keep its desired position To completely perform these task, the followings are carried out: ● Firstly, the ribbon floating bridge system structure description and dynamic analysis are discussed and system modeling of the ribbon floating bridge consisting of five individual coupled floating units is given In this system, there will be existences of two passive bays that not have propulsion systems The remaining three active bays are designed to integrate with three propulsion systems containing azimuth propellers, direct current motors and motor drivers Besides, the yaw displacement between two continuous floating units is measured by the incremental encoder The system modeling of the ribbon floating bridge describes the kinematics and kinetic of mechanical and electrical operation to obtain a dynamic system expressed by state equations ● Secondly, a number of experimental studies is conducted in order to identify the dynamic characteristics of the floating unit Bevi Yaw Angle [deg] 100 80 60 40 reference actual angle 20 estimated angle 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Time [s] Fig 4.20 The yaw motion of unit #4 with SMC under disturbance Yaw Angle [deg] 100 80 60 40 reference actual angle estimated angle 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Time [s] Fig 4.21 The yaw motion of unit #5 with SMC under disturbance For further validate the effectiveness of the proposed sliding mode controller in hard condition, the experiment was executed under hard condition that involve strong external wave disturbance The yaw motion response of floating units are shown in Fig 4.17 ∼ Fig 4.21 It can be seen that the installation stage under disturbance effect is smoothly without fluctuation At the time of 120 [sec], additional sudden strong wave have been added, continuously As a result, the whole bridge system was driven away from the target position Ac- 76 cordingly, the proper control action of the controller drove the floating unit to the desired position quickly Yaw Displacement [deg] 0.6 0.4 0.2 -0.2 -0.4 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Time [s] Fig 4.22 The yaw displacement between unit #1 and unit #2 under disturbance Yaw Displacement [deg] 0.6 0.4 0.2 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 50 100 150 200 Time [s] Fig 4.23 The yaw displacement between unit #2 and unit #3 under disturbance 77 Yaw Displacement [deg] 0.3 0.2 0.1 -0.1 -0.2 -0.3 50 100 150 200 Time [s] Fig 4.24 The yaw displacement between unit #3 and unit #4 under disturbance Yaw Displacement [deg] 0.5 -0.5 -1 50 100 150 200 Time [s] Fig 4.25 The yaw displacement between unit #4 and unit #5 under disturbance Fig 4.22 ∼ Fig 4.25 illustrate the displacements between two continuous floating units Before the extreme wave attack, the displacements among these floating units were significantly kept under 78 0.10 However, at the time of strong wave affection, the displacements were increased with the maximum of 0.80 The appropriate action was adjusted by SMC controller coping with the disturbance and the displacements were reduced to 0.20 The obtained data of yaw displacements show that the designed controller can cope with external disturbance to ensure the linearity of whole bridge system by minimizing displacements among floating units The control command forces generated by three propulsion systems are shown in Fig 4.26 The control allocation property of the designed controller is illustrated by the obtained data control force Control Force [N] 2.5 control force control force 1.5 0.5 -0.5 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Time [s] Fig 4.26 The force commands generated by propulsion systems under disturbance condition 4.5 Summary This chapter proposed an approach of employing modified sliding mode control for MIMO state space system The outstanding properties of the sliding mode controller such as noise rejection, low control effort, and stability are successfully taken of advantages Combining 79 with the state estimator, the controller was designed and implemented to control the installation and operation of the ribbon floating bridge The effectiveness of the proposed controller was evaluated by simulation investigation and experimental studies The extreme hard condition was considered by adding sudden strong wave disturbance The experimental results confirm the accurate maneuver of yaw motion control and maintain the displacement of multiple floating unit bridge system With the strong disturbance wave effect, the robustness and stability of the designed controller was verified 80 Chapter 5.1 Conclusions and Future Works Conclusions This dissertation introduced a new automatic installation strat- egy and control system design for the Ribbon Bridge Systems constructed by multiple floating units applying yaw motion control and yaw displacement minimization The conclusion of this dissertation was summarized as follows: ∎ In chapter 2, A structure of recent actual ribbon bridge was introduced The new approaching of automated installation for ribbon bridges was proposed to replace the conventional manual operation The bridge model for modeling and experiment has been described in detailed mechanical and electrical designs For control design, the mathematical modeling of bridge system was proposed Floating unit characteristics: inertia matrix, damping coefficient were identified by experimental results ∎ In chapter 3, an observer-based optimal controller was designed for implementation of automated installation strategy Since a number of states are unable to measured directly, the state estimator was introduced for full-state feedback Consequently, an optimal controller with linear quadratic regulator is designed based on the proposed observer for controlling yaw motion of bridge system and position keeping under disturbance The bridge system installation was completed with minor fluctuation In next stage, the desired position can be kept under continuous wave disturbance Besides, the displacements between floating units is less than 0.50 ensuring the linearity along the bridge system Through experimental results, it is concluded that the 81 proposed control system is able to finish the automated installation and keep desired position by yaw motion control The proposed observer showed great ability for state tracking with less than 0.8% of discrepancy on average ∎ In chapter 4, a sliding mode controller utilized for under-actuated ribbon bridge system The outstanding properties of the sliding mode control technique including positional tracking, reducing control effort, and noise rejection were token advantages for installation and position keeping of bridge system A state observer is designed for obtaining unmeasured data for computing controller As a result, the yaw motion of bridge system was smoothly approaching the assigned position without fluctuation or overshoot The stability of control system for ribbon bridge system was being validated by strong external wave disturbance These tests revealed that the sliding mode controller can cope with disturbance quickly In addition, the obtained data of the yaw displacement among floating units confirm that the linearity of the bridge system was maintained Overall, the sliding mode controller shows an improvement compared with the optimal controller presented in previous chapter In general, these results suggest that the proposed installation strategy and control design have stability, feasibility to be implemented in real plant 5.2 Future works As for this dissertation, the future works will be made as follows: • Developing the less complicated model for the general bridge system containing n-floating unit bridge for reduction of computational time consuming 82 • The combination of active propulsion system and rope system for station keeping • Developing the installation and positional keeping using rope tension control 83 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“’Linear Quadratic Regulator Controller Design,” Beijing: Tsinghua University Press, Springer, 2012 [26] C Edwards, S Spurgeon, “Sliding Mode Control: Theory And Applications,” CRC Press, 1998 [27] J Liu and X Wang, “Advanced Sliding Mode Control for Mechanical Systems,” IAA Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conference and Exhibit, Hilton Head, 2007 [28] R Schkoda and A Crassidis, “Underactuated Mechanical Systems,” Control Problems in Robotics and Automation, pp 135– 150, Springer, 2005 [29] R Schkoda and A Crassidis, “Dynamic Inversion Control for Non-Square Systems with Application to Aircraft Longitudinal Control,” IAA Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conference and Exhibit, Hilton Head, 2007 87 Publication and Conference Published Journal Van Trong Nguyen, Myong-Soo Choi, and Young-Bok Kim, “A Study on Automated Ribbon Bridge Installation Strategy,” Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems, Vol 23 No 8, pp 661–666, 2017 SCOPUS ISSN 1976–5622 (Print), eISSN 2233–4335 (Online) Van Trong Nguyen, Yong-Woon Choi, Jung-In Yoon, Kang-Hwan Choi, and Young-Bok Kim, “Modeling, Identification, and Simulation of Positional Displacement Control for Ribbon Bridges,” MATEC Web of Conferences, Vol 159 No 02026, 2018 SCOPUS, ❞♦✐❂✶✵✳✶✵✺✶✴♠❛t❡❝❝♦♥❢✴✷✵✶✽✶✺✾✵✷✵✷✻ Van Trong Nguyen, Young-Bok Kim, and Sang-Won Ji, “Installation Strategy and Control System Design for Floating Bridges,”International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology, Vol 7, issue 12, 2018, ISSN 2277-3754 (Online) 88 Conference Paper Van Trong Nguyen and Young-Bok Kim, “A Study on Positional Displacement Control for the Pontoon Ribbon Bridges for Rivercrossing Purpose,” 2017 17th International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems (ICCAS 2017), Jeju, Korea, pp 93– 95, 2017 Van Trong Nguyen, Yong-Woon Choi, Jung-In Yoon, KwangHwan Choi, and Young-Bok Kim, “Modeling, Identification, and Simulation of Positional Displacement Control for Ribbon Bridges” The 2nd International Joint Conference on Advanced Engineering and Technology (IJCAET 2017) and International Symposium on Advanced Mechanical and Power Engineering (ISAMPE 2017), Bali, Indonesia, 2017 Van Trong Nguyen, C Kang, J Jeong, C Son, K Choi, S Jung, J Yoon, J Yang, and Young-Bok Kim, “A Control Strategy for Multiply Connected Floating Units: Experimental Study,” The 20th The Korea Society for Power System Engineering (KSPSE 2017), pp 11–2, Busan, Korea, 2017 D.H Lee, T W Kim, Van Trong Nguyen, C H Son, J I Yoon, K H Choi, and Young-Bok Kim, “Installation Strategy and Control System Design for Floating Bridges,” International Congress on Engineering and Information (ICEAI 2018), ISBN: 978-98688450-4-6, Hokkaido, Japan, 2018 T W Kim, D.H Lee, Van Trong Nguyen, C H Son, J I Yoon, K H Choi, and Young-Bok Kim, “A Study on Motion Control of 89 Multiple Floating Units,” Proceedings of The 4th World Congress on Mechanical, Chemical, and Material Engineering (MCM’18), SCOPUS, ❞♦✐✿✶✵✳✶✶✶✺✾✴✐❝♠✐❡✶✽✳✶✵✸ , no ICMIE103, ISSN: 23698136, ISBN: 978-1-927877-51-7, Madrid, Spain, 2018 Van Trong Nguyen, D Lee, C Kang, J Jeong, C Son, K Choi, S Jung, J Yoon, K Yang, M Choi, J Suh, and Young-Bok Kim, “A Study on the Controling the 5-Floating Units : Simulation Study,” 한국동력기계공학회 2018년도 추계학술대회논문집, Busan, Korea, 2018 Van Trong Nguyen, T Kim, C Kang, J Jeong, C Son, K Choi, S Jung, J Yoon, K Yang, M Choi, J Suh, and Young-Bok Kim, “A Study on the Controling the 5-Floating Units : Experimental Study,” 한국동력기계공학회 2018년도 추계학술대회논문집, Busan, Korea, 2018 90 ... 88 iv A Study on Automated Ribbon Bridge Installation Strategy and Control System Design Van Trong Nguyen Department of Mechanical System Engineering, The Graduate School, Pukyong National University... present a new approach for automated installation and operation of the ribbon floating bridge by proposing a mathematical modeling and designing a control system with different approaches The floating... may contain high risks, particularly in dangerous situation and combat time Therefore, it is critical to propose an installation strategy and self-operation automatically This dissertation aims
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