SYNTACTIC AND SEMANTIC FEATURES OF IDIOMS DENOTING HEALTH IN ENGLISH AND VIETNAMESE

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING HANOI OPEN UNIVERSITY M.A THESIS SYNTACTIC AND SEMANTIC FEATURES OF IDIOMS DENOTING HEALTH IN ENGLISH AND VIETNAMESE (CÚ PHÁP VÀ NGỮ NGHĨA CỦA THÀNH NGỮ VỀ SỨC KHỎE TRONG TIẾNG ANH VÀ TIẾNG VIỆT) KIEU THU HIEN Field: English Language Code: 8220201 Hanoi, 2018 MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING HANOI OPEN UNIVERSITY M.A THESIS SYNTACTIC AND SEMANTIC FEATURES OF IDIOMS DENOTING HEALTH IN ENGLISH AND VIETNAMESE (CÚ PHÁP VÀ NGỮ NGHĨA CỦA THÀNH NGỮ VỀ SỨC KHỎE TRONG TIẾNG ANH VÀ TIẾNG VIỆT) KIEU THU HIEN Field: English Language Code: 8220201 Supervisor name: Dr Mai Thi Loan Hanoi, 2018 CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY I, the undersigned, hereby certify my authority of the study project report entitled “Syntactic and semantic features of idioms denoting health in English and Vietnamese” submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master in English Language Except where the reference is indicated, no other person’s work has been used without due acknowledgement in the text of the thesis Hanoi, 2018 Kieu Thu Hien Approved by SUPERVISOR Dr Mai Thi Loan Date:…………………… i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am extremely grateful to all of the people for helping me to finish my graduation paper First of all, I wish to express my sincere thanks and deepest gratitude to my supervisor – Dr Mai Thi Loan for her whole-hearted guidance and valuable suggestion during the process of doing this research Additionally, I am also grateful to all of the teachers of Foreign Language Department of Hanoi Open University for their enthusiastic assistance during the time I studied at the university I wish to forward my special thanks to my family and my friends for whatever they support and encourage me both mentally and physically at this time I am fully aware that shortcomings and mistakes are inevitable in my research Any comments and suggestions would be highly appreciated for the perfectness of my own research Hanoi, October, 2018 Kieu Thu Hien ii ABSTRACT One of the most effective and colorful ways to transfer culture is the use of idioms which, however cause several troubles for English learners because of their confusing meanings To help learners have a better understanding of idioms, particularly idioms denoting health, this thesis conducts a study of syntactic and semantic features of idioms denoting health in English and Vietnamese Basing on the description and analysis of distinguishing features, the similarities and differences of idioms in the two languages are presented In addition, both the descriptive and contrastive methods are used in combination with the qualitative and quantitative approach The investigation is based on 109 samples of English idioms and 109 Vietnamese idioms denoting health from a wide variety of dictionaries and books about idioms These findings also aim at offering some practical implications for teaching and learning English iii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS A: Adverb C: Complement IH: Idioms denoting health MA: Master thesis O: Object S: Subject V: Verb iv LIST OF TABLES Table 2.1 : Types of sentence structures 13 Table 4.1 : English idioms denoting health with phrase structures 36 Table 4.2 : English idioms denoting health with clause structures 37 Table 4.3 : English idioms denoting health with sentence structures 38 Table 4.4 : Syntactic features of English idioms denoting health 38 Table 4.5: Semantic features of English idioms denoting health 41 Table 4.6 : Syntactic features of Vietnamese idioms denoting health 43 Table 4.7: Semantic features of Vietnamese idioms denoting health 46 Table 4.8: Statistical analysis of syntactic features of English and Vietnamese IH 47 Chart 4.1: Rate of syntactic features of English and Vietnamese IH 47 Table 4.9: Statistical analysis of semantic features of English and Vietnamese IH 49 Chart 4.2: Rate of semantic features of English and Vietnamese IH 49 v TABLE OF CONTENTS CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ii ABSTRACT iii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS iv CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Rationale for the study 1.2 Aims and objectives of the study 1.3 Research questions 1.4 Methods of the study 1.5 Scope of the study 1.6 Significance of the study 1.7 Structure of the study CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Previous studies 2.1.1 Previous studies oversea 2.1.2 Previous studies in Vietnam 2.2 Overview of phrases, clauses and sentences 2.2.1 Phrase structures 2.2.2 Clause structures 11 2.2.3 Sentence structures 12 2.3 Overview of idioms 13 2.3.1 Definition of idioms 14 2.3.2 Features of idioms 15 2.3.3 Classification of idioms 19 2.3.4 Idioms and other language units 20 2.3.5 Idioms denoting health 23 2.4 English and Vietnamese cultural features 23 2.5 Summary 25 CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 27 3.1 Context of the study 27 3.2 Instruments 27 3.3 Procedures 28 vi 3.4 Statistical analysis 28 3.5 Summary 29 CHAPTER 4: SYNTACTIC AND SEMANTIC FEATURES OF IDIOMS DENOTING HEALTH IN ENGLISH AND VIETNAMESE 30 4.1 Syntactic and semantic features of idioms denoting health in English 30 4.1.1 Syntactic features 30 4.1.2 Semantic features 39 4.2 Syntactic and semantic features of idioms denoting health in Vietnam 41 4.2.1 Syntactic features 41 4.2.2 Semantic features 44 4.3 A comparison of idioms denoting health in English with reference to their Vietnamese equivalents 46 4.3.1 In terms of the syntactic features 46 4.3.2 In terms of the semantic features 49 4.4 Implications for teaching and learning English and Vietnamese idioms denoting health 53 4.4.1 For teaching 53 4.4.2 For learning 56 4.5 Summary 58 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION 59 5.1 Recapitulation 59 5.2 Concluding remarks 59 5.3 Limitations of the study 60 5.4 Recommendations for further study 61 REFERENCES 62 APPENDIXES 67 vii CHAPTER INTRODUCTION 1.1 Rationale for the study Nowadays, together with growth of global connection, English language has become more and more important Especially in Vietnam, learning English seems to be one of main tasks of students In this process, they encounter a large number of difficulties, among which is understanding idioms Every country has got their own idioms that are specific to their own culture Learning the specific idioms related to a certain culture helps you learn more about the history, customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of it Idioms appear in every language, and English has thousand of them Today, most linguists would agree that the traditional definition of idioms as “deadmetaphor” fails to capture the different classes of metaphoric expressions There is body of evidence that suggests that the meaning of many idioms is at least partly defined by the meaning of the component words Wasow, Sag and Numberg (1983) claimed that individual parts of idiomatic expressions have identifiable meanings from which the figurative meanings of phrases as a whole are derived, and that the mapping between the two levels of meanings takes place in conventionalized rather than arbitrary ways Gluckberg (2001) also observes that while some idiomatic phrases are non-compositional (e g spic and span), others are fully compositional, with clear semantic mapping between the constituent words and their idiomatic referents For example, in the idiom pop in the question, pop can be mapped onto “suddenly ask” and the question can be mapped onto “marriage proposal” In compositional phrase, idiom constituents constrain both idiom interpretation and use For instance, the verb kick implies a discrete, swift action making it impossible to say he kicked the bucket all week, while one could say he lay dying all week Up to now, a lot of studies have been done on analyzing and categorizing idioms according to alphabetical arrangement Others concentrate on analyzing their semantic, structural and cultural features in number of idioms denoting color, anger, human body part, outward and appearance, richness and poverty, water, number or symbols of animals, comparison, causes and results, etc Nevertheless, an investigation into English and Vietnamese idioms denoting health in terms of syntactic and semantic has not been dealt deeply with so far process of the investigation, we have also discovered that most idioms contain simultaneous meanings That is the reason why sometimes, we find it is difficult to understand the idioms at the first sight Basically, the figurative meaning of idioms is usually conveyed through the expression means More interestingly, some idioms denoting health in Vietnamese have no equivalence in English and vice versa because of the cultural differences between two countries With regard for the second research question about the similarities and differences between English and Vietnamese idioms denoting health, the author found out that, English people tend to use verb phrase structures to communicate whereas Vietnamese people tend to use the sentence structures Semantically, there are categories meanings of idiom denoting health in English as follows: indicating the prophylactic, the treatment, the good health, the poor health, the death, the health recovery and the illness and symptoms In Vietnamese idioms denoting health, there also have categories such as: indicating the prophylactic, the treatment, the good health, the poor health, the advice, the prevention in eating and the longevity and desire It is easy to see that both English and Vietnamese idioms denoting health are employed for the same four topics such as: indicating the prophylactic, the treatment, the good health and the poor health In term of the third question about the solutions to teaching and learning English idioms denoting health, the author pointed out that applying the devices for teaching English idioms denoting health is effective Therefore, teachers can follow the formula whenever possible It also helps learners of English perceive patterns and relations regarding the meaning, the structure and the function of English idioms 5.3 Limitations of the study The thesis investigates syntactic features and semantic features of English and Vietnamese idioms denoting health Although the author has the best efforts of research, it is obvious that there are some certain limitations Firstly, the study only focuses on the syntactic and semantic features rather than cultural and pragmatic features of idioms denoting health In addition, in this thesis, the author studied only the idioms denoting health rather than other expressions like idioms denoting water, time, animals, colours, family or friends, etc Moreover, under the constraint of ability, the researcher could only compare 60 idioms under some criteria, which may not be totally adequate for thorough understanding of cross cultural similarities and differences However, the author hopes that the serious work had well served the research questions as a contribution to the rich collection of other previous studies in the same area 5.4 Recommendations for further study This thesis focuses only on studying the semantic and syntactic features of idioms denoting health in English and Vietnamese Therefore, there will be some topics left for further research: An investigation into cultural features of English and Vietnamese idioms denoting health An investigation into the pragmatic features of English and Vietnamese idioms denoting health 61 REFERENCES IN ENGLISH Alice, O & Ann, H (2006) Writing academic English: Longman Andrew, G (2012) Meaning and Humour: Cambridge University Press Arthur, T (1986) Longman Lexicon of contemporary English: Longman Baker, M (1992) In other word: A course book on translation: Routledge Bell, R.T (1974) Translation and translating: Theory and practice: Longman Chitra Fernando (1996) Idioms and idiomaticity: Oxford University Press Colin, M (1995) Cambridge advanced learners’ dictionary: Cambridge University Press Cowie A.P (1983) Oxford dictionary of English idioms: Oxford University Press Cowie A.P (1994) Oxford dictionary of English idioms: Oxford University Press 10 Cowie, Mackin & McCaig (1994) Oxford Dictionary of English Idioms: Oxford University Press 11 Cristina, C and Patrizia, T (1993) Idioms- processing, structure and interpretation: Psychology Press 12 Crystal, David (1980) A first dictionary of linguistics and phonetics: Westview 13 Cruise (1987) Lexical semantics: Cambridge University Press 14 Cynthia (2007) Ack, there is a bug in my ear: The child’s world 15 Eliot, Thomas Stearns (2010) Notes toward the definition of culture: Farber and Farber 16 Fernando (1989) Idiom and idiomaticity: Oxford University Press 17 Fraser, B (1970) Idioms within transitional grammar: Foundation of language: Springer 18 Gluckberg (2001) Understanding figurative language: Oxford University Press 19 Gramley and Pathold (2004) A survey of modern English: Routledge 20 Hopper, R, Knap, M L and Scott, L (1981) Couples’ personal items: Exploring intimate talk: Journal of communication 21 Hornby, A.S (1995) Oxford advance learner’s dictionary: Oxford University Press 62 22 Jack C Richards (1987) Longman dictionary of language teaching and applied linguistic: Longman 23 Jenifer, S and W Mc Mordie (1988) English idioms and how to use them: Oxford University Press 24 John, S and Edmund, W (1989) Oxford dictionary:Clarendon Press 25 Jon, W (2009) Idioms organizer: Cengage Learning EMEA 26 Judith Siefring (2004) Oxford dictionary of idiom: Oxford University Press 27 Kim Ann Zimmermann (2013) Live science contribuitor: Edward Elgar 28 Kunin, A V (2006) Conprehensive English – Russian phraseological dictionary 20000 terms: Hardcover 29 Linda, F (1994) Dictionary of idioms and their origin: Tralfanga square publishing 30 Loreen Leedy (2004) There is a frog in my throat: Holiday house 31 Lynn Bickley (2005) Bates' guide to physical examination and history taking: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 32 Makkai (1972) Idioms structure in English: Mouton 33 Marc Sbatine (2000) Pocket medicine: Marc S Sabatine 34 Marvin Terban (2007) Mad as a wet hen: Clarion books 35 Mc Mordie (1983) English idioms and how to use them: Oxford University Press 36 Michael McCarthy, Felicity O'Dell (2002) English idioms in use: Cambridge University Press 37 Nguyễn Hoàng Trà My (2011) An investigation into the syntactic, semantic and cultural features of idioms denoting Life and Death in English and Vietnamese: Master thesis, Danang 38 Nguyễn Thị Thu Hiền (2013) Syntactic ansd semantic features of idioms expressing anger in English and Vietnamese, Master thesis, Hanoi 39 Nguyễn Thị Vinh A study on syntactic and semantic features of idioms denoting sadness in English with references to Vietnamese equivalents, Master thesis, Danang 40 Nguyễn Quang (1998) Cross- cultural communication: NXB Đại học Quốc gia Hà Nội 41 Oxford dictionary (1995) Oxford advanced learners’ dictionary: Oxford University Press 63 42 Palmer F.R (1990) Semantics: Cambridge University Press 43 Peaty (1983) Working with English idioms Survey: Thomas Nelson and Sons 44 Peter Collins and Carmella Hollo (2010) English grammar introduction: Palgrave Macmillan 45 Randolph Quirk (1985) A comprehensive grammar of the English language: Longman 46 Shirley Soltesz Steine (1972) Quick medical terminology: Wiley 47 Seild, J and McMordie, W (1978) English idioms and how to use them: Oxford University Press 48 Tkachuk (2005) Idioms inside out: Money in English: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt 49 Trần Ngọc Quế Châu (2011) A study of idioms denoting family in English and Vietnamese, Master thesis, Danang 50 Vanita Oelschlager (2012) Out of the blue: Vanita book 51 Wasow, Sag and Numberg (1983) Creativity and convention : The pragmatics of everyday figurative speech: John Benjamins publish company 64 IN VIETNAMESE 52 Đỗ Hữu Châu (1981) Từ vựng - Ngữ nghĩa tiếng Việt: NXB Giáo dục, 53 Hoàng Văn Hành (2002) Kể chuyện thành ngữ tục ngữ: NXB Khoa học Xã hội 54 Hoàng Văn Hành (2008) Thành ngữ học Tiếng Việt: NXB Khoa học Xã hội 55 Hoàng Tuyết Minh (2014) Phép tu từ so sánh ngang tiếng Việt: NXB Giáo dục Việt Nam 56 Lương Văn Đang, Nguyễn Lực (1993) Thành ngữ tiếng Việt: NXB Khoa học Xã hội 57 Mai Lan Hương, Nguyễn Thanh Loan, Lý Thanh Trúc, Trần Lan Anh, Phan Thị Mai Hương, Hà Thanh Uyên (2008) Từ điển thành ngữ Anh-Việt: NXB Đại học Quốc gia Hà Nội 58 Nguyễn Cơng Đức (1995) Bình diện cấu trúc hình thái-ngữ nghĩa thành ngữ Tiếng Việt: Viện ngôn ngữ học Việt Nam 59 Nguyễn Lân (2005) Từ điển thành ngữ, tục ngữ Việt Nam: NXB Văn học 60 Nguyễn Như Ý (1998) Từ điển giải thích thành ngữ Tiếng Việt: NXB Giáo dục 61 Nguyễn Như Ý, Nguyễn Văn Khang, Phạm Xuân Thành (1993) Từ điển thành ngữ Việt Nam: NXB Văn hóa thơng tin 62 Nguyễn Quang (2000) Thành tố văn hóa dạy học ngoại ngữ: NXB Đại học Quốc gia Hà Nội 63 Nguyện Thiện Giáp (1985) Từ vựng học Tiếng Việt: NXB Đại học trung học chuyên nghiệp: NXB Đại học Quốc Gia Hà Nội 64 Nguyễn Thiện Giáp (2008) Giáo trình ngôn ngữ học: NXB Đại học Quốc gia Hà Nội 65 Nguyễn Văn Hằng (1999) Thành ngữ bốn yếu tố tiếng Việt đại: NXB Khoa học Xã hội 66 Nguyễn Xuân Kính, Nguyễn Thuý Loan, Phan Lan Hương, Nguyễn Luân (2002) Những câu tục ngữ nói ốm đau, chữa bệnh: Tạp chí Nguồn sáng dân gian 67 Trần Ngọc Thêm (1993) Việt Nam- Những vấn đề ngôn ngữ văn hóa: Hội ngơn ngữ học Việt Nam – Trường Đại học Ngoại ngữ Hà Nội 68 Vĩnh Bá (1998) Từ điển thành ngữ Anh – Việt: NXB Giáo dục 69 Việt Chương (1998) Từ điển thành ngữ, tục ngữ, ca dao Việt Nam: NXB Đồng Nai 65 70 Vũ Dung, Vũ Thuý Anh, Vũ Quang Hào (1995) Từ điển thành ngữ tục ngữ Việt Nam: NXB Văn hoá 66 APPENDIXES ENGLISH IDIOMS DENOTING HEALTH A dose of one’s own medicine A pain in the neck Alive and well An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure As blind as a bat As dead as a doornail As fit as a fiddle 10 As fresh as a daisy As pale as a death As right as rain 11 12 13 14 As sick as a dog At death’s door Back into shape Back on one’s feet 15 16 17 Bag of bones Bitter bill to swallow Black and blue 18 19 20 21 Black out Blue/green around the gills Break out in a cold sweat Break out in something 22 23 24 Bring ( someone) around Burn out Catch a cold 25 26 27 28 Check up Come down with Couch doctor Death warmed up 29 30 31 32 Die a natural death Die with one’s boots on Dogs are barking Draw blood drop dead 67 33 34 35 36 Drop like flies Fall in Feel blue Feel fit 37 38 39 Fill a prescription Frog in one’s throat Full of beans 40 41 42 43 Get a charley horse Get over Get sick Go under the knife 44 45 46 Hale and heart Have a hangover Have a physical 47 48 49 50 Have foot in mouth disease Have one foot in the grave Head shrinker Hit the dust 51 52 53 Ill at ease In a family way In bad shape 54 55 56 57 In labor In remission In the best of health In the pink of health 58 59 60 In the pink on medication Junk food Just what the doctor ordered 61 62 63 64 Keep body and soul together Kick the habit Kink in one’s neck Land of the living 65 66 Lapse into a coma Living on borrowed time 68 67 68 69 70 Meet your maker New lease of life Off color On one’s last legs 71 72 73 On the mend One’s number is up Out cold 74 75 76 77 Out of condition Out of shape Out of sorts Over the worst 78 79 80 Pale around the gills Pass away Pass on 81 82 83 84 Pass out flair up Picture of health Pop one’s clogs Pull through 85 86 87 Pushing up the daisies Racked with pain Ready to drop 88 89 90 91 Recharge one’s batteries Run a fever/ temperatures Run in the family Run some tests 92 93 94 Show signs of an illness Spare tyre Spit up something 95 96 97 98 Splitting headache Stick/ Stand out like a sore thumb Take (someone’s) pulse Take (someone’s) temperature 99 100 Take a turn for the better Take one’s medicine 69 101 Throw up 102 To be nothing but skin and bones 103 Touch and go 104 Under the weather 105 Up and about 106 Verbal diarrhoea 107 Warts and all 108 Weak at the knees 109 You are what you eat 70 VIETNAMESE IDIOMS DENOTING HEALTH Ăn cơm bữa, bệnh chữa kịp thời Ăn ngủ tiên Ăn không rau, đau không thuốc Ăn lấy thơm lấy tho, ăn lấy no lấy béo Ăn miếng ngon, chồng giả người Ăn đau tức, làm cực thân Ăn no vác nặng Ăn theo buổi, ngủ theo Ăn vóc học hay 10 Ba ba ăn với rau dền, trúng độc nguy hiểm nên coi thường 11 Ba ba ăn với rau sam, bụng đau quằn quại khó tồn vẹn thân 12 Ba ngày béo bảy ngày gầy 13 Bát nước giải vại thuốc 14 15 16 17 Cá chép cam thảo nhớ rằng, trúng độc tức khắc không cần hỏi tra Cái miệng hại thân Cải thìa chịt chó xào xơ, ăn vào tả hôn mê không lường Càng già dẻo dai, gãy chân chõng, sai chân giường 17 Cây sắn dây thầy rắn 18 Cày sâu cuốc bẫm 19 Chẳng ốm chảng đau, làm giàu chốc 20 Chuối hột ăn với mật đường, bụng phình trướng dọc đường phân rơi 21 Chuối tiêu khoai môn phiền hà, ruột đau quặn lại dao đâm 22 Có bệnh vái tứ phương 23 Cổ cày, vai bừa 24 Có sức khỏe có tất 25 Cơm ăn bữa, bệnh chữa kịp thời 26 Cơm ba bát thuốc ba thang 27 Cơm ba bát, áo ba manh 28 Cơm cháo chẳng ăn, mạnh thầy 29 Cơm có bữa, chợ có chiều 30 Cơm có bữa, chợ có phiên 31 Cơm phải rau, đau phải thuốc 32 Cứu bệnh cứu hoả 71 33 Đàn ông nằm sấp, phụ nữ thở dài 34 Đau bụng lấy cùm cụm mà chườm, nhược không khỏi hắc hương với gừng 35 Đau đẻ, ngứa ghẻ, đòn ghen 36 Đậu xanh, đu đủ chua, có tính rã thuốc cho uống 37 Để đau chạy thuốc chẳng giải trước 38 Đói ăn rau, đau uống thuốc 39 Đói chẳng xanh, rét chẳng chết 40 Đóm cháy ăn ra, tim la ăn vào 41 Động kinh chứng bệnh rành rành, thị lợn rang chung ấu tầu 42 Đừng ăn miệng, đừng diện sang 43 Dụng dược dụng binh 44 Đường đen với sữa đậu nành, đau bụng tháo hoanh hành suốt đêm 45 Gái 17 bẻ gãy sừng trâu 46 Gái thở dài, trai nằm úp 47 Gan lợn giá đỗ nực cười, xào chung bổ tươi ban đầu 48 Già sức khỏe, trẻ bình n 49 Giàu khó phải ăn rau, ốm đau phải uống thuốc 50 Kẻ trí q sức, kẻ dại q ăn 51 Khoai lang hang mận ăn vô, dày viêm loét tổn thương tá tràng 52 Khỏe trâu 53 Khỏe vâm 54 Không vẻ đẹp đẹp cuồn cuộn bắp 55 Lấy độc trị độc 56 Lạy trời lạy Phật laỵ Vua, cho tơi sức khỏe khua ruồi 57 Lòi tỹ dịt vông 58 Lương dược khổ khấu 59 Mất tiền ít, sức khỏe tất 60 Miếng ăn thành tàn 61 Một rắm nắm thuốc tiêu, liều thuốc gió, lọ thuốc tiên 62 Một chén thuốc ta ba chén thuốc Tàu 63 Một sa ba đẻ 64 Một nụ cười mười thang thuốc bổ 65 Một cà ba thang thuốc 72 66 Người gầy thầy cơm 67 Nhà mát, bát ngon cơm 68 Nhiều tiên Hồng Cầm, Hồng Kỳ, tiền trần bì xác 69 Non cao có đường trèo, bệnh hiểm nghèo có thuốc thần tiên 70 Nơn mửa bụng khơng n, hải sản ăn liền trái 71 Nước chè thịt chó no say, thường xuyên có ngày ung thư 72 Ốm tiếc thân, lành tiếc 73 Phòng bệnh chữa bệnh 74 Phục dược bách loã, bất độc ngoạ 75 Phục dược bất giảm 76 Quả lê thịt ngỗng tưởng thường; ăn vào thể sốt cao 77 Run cầy sấy 78 Sống lâu sức khỏe, vẻ hay 79 Sữa bò cam quýt bưởi chanh, ăn lúc liên sấm rền 80 Sức dài vai rộng 81 Thà đau ngất chẳng giắt 82 Thà vơ mà ăn cơm hẩm, đeo bệnh mà uống sâm nhung 83.Tham thực cực thân 84 Thịt dê ngộ độc đâu, dưa hấu xen vào bữa ăn 85 Thịt gà kinh giới kỵ nhau, ăn lúc ngứa đầu phát điên 86 Thịt gà rau cải có câu, âm dương khí huyết vào hư vơ 87 Thịt gà, cá chép, ba ba, nhiêu thứ liệu mà phải kiêng 88 Thịt rắn kỵ củ cải xào, ăn nhiều thoát lưỡi dao tử thần 89 Thứ đau mắt, thứ nhì nhức 90 Thứ phạm phòng, thứ nhì lòng lợn 91.Thuốc có cam thảo, nước có lão thân 92 Thuốc đắng dã tật 93 Thuốc không hay thang 94 Thuốc Nam đánh giặc, thuốc Bắc lấy tiền 95 Thuốc tra, ma cúng 96 Tiêu đái, ngon cơm 97 To vòng bụng, ngắn vòng đời 98 Trâu ho bò rống 99 Trời có nắng mưa, người có khoẻ, ốm 73 100 Trúng bệnh, vi diệu 101 Trứng vịt lẫn tỏi than ôi, ăn vào chết mười mươi rõ ràng 102 Từ gót chí đầu, đau đâu khốn 103 Vai u, thịt bắp, chân đất, mồ hôi dầu 104 Vơ đậu bất thành nhân 105 Xương gà, da chó 106 Xào xáo Xuân Lai, thuốc sài Định Mỗ 107 Yếu sậy 108 Yếu sên 109 Yếu trâu khơng khỏe bò 74 ... IV, Syntactic and semantic features of idioms denoting health in English and Vietnamese, describes and analyzes the syntactic and semantic features of idioms denoting health in English and Vietnamese. .. “A study of idioms denoting family in English and Vietnamese compares and contrasts idioms denoting family in English and Vietnamese in terms of syntactic and semantic features In the syntactic. .. better understanding of idioms, particularly idioms denoting health, this thesis conducts a study of syntactic and semantic features of idioms denoting health in English and Vietnamese Basing on the
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Xem thêm: SYNTACTIC AND SEMANTIC FEATURES OF IDIOMS DENOTING HEALTH IN ENGLISH AND VIETNAMESE , SYNTACTIC AND SEMANTIC FEATURES OF IDIOMS DENOTING HEALTH IN ENGLISH AND VIETNAMESE , 2 Overview of phrases, clauses and sentences, Table 2.1: Types of sentence structures, Accroding to the authors such as Hopper; Knapp and Scott (1981), idioms can convey positive, neutral or negative meanings. Some idioms have positive meaning like look the picture of health (look extremely healthy). As for idioms conveying negative meaning, Table 4.4: Syntactic features of English idioms denoting health, Table 4.6: Syntactic features of Vietnamese idioms denoting health, Chart 4.2: Rate of semantic features of English and Vietnamese IH

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