Chemistry, the molecular nature of matter 6th ed n jespersen, j brady, a hyslop (wiley sons, 2012)

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This page intentionally left blank Sixth Edition Chemistry The Molecular Nature of Matter jespe_fm-hr.indd 11/30/10 1:05 PM This page intentionally left blank Sixth Edition Chemistry The Molecular Nature of Matter Neil D Jespersen St John’s University, New York James E Brady St John’s University, New York In collaboration with Alison Hyslop St John’s University, New York John Wiley and Sons, Inc jespe_fm-hr.indd 11/30/10 1:05 PM VICE PRESIDENT, EXECUTIVE PUBLISHER ASSOCIATE PUBLISHER ACQUISITION EDITOR PROJECT EDITOR MARKETING MANAGER SENIOR DESIGNER INTERIOR DESIGNER SENIOR ILLUSTRATION EDITOR SENIOR PHOTO EDITOR PHOTO RESEARCHER EXECUTIVE MEDIA EDITOR MEDIA EDITOR MEDIA PRODUCTION EDITOR CONTENT MANAGER COVER PHOTO Kaye Pace Petra Recter Nicholas Ferrari Jennifer Yee Kristine Ruff Jim O’Shea Brian Salisbury Anna Melhorn Jennifer MacMillan Susan Kaprov Thomas Kulesa Marc Wezdecki Evelyn Levich Lucille Buonocore Ken Lucas/Visuals Unlimited This book was set in 10.5 Adobe Garamond by Prepare and printed and bound by Courier Kendallville The cover was printed by Courier Kendallville This book is printed on acid free paper ∞ Founded in 1807, John Wiley & Sons, Inc has been a valued source of knowledge and understanding for more than 200 years, helping people around the world meet their needs and fulfill their aspirations Our company is built on a foundation of principles that include responsibility to the communities we serve and where we live and work In 2008, we launched a Corporate Citizenship Initiative, a global effort to address the environmental, social, economic, and ethical challenges we face in our business Among the issues we are addressing are carbon impact, paper specifications and procurement, ethical conduct within our business and among our vendors, and community and charitable support For more information, please visit our website: www.wiley.com/go/citizenship Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2004, 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc All rights reserved No part of 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period, please return the evaluation copy to Wiley Return instructions and a free of charge return shipping label are available at www.wiley.com/go/returnlabel Outside of the United States, please contact your local representative Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Jespersen, Neil D Chemistry: the molecular nature of matter/Neil D Jespersen, James E Brady; In collaboration with Alison Hyslop – 6th ed p cm Previous edition: Chemistry/James E Brady, Fred Senese; in collaboration with Neil D Jespersen Includes index ISBN 978-0-470-57771-4 (cloth) Binder-Ready Version ISBN 978-0-470-91770-1 Chemistry I Jespersen, Neil D II Brady, James E III Hyslop, Alison IV Title QD33.2.B73 2012 540–dc22 2010043302 Printed in the United States of America 10 jespe_fm-hr.indd 11/30/10 1:05 PM About the Authors Neil D Jespersen is a Professor of Chemistry at St John’s University in New York He earned a B.S with Special Attainments in Chemistry at Washington and Lee University (VA) and his Ph.D in Analytical Chemistry with Joseph Jordan at The Pennsylvania State University He has received awards for excellence in teaching and research from St John’s University and the E Emmit Reid Award in college teaching from the American Chemical Society’s Middle Atlantic Region He chaired the Department of Chemistry for years and has mentored the St John’s student ACS club for over 30 years while continuing to enjoy teaching Quantitative and Instrumental Analysis courses, along with General Chemistry He has been an active contributor to the Eastern Analytical Symposium, chairing it in 1991 Neil has authored the Barrons AP Chemistry Study Guide; has edited books on Instrumental Analysis and Thermal Analysis; and has chapters in research monographs, 50 refereed publications, and 150 abstracts and presentations He is active at the local, regional and national levels of the American Chemical Society, and was recently elected to the ACS Board of Directors When there is free time you can find him playing tennis, baseball with four grandchildren, or traveling with his wife Marilyn James E Brady received his BA degree from Hofstra College in 1959 and his Ph.D from Penn State University under the direction of C David Schmulbach in 1963 He is Professor Emeritus at St John’s University, New York, where he taught graduate and undergraduate courses for 35 years His first textbook, General Chemistry: Principles and Structure, coauthored with Gerard Humiston, was published in 1975 An innovative feature of the text was 3D illustrations of molecules and crystal structures that could be studied with a stereo viewer that came tucked into a pocket inside the rear cover of the book The popularity of his approach to teaching general chemistry is evident in the way his books have shaped the evolution of textbooks over the last 35 years His useful chemical tools approach toward teaching problem solving was introduced by him at the 12th Biennial Conference on Chemical Education at UC Davis in 1992 and continues to evolve He has been the principal coauthor of various versions of this text, along with John Holum, Joel Russell, Fred Senese, and Neil Jespersen He is particularly pleased to be a member of the current author team In 1999, Jim retired from St John’s University to devote more time to writing, and since then he has coauthored three editions of this text He and his wife, June, enjoy their current home in Jacksonville, Florida Jim is an avid photographer and many of his photos of surfers have been published in the local newspaper Alison Hyslop received her BA degree from Macalester College in 1986 and her Ph.D from the University of Pennsylvania under the direction of Michael J Therien in 1998 She is an Associate Professor at St John’s University, New York, where she has been teaching graduate and undergraduate courses since 2000 She was a visiting Assistant Professor at Trinity College (CT) from 1998 to 1999 She was a visiting scholar at Columbia University (NY) in 2005 and in 2007 and at Brooklyn College in 2009, where she worked on research projects in the laboratory of Brian Gibney Her research focuses on the synthesis and study of porphyrin-based light harvesting compounds When not in the laboratory, she likes to hike in upstate New York, and practice tae kwon |v jespe_fm-hr.indd 11/30/10 1:05 PM This page intentionally left blank Brief Contents 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 | Chemistry and the Atomic/Molecular View of Matter | Scientific Measurements 29 | Elements, Compounds, and the Periodic Table | The Mole and Stoichiometry 63 106 | Molecular View of Reactions in Aqueous Solutions | Oxidation–Reduction Reactions | Energy and Chemical Change 155 213 253 | The Quantum Mechanical Atom 305 | The Basics of Chemical Bonding 357 | Theories of Bonding and Structure | Properties of Gases 408 472 | Intermolecular Attractions and the Properties of Liquids and Solids | Mixtures at the Molecular Level: Properties of Solutions | Chemical Kinetics 585 636 | Chemical Equilibrium 695 | Acids and Bases, A Molecular Look 740 | Acid–Base Equilibria in Aqueous Solutions | Solubility and Simultaneous Equilibria | Thermodynamics 869 | Electrochemistry 918 773 830 | Nuclear Reactions and Their Role in Chemistry | Metal Complexes 527 976 1016 | Organic Compounds, Polymers, and Biochemicals 1047 Appendix A: Review of Mathematics A-1 Appendix B: Answers to Practice Exercises and Selected Review Problems A-15 Appendix C: Tables of Selected Data A-39 Glossary G-1 Index I-1 | vii jespe_fm-hr.indd 11/30/10 1:05 PM This page intentionally left blank I-12 | Index Liquids (cont.) supercooled, 568 vapor pressure of volatile liquids, 606, 607 volume of, 537 Liter (unit), 36 Lithium, 344 Lithium batteries, 949 Lithium ions, 343 Lithium–ion cells, 949–950 Lithium–manganese dioxide battery, 949 Litmus paper, 164, 818–819 Litvinenko, Alexander, 1015 Logarithms, 552, 776n.2 London, Fritz, 529 London dispersion forces (London forces), 529–532, 552 Lone oxygens, 753 Lone pairs, of electrons, 411 Low density polyethylene (LDPE), 1076 Lowering of vapor pressure, 608 See also Raoult’s law Lowry, Thomas, 742 Low-spin complexes, 1036, 1037 Lye, 965 M M, see Molarity m (molality), 599–602 Macromolecules, 1070 Macroscopic (term), Magic numbers, nuclear, 991 Magnesium, 297–298, 453 Magnesium hydroxide, 866 Magnetic quantum number (m/), 325 Magnetism: and electricity, 307 of metal complexes, 1036–1037 paramagnetism and diamagnetism, 328 Magnets, potential energy of, 255 Main chains, of branched chains, 1050 Main group elements (representative elements), 74, 81, 86–87 Main reactions, 139 Malleability, of metals, 76 Manometers, 477–480 Marble, 867 Mars Climate Orbiter, 29 Marsden, Ernest, 66 Mass: atomic, see Atomic mass critical, 1001 defined, of electron, 65 empirical formulas from, 119–123 gram atomic/gram molecular, 108 gram formula, 142 law of conservation of mass, 9, 21–22, 977–978 law of conservation of mass–energy, 978 measurements of, 37–38 molar, see Molar mass molecular, 112, 127–128, 493 and moles, 109–110 and mole-to-mole ratios, 132–133 percent by mass, 116, 597–598 percent by mass/volume, 598n.5, 602 jespe_Index_01-22hr.indd 12 relative masses of elements, 69–70 rest, 977 and specific heat/temperature, 263–265 in stoichiometric calculations, 114–116, 132–135 and velocity, 977 Mass action expression, 699, 700 and activity, 707n.2 for buffer solutions, 801 for homogeneous equilibrium, 700–702 partial pressure in, 704 and reaction quotient, 699, 710, 832 Mass composition, 121–122 Mass defect, 979 Mass fraction, 597 Mass number, 68–69, 71 Mass percent, 122–123, 601–603 Mass spectrometer, 65, 66 Mass spectrum, 66 Mass-to-mass calculations, 114–116, 132–135 Mass–volume percentage (percent by mass/ volume), 598n.5, 602 Matter: classification of, 5–8 defined, states of, see States of matter wave/particle duality of, 306, 319 Maximum work, 890–893, 936, 937 Mean, 41 Measurements, 29–56 of bond energies, 905 density and specific gravity, 51–56 dimensional analysis, 45–50 of heat, 259–265 of pH, 818–819 of physical and chemical properties, 32–41 and physical/chemical properties, 30–31 of pressure, 474–480 and quantitative observations, 32 of radioactivity, 994–998 of reaction rates, 639–644 uncertainty of, 41–44 mega- (prefix), 35 Melting: fusion of solids, 542–543, 549–550 of ice, 875–876, 883–884 Melting point, 544, 556–557, 894, 895 Membranes: of animal cells, 1081–1082 dialyzling, 612 osmosis across, 612–613 permeability of, 612 Mendeleev, Dmitri Ivanovich, 72, 73, 330 Mercury: in barometers, 475, 500 freezing/boiling point of, 76 in manometers, 477, 479 as pollutant, 151 Metals See also Transition elements (transition metals) and acids, 227–228 activity series of, 232–235 alkali, 75, 176 alkaline earth, 75 cations of, 83–84, 87–88 inner transition elements, 74, 331, 341–342 noble, 382 and nonmetals in reactions, 78–80 and oxygen, 238 post-transition, 83–84, 363–364, 855 properties of, 76–78 reactivities of, 381 in redox reactions, 231–235 Metal carbonates, 851–854 Metal complexes, 1016–1041 and biological functions of metal ions, 1038–1040 bonding in, 1031–1038 complex ions in, 1017–1022 coordination number and structure of, 1025–1027 isomers of, 1027–1031 nomenclature for, 1022–1025 Metal halides, 590 Metal ions: biological functions of, 1038–1040 hydrated, 760–761 qualitative analysis of, 854–855 Metallic conduction, 921 Metallic crystals, 572–573 Metallic luster, 76 Metalloids, 75, 78 Metal oxides, 761–762, 845–846 Metal sulfides, 845–847, 849–851 Metathesis reactions, 175–184 acid–base reactions, 178–180 gas formation, 180–183 and hard water, 181 precipitation reactions, 175–177 salts from, 184 Meter (unit), 33, 36, 353 Methane, 11 chlorination of, 1057 combustion of, 20, 21, 266 formation of, 905–906 Lewis structure of, 371 Methanol (methyl alcohol): combustion of, 125 formation of, 907 structure of, 93 uses of, 247, 298 Methylamine, 786 Methylbromide, 248 Methyl ethyl ketone, 148 Methyl group, 168, 1055 Micelles, 625 micro- (prefix), 35 Microscopes, 10, 18, 320 Microwaves, 309, 355 Mile, statute, 60 Milk of magnesia, 178, 179, 200, 828 milli- (prefix), 35 Millibar, 476 Millikan, Robert, 65 Milliliter (unit), 36 Millimeter (unit), 36 Millimeter of mercury (unit), 476, 479 Miscible compounds, 587 Mixtures See also Solutions atoms and molecules of, 19 heterogeneous, 7, 623–625 11/29/10 3:18 PM Index | I-13 homogeneous, physical changes in, in solutions, 585 m/ (magnetic quantum number), 325 Models, theoretical, Moderators, of fuel cores, 1002 mol%, see Mole percent Molal boiling point elevation constant, 609 Molal concentration, 599–602 Molal freezing point depression constant, 609 Molality (m), 599–602 Molar concentration, 185 See also Molarity (M) Molar enthalpy (heat) of solution (DHsoln), 589–593 Molar heat capacity, 261 Molar heat of fusion (DHfusion), 549–550 Molar heat of sublimation (DHsublimation), 550, 552 Molar heat of vaporization (DHvaporization), 550, 552–554 Molarity (M), 698 of aqueous solutions, 185–190 and concentration of ions, 940n.6 defined, 185 from mass percent, 602–603 molality vs., 599 and pH of buffers, 801 and rate of reaction, 639–640 and temperature, 597, 602–603 unit for, 698 Molar mass, 108 and effusion rate, 506 from freezing point depression, 611–612 and ideal gas law, 493–494, 496–497 from osmotic pressure, 617–618 of solutions, 610–612 Molar solubility, of neutral salts, 833–838 Molar volume, of gases, 486–487 Mole, 106–142 chemical formulas and stoichiometry, 113–118 and chemical reactions, 128–135 defined, 107, 108 empirical and molecular formulas, 119–128 in ideal gas law, 490–491 and limiting reactants, 135–139 from molarity and volume, 187–190 molecular vs laboratory scale, 107–112 and standard enthalpy of formation, 284–286 theoretical yield and percentage yield, 139–141 Molecular association, 623 Molecular bases, 168–169, 781, 794 Molecular compounds, 90–97 binary, 94–95 and evidence of molecules, 90 nomenclature of, 94–97 from nonmetals, 90–93 Molecular crystals, 572, 573 Molecular equations, for ionic reactions, 160–162 Molecular formulas, 90, 127–128 jespe_Index_01-22hr.indd 13 Molecular geometries See also Molecular shape and coordinate covalent bonds, 438–439 of coordinate covalent bonds, 438–439 and hybrid orbitals, 427–439 of metal complexes, 1025–1027, 1037–1038 and nonbonding domains, 436–438 sp3d and sp3d orbitals, 434–436 of sp hybrid orbitals, 428–432 types of, 409–411 VSEPR model for, 432–434 Molecular kinetic energy, 258–259, 666 Molecular mass, 108, 112, 127–128, 493 Molecular nanotechnology, 18 Molecular orbitals: antibonding and bonding, 446 from atomic orbitals, 424, 445–447 delocalized, 452–453 Molecular orbital (MO) theory, 424, 445–452 Molecular orientation, in collision theory, 665–666 Molecular oxides, 235 Molecular scale, 107–112 Molecular shape See also Molecular geometries and dipole moments, 420–422 and London forces, 531–532 and nonbonding domains, 414–417 and overlap of orbitals, 426–427 symmetry of, 421–422 VSEPR model for, 417–420 Molecular size, 530, 531, 540 Molecular structure, 408–461 and bonding in solids, 453–455 delocalized molecular orbitals, 452–453 and dipole moments, 420–424 hybrid orbitals, 427–445 molecular geometries, see Molecular geometries molecular orbital theory, 445–452 multiple bonds, 439–445, 456–461 valence bond theory, 424–427 VSEPR model, 411–420 Molecular weight, 108 See also Molecular mass Molecules See also specific shapes of molecules and atoms/chemical formulas, 10–19 defined, 90 diatomic, see Diatomic molecules in equilibrium, 698–697 evidence of, 90 of gases, 473–474 of limiting reactants, 135–136 linear, 409, 412, 416, 1025 macromolecules, 1070 mass of, 112 nonpolar, 421, 422, 529–530 polar, 378, 532 successful collisions of, 588 Mole fractions, 502–504, 600 Mole percent (mol%), 502–504, 600 Mole-to-mole conversion factors, 113–114 mol L-1 s-1 (unit), 640 Momentum, linear, 33 Monatomic ions, 86 Monoclinic sulfur, 459 Monodentate ligands, 1018 Monohydrates, 760 Monomers, 1071, 1083 Monoprotic acids, 166, 781 Monosaccharides, 1077–1078 Montreal Protocol, 516 Morton International, 288–289 MO theory, see Molecular orbital theory ms (spin quantum number), 327 Multiple bonds, see Double bonds; Triple bonds Multiple proportions, law of, 17, 50 Multiplication, significant figures and, 44 Multi-step reactions, percent yield for, 141 N n (principal quantum number), 324 nano- (prefix), 35 Nanotechnology, 18, 625 Nanotubes, carbon, 458 Naphthalene, 540 Native form, of proteins, 1085 Natural logarithms, 552 Negative catalysts, 680 Negative charge, 68 Negative charge carriers, 951 Negative polarity, 922 Neon signs, 356 Nernst, Walther, 940 Nernst equation, 940–944 Net ionic equations, see Ionic equations Network solids, 572 Neurotransmitters, 1082 Neutralization reactions, 164–165, 755–756, 814 Neutral salts, 831–843 common ion effect for, 838–841 ion product for, 832–833 and Ksp, 831–838 molar solubility of, 833–838 precipitates of, 841–843 Neutral solutions, 775–777 Neutrinos, 983, 985 Neutrons, 67 in band of stability, 989 of isotopes, 69 secondary, 1001 size of, 68 thermal, 1000, 1001 Neutron activation analysis, 999 Neutron emission, 986 Newtons (unit), 476 Nicad batteries, 948 Nickel–cadmium storage cells (nicad batteries), 948 Nickel–metal hydride batteries, 948 Nitrate ions, 228–230, 395 Nitric acid, 228–230, 383–384 ortho-Nitrochlorobenzene, 289 Nitrogen: bonding in, 372 covalent bonds of carbon and, 376 in fertilizers, 152 hybrid orbitals of, 436–437 ionization energy of, 349 oxidation of, 239 11/29/10 3:18 PM I-14 | Index Nitrogen (cont.) solubility of, 596 triple bond in, 445 Nitrogen dioxide, 245, 696–698, 902 Nitrogen monoxide, 488, 529 Nitrous acid, 208 Noble gas configuration, 362–363, 371 Noble gases: boiling points of, 530 electron configuration of, 362–363, 371 ionization energies of, 346 in periodic table, 75 van der Waals constants for, 514 Noble metals, 382 Nodal plane, 338 Nodes, of waves, 321, 324 Nomenclature: of acids and bases, 173–175 of alcohols and ethers, 1061 of aldehydes and ketones, 1064 of alkanes, 1053–1057 of alkenes and alkynes, 1058 of carboxylic acids and esters, 1065 chemical, 64 for ionic compounds, 85–89, 95–97 for metal complexes, 1022–1025 for molecular compounds, 94–97 for organic compounds, 374n.4 Nonbasicity, of amides, 1070 Nonbonding domains, 411 and hybrid atomic orbitals, 436–438 and molecular shape, 414–416 Non-bonding orbitals, 450 Noncrystalline solids, 568 Nonelectrolytes, 158 Nonlinear molecules, 414, 415 Nonmetals: atomic size and multiple bonds in, 456–461 binary compounds of hydrogen and, 173 in ionic compounds, 362 molecular compounds from, 90–93 oxidizing power of, 382 and oxygen, 239 properties of, 77–78 reactions of metals and, 78–80 Nonmetal hydrides, 91–92 Nonmetal oxides, 167 Nonoxidizing acids, 228, 229 Nonpolar bonds, 377–378, 380 Nonpolar covalent bonds, 380 Nonpolar molecules, 421, 422, 529–530 Non-SI units, 34–35, 48–49 Nonsuperimposable objects, 1029 Nonvolatile solutes, Raoult’s law for, 604, 606 Normal boiling point, 547 n-type semiconductors, 455, 951 Nuclear binding energy, 978–980, 1002 Nuclear chain reactions, 1001 Nuclear energy, 505 Nuclear equations, 982, 984–985 Nuclear fission, 980, 1000–1004 Nuclear fusion, 980, 1004–1005 Nuclear magic numbers, 991 Nuclear power, 1002 Nuclear power plants, 1002–1003 jespe_Index_01-22hr.indd 14 Nuclear radiation, 980 Nuclear reactions, 976–1008 and applications of radionuclides, 998–1000 and band of stability, 988–991 and conservation of mass/energy, 977–978 defined, 977 fission and fusion, 1000–1005 in multi-concept problems, 1005–1007 nuclear binding energy, 978–980 radioactivity, 980–987, 994–998 and transmutation, 991–994 types of, 981 Nuclear stability, 980 Nuclear strong force, 980 Nucleic acids, 1085–1088 Nucleons, 67–68 magic numbers of, 991 nuclear binding energy of, 978–980 odd–even rule for, 990–991 Nucleotides, 1086–1087 Nucleus(Nuclei): atomic, 66–67 compound, 992–993 odd-even rule for, 990, 991 subatomic particles in, 67–68 unstable, 989–990 Nylon, 1075–1077 O -o (suffix), 1023 Observations, 3, 4, 32 Octahedral molecules, 411, 412, 416, 417 bond dipoles of, 421 geometric isomerism of, 1029 metal complexes as, 1026–1027 Octahedron, 411 Octane, 130–131, 882 Octane ratings, 677 Octet of electrons, 363 Octet rule, 363–364, 371–372, 383 Octyl acetate, 1066 Odd-even rule, for nuclei, 990, 991 Odors, 408 Oil: vegetable, 1080, 1081 viscosity of, 540 and wetting, 538 Open-chain organic compounds, 1050 Open-end manometers, 477–478 Open systems, heat exchange in, 260 Opposing pressure, in expansion work, 269 Optical isomers, 1030–1031 Orbits, orbitals vs., 324 Orbitals, see Atomic orbitals; Molecular orbitals Orbital diagrams, 328 Orbital overlap, 424–427 Order, in organic polymers, 1071 Orders of reaction: first-order reactions, 654–659 graphs for, 663–664 and rate laws, 646–648 second-order reactions, 661–663 zero-order reactions, 663 Organic acids, 376, 754–755 Organic chemistry, 4, 90 carbon in, 92–93 families and functional groups, 1051–1053 open-chain and ring compounds, 1050–1051 and uniqueness of carbon, 1048–1050 Organic compounds, 1048–1077 ammonia derivatives, 1068–1070 carbon in, 92–93 covalent bonds in, 373–376 hydrocarbons, 1053–1060 in organic chemistry, 1048–1053 oxidation of, 235–237 oxygen in, 1060–1067 polymers, 1070–1077 Organic families, 1051–1053 Organic polymers, 1070–1077 chain-growth, 1072–1074 order within, 1071 physical properties and crystallinity of, 1076–1077 step-growth, 1074–1076 Organic solvents, 592–593 Orientation, molecular, 665–666 Orthorhombic sulfur, 459 Osmolarity, 619 Osmometer, 616 Osmosis, 612–615 Osmotic membranes, 612 Osmotic pressure, 613–618 -ous (suffix), 173 Outer electrons, 335, 340 Outer shell, of atom, 335 Overall order of reaction, 647 Overlap of orbitals, 424–427 Oxalates, 832 Oxalate ions, 1018 Oxidation: of alcohols, 1061–1062, 1066–1067 of aldehydes and ketones, 1065 defined, 214 in galvanic half-cells, 925 identifying, 220 and reactivity, 381 Oxidation numbers: and acidity of metal oxides, 761–762 assigning, 217–220 identifying reduction and oxidation with, 220–221 and redox changes, 216–217 Oxidation–reduction (redox) reactions, 213–242 acids in, 227–230 balancing, 222–227 and cell reactions, 921 defined, 216 described, 214–216 of metals, 231–235 in multi-concept problems, 240–242 oxidation numbers in, 216–221 oxygen in, 235–239 separation of, 919 stoichiometry of, 239–240 Oxidation state: in crystal field theory, 1033 defined, 216 11/29/10 3:18 PM Index | I-15 of metal complexes, 1024–1025, 1034 Oxides: acid–base chemistry for, 761–762 hydrated, 929 ionic, 167–168, 235 metal, 845–846 Oxide ions, 347–348, 748–749, 757 Oxidizing agents: acids, 227–230 defined, 214, 215 nonmetals, 382 oxygen, 235–239 reduction potentials of, 928 Oxoacids: Lewis structures of, 383–384 nomenclature for, 173–174 strength of, 751–755 Oxoanions, 754 Oxygen: bonding in, 456 and carbon, 374–376 electronic structure of, 450 and glucose, 132–133 hybrid orbitals of, 436–437 ionization energy of, 349 lone oxygens, 753 in organic compounds, 1060–1067 oxoacid strength and binding of, 753 as real gas, 513 in redox reactions, 223, 235–239 in stratosphere, 645 Ozone: bonds in, 456–457 and ozone layer, 353, 516 and Smoky Mountains, 245 in water treatment, 246 Ozone hole, 516 Ozone layer, 353, 370, 516 P Pc (critical pressure), 558, 560 PABA (para-Aminobenzoic acid), 825 Packing, in solids/liquids, 537, 566–568 Paired electrons, 328 Pairing energy, 1036 Paramagnetism, 328 Parent chains (parent rings): of alcohols, 1061 of aldehydes and ketones, 1064 of alkanes, 1053, 1054 of alkenes and alkynes, 1058 Partial negative charge, 377, 399 Partial positive charge, 377, 399 Partial pressure See also Dalton’s law of partial pressures of gases, 499 in mass action expression, 704–706 and Raoult’s law for volatile solvents, 606–607 Particle accelerators, 991–992 Parts per billion (unit), 598 Parts per hundred (unit), 598 Parts per million (unit), 598 Pascal (unit), 476 Pauli, Wolfgang, 327, 983 Pauli exclusion principle, 327–328, 330 Pauling, Linus, 379 jespe_Index_01-22hr.indd 15 PE, see Potential energy Pentane, 630 Pentanoic acid, 208 Peptide bonds, 1083–1084 per- (prefix), 173 Percentage by mass, 116, 597–598 Percentage composition, 116–118, 122–123 Percentage concentration (percent concentration), 156, 597–598 Percentage ionization, 784, 786, 791–792 Percentage yield, 139–141 Percent by mass/volume, 598n.5, 602 Percent by weight, 597 See also Percentage by mass Perchloric acid (HClO4), 754 Perclene, 496 Periods (periodic table), 74 atomic size and multiple bonds in, 456–460 electron affinity of, 349 and ground state electron configurations, 331–332 ionization energy of, 345–346 Period elements, bonds of, 456–458 Periodic table, 72–78 and atomic mass, 69 development of, 72–75 and elements’ properties, 340–349 and ground state electron configurations, 330–337 metals, nonmetals, and metalloids in, 75–78 Periodic trends: in acidity of metal ions, 760–761 in acid strength, 750–755 in atomic/ionic size, 340–343 in crystal field theory, 1033 in effective nuclear charge, 340 in electron affinity, 347–348 in electronegativity, 381 in ionization energy, 343–347 irregularities in, 348–349 Permeability, of membranes, 612 Pertechnetate ion, 999 PET (positron emission tomography), 990 pH: acid–base indicators for measuring, 818–819 of buffer solutions, 799–805 and hydronium ions, 776–778 and hydroxide ions, 778–779 from initial concentrations, 790–791 and ionization constants, 785–786 measurements of, 818–819 and percentage ionization, 791–792 of salt solutions, 793–797, 810 of strong acids and bases, 778–779 and temperature, 776 and water, 775–778 of weak acids and bases, 788–793 Phases, of heterogeneous mixtures, 7, 638 Phase boundaries, in standard cell notation, 923 Phase diagrams, 556–560, 608 Phenophthalein, 198 Phenyl group, 623 pH meters, 778, 818, 943 Phosgene, 913 Phosphors, 994 Phosphoric acid, 166, 208 Phosphorus, 459–460 Photoelectric effect, 312, 313, 344 Photoelectron spectroscopy, 344–345 Photons, 311–313, 985 Photosynthesis, 266 Photovoltaic cells, 951–952 Physical changes, Physical properties, 30–31 of atmosphere, 515–516 of gases, 473–474 measurements of, 32–41 of organic polymers, 1076–1077 of solids, 571–574 Physical states of matter, see States of matter Pi bonds (p bonds), 439–444, 456 pico- (prefix), 35 Piezoelectric ceramics, 763 pKa, 781, 783 pKb, 782, 783 pKw , 777 Planar triangular molecules, 410, 412 Planck, Max, 312 Planck’s constant, 312, 319, 344 Plane-polarized light, 1031 Plasma, 1004 Plaster, 13 p-n junctions, 455 “p” notation, 777 pOH, 777 Poisoning, of catalysts, 683 Polar bonds (polar covalent bonds), 377–379 Polarity: and acidity, 752, 760 and bond dipoles, 421–424 and electronegativity, 377–379 in galvanic cells, 922 and heat of vaporization, 552 and molecular structure, 423–424 negative and positive, 922 and solubility, 587–589 Polarizability, of electron cloud, 530 Polarized light, 1030–1031 Polar molecules, 378, 532 Pollution, 40, 151 Polyatomic ions, 84–85, 88–89 Polydentate ligands, 1018, 1021–1022 Polyester, 1075–1076 Polyethylene, 1072, 1076 Polygons, carbon rings as, 1050–1051 Polymers, 632, 1070–1077 Polymer crystallinity, 1076–1077 Polymerization, 1071 Polypeptides, 1083–1084, 1087–1088 Polypropylene, 1071 Polyprotic acids, 166, 805–810 Polysaccharides, 1079 Polystyrene, 1072–1073 Polyunsaturated fats, 1080 p orbitals, 329–330 hybrid orbitals with, 428–438 in molecular orbitals, 448 and pi bonds, 439–440 shapes and orientations of, 338–339 11/29/10 3:18 PM I-16 | Index Porphyrin structure, 1039 Portland cement, 133, 498 Position of equilibrium: and catalysts, 714 and equilibrium constant, 708–709 and Le Châtelier’s principle, 555–556 and reciprocal acid–base relationships, 749–750 and standard free energy change, 896–898 for weak acids, 172 Positive catalysts, 680 Positive charge, 68, 760 Positive charge carriers, 951 Positive charge density, 760 Positive ions, 66, 572 Positive polarity, 922 Positrons, 985 Positron emission, 985–986 Positron emission tomography (PET), 990 Positron emitters, 990 Post-transition metals: cations of, 83–84, 363–364 complex ions of, 855 Potassium-40, 997–1000 Potassium iodate, 251 Potassium iodide: heat of solution for, 589–590 and lead(II) nitrate, 160–162, 175–176 Potassium permanganate, 239–240 Potassium sulfate, 954–956 Potential, of galvanic cells, 924 Potential energy (PE), 254–256 of covalent bond formation, 369 and electron affinity, 347 of electrons in atoms, 316–317 on heating and cooling curves, 549 of ions, 361–362 and surface tension, 538 and transition state theory, 667–669 Power: of microscope, 320 nuclear, 1002 wind, 946 Power plants, 946, 1002–1003 Precipitates, 157, 160, 841–843 Precipitation reactions: defined, 157 and hard water, 181 for metal carbonates, 851n.3 as metathesis reactions, 175–177 selective, 847–855 for silver bromide, 191 Precision, 43, 55 Pre-exponential factor, 670 Pressure: atmospheric, 267, 474, 546, 547 barometers, 474–475 in calorimetry, 267–269, 272–275 and chemical equilibrium, 703–706, 712, 714 critical, 558, 560 external, 871 and heat of reaction, 272, 872 heat of reaction at constant pressure, 272–275, 872 manometers, 477–480 jespe_Index_01-22hr.indd 16 measuring, 474–480 and melting point, 556–557 osmotic, 613–618 partial, see Partial pressure SI units of, 476, 884n.2 standard temperature and, 487, 494–495, 884n.2 vapor, see Vapor pressure Pressure cookers, 673 Pressure sensors, 480 Pressure–temperature law (Gay-Lussac’s law), 482, 511 Pressure–volume law (Boyle’s law), 480–481, 510–511 Pressure–volume work, 268–269, 871–872 Pressurized water reactors, 1002–1003 Primary cells, 946 Primitive (simple) cubic lattice, 561–562 Principal quantum number (n), 324 Problem solving, tips on, 14 Products: of acid and base ionization constants, 783–784 defined, 20 of electrolysis reactions, 956–958 in equilibrium, 697–698, 710–711 ion, 832–833, 841–843 by products, 139 Propagation step, of chain reactions, 677 Propanal, 1064 Propane, 297, 640, 641 Properties (term), 30 Propionic acid, 790 Propylene, 1058 Propylene glycol, 536 Propyl group, 1055 Proteins, 533, 1083–1085 Protons, 65–67 in band of stability, 989 and Brønsted–Lowry acids and bases, 741 of isotopes, 69 repulsions between, 980 size and charge of, 68 Protonated amines, 1068 Proton–proton cycle, 1005 Proton transfer reactions, 742 p subshells, 339 p-type semiconductors, 454, 951 Pure substances, Pycnometer, 61 Pyridine, 208 Pyrimidine bases, 370 Q Q, see Reaction quotient qp (heat of reaction at constant pressure), 272–275, 872 qv (heat of reaction at constant volume), 270–271 Qualitative analysis: of aqueous solutions, 196 of metal ions, 854–855 Qualitative observations, 32 Quanta, 312 Quantitative analysis, for aqueous solutions, 196–197 Quantitative observations, 32 Quantitative reactions, 597 Quantized energies, 316–317, 321–324 Quantum mechanics, 305–350 atomic orbitals, 337–340 Bohr theory, 316–318 defined, 306 electromagnetic radiation, 306–313 electron spin, 326–328 and elements’ properties, 340–349 energy levels, 328–330 ground state electron configurations, 328–337 line spectra and Rydberg equation, 314–316 periodic table, 330–337, 340–349 and quantum numbers of electrons, 324–325 wave mechanical model, 318–324 Quantum numbers: defined, 317 of electrons, 324–325 magnetic, 325 and Pauli exclusion principle, 327–328 principal, 324 secondary, 324–325 spin, 327 and standing waves, 321–323 Quantum theory, 306 Quinine, 1068 R R (universal gas constant), 490, 552 R (symbol), in structural formulas, 1052–1053 Rad (radiation absorbed dose), 996 Radiation, 98, 404 alpha, 981–982 annihilation radiation photons, 985 atomic, 980 background, 997–998 beta, 982–983 electromagnetic, see Electromagnetic radiation energy from, 983–984 gamma, 983–984, 999 and greenhouse effect, 517, 518 ionizing, 994, 997 and living tissue, 997–998 nuclear, 980 units of, 994–997 Radiation absorbed dose (rad), 996 Radiation sickness, 997 Radicals, free, 677, 997, 1072 Radioactive decay: and alpha rays, 66 and carbon-14 dating, 659–660 defined, 981 law of, 995–996 modes of, 993 Radioactive disintegration series, 986–987 Radioactive waste, 1003–1004 Radioactivity, 980–987, 994–998 alpha radiation, 981–982 beta radiation, 982–983 gamma radiation, 983–985 measuring, 994–998 in nuclear equations, 982 11/29/10 3:18 PM Index | I-17 positron and neutron emission, 985–986 radioactive disintegration series, 986–987 X-rays and electron capture, 986 Radiological dating, 999–1000 Radionuclides, 980, 998–1000 Radio waves, 309, 311 Radon, 496, 1014–1015 Raoult, Francois Marie, 604 Raoult’s law, 604–608 Rate, defined, 639 Rate constant (k): and activation energies, 672–673 of first-order reactions, 656–657 of second-order reactions, 662–663 of zero-order reactions, 663 Rate-determining steps, 676, 678–680 Rate laws, 645–664 and carbon-14 dating, 659–661 and equilibrium laws, 701 from experimental data, 648–653 for first-order reactions, 654–659 and graphs for orders of reactions, 663–664 integrated, 654–664 and orders of reaction, 646–648 and reaction mechanisms, 676–680 from reaction rates and concentrations, 645–646 second-order rate constants, 662–663 for second-order reactions, 661–663 for zero-order reactions, 663 Rate-limiting (rate-determining) steps, 676, 678–680 Rate of evaporation, 541–542, 544, 545 Rate of reaction: defined, 641 factors affecting, 637–639 initial instantaneous, 643–644 measuring, 639–644 and rate laws, 645–646 relative, 640–642 for spontaneous changes, 874, 875, 897n.5 and temperature, 636, 639, 672–673 Reactants: in chemical equilibrium, 697–698 defined, 20 in equilibrium, 710–711 excess, 136 limiting, 135–139 and rate of reaction, 638–639 of spontaneous electrochemical reactions, 932 Reacting fraction, in collision theory, 666 Reaction coordinate, of potential energy diagrams, 667 Reaction mechanisms, 675–680 Reaction quotient (Q) See also Ion product and free energy change, 900, 940 and mass action expression, 699, 710, 832 Reaction rates, see Rate of reaction Reactivity, electronegativity and, 381–382 Reactors, of nuclear power plants, 1002–1003 Real gases, 513–515 Reciprocal relationships, 748–750, 754 jespe_Index_01-22hr.indd 17 Red blood cells, 614, 616 Redox reactions, see Oxidation–reduction reactions Red phosphorus, 460 Reducing agents, 214–215, 928 Reduction See also Oxidation–reduction (redox) reactions of aldehydes and ketones, 1064 defined, 214 in galvanic half-cells, 925 identifying, 220 Reduction potentials, 925–928, 956–958 Relative masses, of elements, 69–70 Relative rate of reaction, 640–642 Reliability, of measurements, 55–56 Rem (roentgen equivalent for man), 997 Replacement reactions, single, 231, 233–234 Replication, of DNA, 1086–1087 Representative elements, 74, 81, 86–87 Resolving power, of microscope, 320 Resonance energy, 397, 453 Resonance structures, 394–397 Rest mass, 977 Reversals of equilibrium, 702 Reverse osmosis, 614, 615 Reverse reaction, 170, 697 Reversible processes, 890–891 Ring compounds, 1050–1051 rms (root means square) speeds, of gases, 512 RNA, 1085–1086 Rock salt structure, 564 Roentgen (unit), 997 Roentgen, Wilhelm, 993 Roentgen equivalent for man (rem), 997 Roentgenium, 994 Rohrer, Heinrich, 10 Root means square (rms) speeds, of gases, 512 Runaway reactions, 288–289 Rust, 238, 929 Rutherford, Ernest, 66, 67, 992 Rydberg equation, 315–318 S S ° (standard entropy), 884–885, 887 DS, see Entropy change DS ° (standard entropy change), 884–885, 887 DS °f (standard entropy of formation), 884 Salts: acid, 174–175 concentration of ions and, 194 definition of, 165 dissociation of, 158 Epsom salts, 212 from metathesis reactions, 184 neutral, see Neutral salts of polyprotic acids, 808–809 rock salt structure, 564 solubility of ligands and, 860–861 in solutions, see Salt solutions of weak acids/bases, 797, 810 Salt bridge, 920–922 Salt solutions: acid–base equilibrium in, 793–797 anions in, 794–795 cations in, 794, 808–809 pH of, 793–797, 810 Saponification, 1066, 1081 Saturated compounds, 1053 Saturated solutions, 156, 593, 833 Scanning tunneling microscope, 10 Schrödinger, Erwin, 324 Schrödinger’s equation, 324 Scientific laws, Scientific method, 3–5 Scientific notation, 36n.3, 43 Scintillation counter, 994 Secondary cells, 946 Secondary neutrons, 1001 Secondary quantum number (/), 324–325 Second law of thermodynamics, 880–884 Second-order rate constants, 662–663 Second-order reactions, rate laws for, 661–663 Seesaw molecules, 416 Selective precipitation, 847–855 of metal carbonates, 851–854 of metal sulfides, 849–851 in qualitative analysis of metal ions, 854–855 of silver halides, 848–849 Semiconductors, 78, 454–455, 951 Semipermeable membranes, 612 Shape: molecular, see Molecular shape of solids, 537 Shells, of orbitals, 324, 335 SI base units, 32–33 Sickle-cell anemia, 1085 Side chains, amino acid, 1083 Siegbahn, Kai, 344 Sievert (unit), 997 Sigma bonds (s bonds): formation of, 439–443 and molecular structure, 443–445 strength of, 456 Significant figures (significant digits), 42–44, 776n.2 Silicon nitride, 763 Silver, 234, 337 Silver bromide: dissociation of, 158 precipitation of, 191 solubility of, 833, 858–859 Silver chloride, 831, 847–848 Silver chromate, 833 Silver halides, 848–849 Silver nitrate, 919, 920 Silver oxide, 845 Simple amides, 1069 Simple cubic lattice, 561–562 Simple cubic unit cell, 561 Single bonds, 372, 1061 Single replacement reactions, 231, 233–234 Sintering, 762 SI Units, see International System of Units Size: atomic, see Atomic size molecular, 530, 531, 540 Skeletal structures, 383–384 Skeleton equation, 223 11/29/10 3:18 PM I-18 | Index Skin cancer, 370 Smoky Mountains, 213, 215, 245 Soap, 1081 Soap scum, 858 Sodium: changes of state for, 550 and chlorine, 78, 79, 214, 215 energy bands of, 453, 454 production of, 964 Sodium azide, 219 Sodium bicarbonate, 180, 706–707 Sodium carbonate, 809 Sodium chloride: colligative properties of, 618 crystals of, 560, 564, 565 electrolysis of, 952, 953, 958, 964–966 formation of, 214 hydration of, 588 as ionic compound, 79, 80, 90, 91 lattice energy of, 359–361 Lewis structure of, 367 Sodium hydrogen sulfate, 175, 745 Sodium hydroxide, 178, 811–815 Sodium hypochlorite, 245, 795 Sodium ions, 362–363 Sodium nitrate, 249, 630 Sodium oxide, 845 Sols, 764n.7 Solar batteries, 455 Solar cells, 455 Solder, 249 Sol-gel process, 762, 764–765 Solids: amorphous, 568, 1076 bonding in, 453–455 closest-packed structures of, 566–568 crystalline, 560–568 crystal types in, 571–574 defined, 30 in dynamic equilibria, 542–544 energy and state changes in, 548–552 energy bands in, 453–454 equilibrium law for, 707 equilibrium vapor pressure of, 544–546 heat of solution for, 589–590 intermolecular distances in, 528–529 intermolecular forces in, 537–542 Le Châtelier’s principle, 555–556 network, 572 noncrystalline, 568 in phase diagrams, 556–560 physical properties of, 537, 571–574 in solutions, 586–588 state changes of, 542–544, 548–552, 555–556 x-ray diffraction of, 568–571 “Solid smoke,” 61 Solubility, 830–861 of aqueous solutions, 156, 157 and chemical equilibria, 831–843, 845–847, 855–858 of complex ions, 855–861 of gases, 592–597 of metal oxides/sulfides, 845–847 in multi-concept problems, 844–845 of neutral salts, 831–843 of nitrogen, 596 jespe_Index_01-22hr.indd 18 and polarity, 587–589 of salts and ligands, 860–861 and selective precipitation, 847–855 of silver bromide, 833, 858–859 of solids, 587–588 of sugar, 588 and temperature, 593–594 Solubility product constant (Ksp): acid, 847, 849 defined, 831–832 and ion product, 832–833 and molar solubility, 833–838 and neutral salts, 831–838 and precipitate formation, 841–843 Solubility rules, 176 Solutes: defined, 156 and hydronium/hydroxide ions, 775 ionic, 618–619, 622, 623 and ionization of water, 779 nonvolatile, 604, 606 percentage ionization and pH of, 791–792 in polyprotic acid solutions, 807–808 volatile, 606–608 Solutions, 585–626 See also Aqueous solutions acidic, see Acidic solutions basic, see Basic solutions chemical equilibrium in, 845–847 colligative properties of, 603–623 concentration of, 595–603 defined, 7, 156–157 dilution of, 189–190 endothermic reactions of, 589, 590, 593 exothermic reactions of, 589, 593 Henry’s law, 595–597 of heterogeneous mixtures, 623–625 hypertonic, 614, 616 hypotonic, 616 ideal, 591–592, 607–608 intermolecular forces in, 586–589 isotonic, 614, 616 of liquids, 586, 587 mixtures in, 585 molar heat of solution, 589–593 molar mass of, 610–612 in multi-concept problems, 619–621 neutral, 775–777 osmosis in, 612–613 percentage by mass of, 597–598 phase diagrams for, 608 of polyprotic acids, 807–808 salt, see Salt solutions saturated, 156, 593, 833 solids in, 586–588 solubility and temperature of, 593–594 standard state of, 699n.1 supersaturated, 157 unsaturated, 156, 833 Solvation, 588–589 Solvation energy, 589 Solvay process, 151 Solvents, 156, 592–593 s orbitals, 329 hybrid orbitals with, 428–438 in molecular orbitals, 446–447 shape and size of, 338 Sørenson, S P L., 776 Space-filling models, 12–13 Sparklers, 238 sp orbitals, 428–432 sp2 orbitals, 430 sp3 orbitals, 430 sp3d orbitals, 434 sp3d orbitals, 434–436 Specific gravity, 53–55 Specific heat, 260–261, 263–265 Specific heat capacity, 260–261 Spectator ions, 162, 175, 956 Spectra, 1077 Spectrochemical series, 1036 Spectroscopic measurements, of bond energies, 905 Spectroscopy, photoelectron, 344–345 Speed: of light, 307 root means square, 512 Spin: electron, 326–328 high-spin complexes, 1036, 1037 low-spin complexes, 1036, 1037 of nucleons, 991 Spin quantum number (ms), 327 Spontaneous reactions, 870 cell potentials of, 931–932, 934–936 concentration dependence of, 941–942 direction of, 900–901 and entropy, 876–877 and Gibbs free energy, 882–884 mixing of gases as, 586–587 and standard free energy change, 897 thermodynamics of, 874–876 Sports drinks, 253 Square lattice, 561 Square planar molecules, 416, 417, 1026, 1037–1038 Square pyramidal molecules, 416, 417 Stability: band of stability, 988–991 nuclear, 980 and resonance structures, 396–397 Stability constant, 857 Standard atmosphere (unit), 267, 476 Standard cell notation, 922–924 Standard cell potentials (E °cell), 925, 930–934 cell potentials vs., 930, 936 defined, 925 and equilibrium constants, 938–939 of galvanic cells, 932–934 of spontaneous reactions, 935–936 and standard free energy change, 936–937 Standard conditions of temperature and pressure (STP), 487, 494–495, 884n.2 Standard electrode potentials, 925 See also standard reduction potentials Standard enthalpy (heat) of formation (DH °f ), 284–288, 905–907 Standard entropy (S °), 884–885, 887 Standard entropy change (DS °), 884–885, 887 Standard entropy of formation (DS °f ), 884 11/29/10 3:18 PM Index | I-19 Standard free energy change (DG °), 887–890, 897–904 defined, 887–888 and equilibrium constants, 900–904 and position of equilibrium, 896–898 and standard cell potentials, 936–937 from standard free energy of formation, 889–890 and temperature, 899–900 Standard free energy of formation (DG °f ), 888–890 Standard heat of combustion (DH °c), 283–284 Standard heat of formation (DH °f ), 284–288, 905–907 Standard heat of reaction, 275–276, 283–288 Standard hydrogen electrode, 926–928 Standard molar volume, of gases, 486–487 Standard reduction potentials, 926–928, 956–958 Standard solution, for titrations, 198 Standard state, 275–277, 284, 699n.1 Standing waves, 321–323 Stars, fusion in, 1005 Starch, 1079 State changes: and dynamic equilibria, 542–544 and energy, 548–552 and Le Châtelier’s principle, 555–556 State functions, 259, 269, 270 States of matter, See also specific states, e.g.: Liquids defined, 30–31 and entropy change, 878–879 in homogeneous/heterogeneous reactions, 638 incompressible, 528, 537 Statistical mechanics, 886 Steady state, 516 Steel, 740 Step-growth organic polymers, 1074–1076 Stereoisomerism, of metal complexes, 1028–1029 Stock, Alfred, 87 Stock system, 87 Stoichiometry, 113–118 of aqueous solutions, 190–195 and chemical identity, 117–118 of chemical reactions, 130–135 and crystal structure, 565–566 defined, 107 with gases, 486–490 with ideal gas law, 497–498 mass-to-mass calculations, 114–116 mole-to-mole conversion factors, 113–114 percentage composition, 116–118 of redox reactions, 239–240 for solutions, 194–195 Stopcocks, 198 Stored energy, 254 STP, see Standard conditions of temperature and pressure Straight chains, 1050 Strong acids: and amines, 1068 jespe_Index_01-22hr.indd 19 Brønsted–Lowry definition, 747 defined, 169–170 ionization of, 172 pH of, 778–779 in titrations, 811–813, 815–816 Strong bases: Brønsted–Lowry definition, 747 defined, 170 pH of, 778–779 in titrations, 811–815 Strong electrolytes, 158, 169–170 Strontium-90, 1003 Strontium nitrate, 188 Structural formulas, 12, 370 Strychnine, 148 Styrofoam®, 1073 Subatomic particles, 64, 67–68 Sublimation, 540, 550, 552 Subscripts, in chemical formulas, 11 Subshells, of orbitals: half-filled, 336–337 and irregularities in periodic trends, 348–349 p and d, 339–340 and periods of periodic table, 331–332 and quantum numbers, 324–325 Substituents, of alkanes, 1053–1055 Substitution reactions, 1060, 1063 Subtraction, significant figures and, 44 Successful collisions, of molecules, 588 Sucrose, 95, 1078 Sugar, solubility of, 588 Sulfates, Ksp of, 832 Sulfides: acid-insoluble, 846–847, 849–851, 854 base-insoluble, 847, 849–851, 854 metal, 845–847, 849–851 Sulfites, 248 Sulfite ions, 757 Sulfur, 237, 239, 459, 1048 Sulfur dioxide, 17, 237, 757, 823, 903 Sulfuric acid: creation of, 597 and ethanol, 1062–1063 Lewis structure and formal charge of, 388–390 making of, 681 as oxidizing agent, 230 Sulfur trioxide, 17 Sulfuryl chloride, 651 Sunlight, skin cancer and, 370 Superconductors, 151 Supercooled liquids, 568 Supercooling, 549 Supercritical fluids, 558–560 Superheating, 549 Superimposability, 1029 Supernovas, 63 Supersaturated solutions, 157 Surface area, vapor pressure and, 545 Surface tension, 537–538 Surfactants, 539, 625 Surroundings, system vs., 260, 269 Suspensions, 623 Sustainability, 892 Symmetric molecular shapes, 421 Synthetic elements, 993–994 Synthetic isotopes, 985 Systems, 260, 269, 275 T t1/2, see Half-life Tc (critical temperature), 558, 560 T2 Laboratories, Inc., 694 Tarnishing, 234, 238 Technetium-99m, 1013 Teflon, 1076 Television (TV) waves, 309 Tellurium, 826 Temperature: and chemical equilibrium, 700, 712–714 and collision theory, 666–667 and concentration, 597–603 conversions of, 40–41 critical, 558, 560 and entropy change, 878 equilibrium, 894–895 and evaporation, 541–542 of gases, 594 global temperature change, 517–518 and heat, 256–257, 260–265 and heat of vaporization, 552–554 kinetic molecular theory, 258–259 and kinetic molecular theory, 510 and Le Châtelier’s principle, 555 and mass, 263–265 measurements of, 38–40 and molarity, 597, 602–603 and pH, 776 on phase diagrams, 555, 557 pressure–temperature law (Gay-Lussac’s law), 482, 511 and rate of reaction, 636, 639, 672–673 and second law of thermodynamics, 881–882 and solubility, 593–594 and standard free energy change, 899–900 standard pressure and, 487, 494–495, 884n.2 as state function, 259 and vapor pressure, 544–545 Temperature-dependent concentration units, 602–603 Temperature-independent concentration units, 597–602 Temperature–volume law (Charles’ law), 481–482, 511 Termination steps, of chain reactions, 677 Tetrahedral molecules, 410, 412, 1026, 1038 Tetrahedron, 410 Theoretical models, Theoretical yield, 139–141 Theories, Thermal cracking, 677 Thermal cushion, of body, 262 Thermal energy, 256, 454 See also Heat Thermal equilibrium, 257 Thermal neutrons, 1000, 1001 Thermal pollution, 40 Thermite reaction, 134 Thermochemical equations, 275–278, 281 Thermochemistry, 254 11/29/10 3:18 PM I-20 | Index Thermodynamics, 254, 869–908 bond energies, 904–907 and entropy, 876–880 equilibrium, 893–904 first law of, 269–270, 870–874 first law of thermodynamics, 870–874 free energy change, 893–900 and maximum work, 890–893 and runaway reactions, 288–289 second law of, 880–884 second law of thermodynamics, 880–884 of spontaneous change, 874–876 standard free energy change, 887–893, 900–904 third law of thermodynamics, 884–887 Thermodynamically reversible processes, 890–891 Thermodynamic efficiency, 892 Thermodynamic equilibrium: and free energy, 893–900 and standard free energy, 900–904 Thermodynamic equilibrium constant (K), 902–904 Thermometer, Galileo’s, 584 Thermonuclear fusion, 1004–1005 Third law of thermodynamics, 884–887 Thomson, J J., 64 Time: of first-order reactions, 655–656 rate of reaction vs., 642–643 Tin chloride, 414 Tin ions, 364 Tire gauges, 480 Tissue, radiation and, 997–998 Titanic (ship), 525 Titanium dioxide, 218 Titanium nitride, 763 Titanium(IV) oxide, 109 Titrants, 198, 811 Titrations: acid–base, 198–199, 811–819 and redox reactions, 239–240 Titration curves, 811–813 Toluene, 297, 630 Torr, 476 Torricelli, Evangelista, 475n.1 Torricelli barometer, 475 Trace elements, 1085 Tracer analysis, 998–999 Transcription, 1088 Trans fats, 1081 trans isomers, 1028, 1029, 1058, 1059 Transistors, 454–455 Transition elements (transition metals): acidity of ions of, 761 cations of, 83, 87–88, 363–364 complex ions of, 855 on periodic table, 74 periodic trends for, 341–342 Transition states, of reactions, 669 Transition state theory, 667–669 Translation, 1088 Transmutation, in nuclear reactions, 991–994 Transuranium elements, 993–994 Traveling waves, 321 Triacylglycerols, 1080–1081 jespe_Index_01-22hr.indd 20 Trienes, 1058 Trigonal bipyramid, 410 Trigonal bipyramidal molecules, 410, 412, 415–416, 421 Trigonal pyramidal molecules, 414–415 Tripeptides, 1084 Triple bonds: and atomic size, 456–461 of carbon, 374 covalent, 372 and hybrid orbitals, 439–445 Lewis structure for, 372 Triple point, 556 Trisodium phosphate, 809 Tritium, 70 T-shaped molecules, 416 Tungsten, 76 Turbines, 945, 946 TV waves, 309 Tyndall, John, 624 Tyndall effect, 624 Tyvek®, 1076 U Ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), 1076–1077 Ultraviolet catastrophe, 306 Ultraviolet radiation, 310, 370 Uncertainties, in measurements, 41–44 Unit cells, 561–562, 565–566 Units of measurement, 32 Universal gas constant (R), 490, 552 Universe, systems in, 260 Unpaired electrons, 328, 1031 Unsaturated compounds, 1053 Unsaturated solutions, 156, 833 Unstable nuclei, 989–990 Unstable nuclei, nuclear reactions of, 989–990 Uranium-235, 68–69, 505, 1000–1001 Uranium-238, 986, 987 Uranium enrichment, 505 Uranium hexafluoride, 524 Urea, 13, 885, 1069–1070 US Airways flight 1549, 527 V Vacuum, 475 Valence bands, 454 Valence bond (VB) theory, 424–427, 429 Valence electrons, 335, 384, 385 Valence shell, 335 Valence shell electron configurations, 335–336 Valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) model, 411–420 and hybrid atomic orbitals, 429, 432–434 and Lewis structures, 412–413 and metal complexes, 1025 and molecular shape, 417–420 nonbonding domains in, 414–416 Valid relationships, in dimensional analysis, 45 van der Waals, J D., 514, 529 van der Waals constants, 514–515 van der Waals equation, 514–515 van der Waals forces, 529 See also Intermolecular forces (intermolecular attractions) Vanillin, 148 van’t Hoff equation for osmotic pressure, 614 van’t Hoff factor (i), 622 Vaporization, molar heat of, 550, 552–554 Vapor pressure: equilibrium, 544–546 and heat of vaporization, 552–554 lowering of, 608 and Raoult’s law, 604–608 of water, 500 VB (valence bond) theory, 424–427, 429 Vegetable oils, 1080, 1081 Velocity, mass and, 977 Viscosity, 539–540 Visible spectrum, 309–310 Volatile solutes, Raoult’s law and, 606–608 Volt (unit), 924 Volta, Alessandro, 919 Voltaic cells, 919 See also Galvanic cells Volume(s): constant-volume calorimetry, 270–272 and entropy change, 877–878 of gaseous equilibrium, 711, 712 of gases, 486–490 heat of reaction at constant volume, 270–271 law of combining volumes, 486 of liquids and solids, 537 mass–volume percentage, 598n.5, 602 measurements of, 36–37 and melting point, 556, 557 and molarity/moles, 187–190 pressure–volume law (Boyle’s law), 480–481, 511–512 pressure–volume work, 268–269, 871–872 See also Expansion work standard molar volume of gases, 486–487 temperature–volume law (Charles’ law), 481–482, 511 and vapor pressure, 545–546 Volumetric flask, 188 VSEPR model, see Valence shell electron pair repulsion model V-shaped molecules, 414, 415 W Water: and acetone, 591–592 and alkenes, 1059 as amphoteric substance, 746 in aqueous solutions, 156 benzene in, 587 boiling point of, 548 chemical formula of, 11 collecting gases over, 500–502 density of, 52 electrolysis of, 954–956 ethanol in, 587 freezing of, 894 hard, 181, 858 in hydrates, 13 and hydrochloric acid, 742 hydrogen bonds in, 533 11/29/10 3:18 PM Index | I-21 hydrogen from, 726 hydronium ions and hydroxide ions in, 747, 779 ionization of, 774–775, 779 and ionizing radiation, 997 ion product constant of, 774–775 law of definite proportions for, 16 Lewis structure of, 371 as ligand, 1018, 1036, 1037 as molecular compound, 91 mole-to-mole conversion factors for, 113 nomenclature for, 95 in nuclear reactors, 1002–1003 and pH, 775–778 phase diagram for, 556–557 purification/treatment of, 246, 615 in redox reactions, 226–227 solubility of gases in, 592–595, 597 specific heat of, 261, 262 vapor pressure of, 500 weak acids and bases in, 780–782 wetting by, 538–539 Waterstriders, 539 Watson, J D., 1086 Waves: of electromagnetic radiation, 307 matter, 306, 319 nodes of, 321, 324 standing, 321–323 traveling, 321 Wave functions, 323–324, 337, 445–446 jespe_Index_01-22hr.indd 21 Wavelength: of electromagnetic waves, 307–309 of matter wave, 319 Wave mechanical model, 318–324 electron diffraction and wave properties of electrons, 319–321 and electron microscope, 320 and energy of electrons, 321–324 Wave mechanics, 306 See also Quantum mechanics Wax, 588 Weak acids, 170, 171, 747 amines as, 1068 pH of, 788–791, 793 position of equilibrium for, 172 salts of, 797, 810 in titrations, 813–815 in water, 780–781 as weak electrolytes, 170–172, 747 Weak bases, 170, 171 pH of, 788–789, 791–793 salts of, 797 in titrations, 815–816 in water, 781–782 as weak electrolytes, 170–172 Weak electrolytes, 170–172, 747 Weighing, counting by, 107–108 Weight, 5, 474 Weighted averages, 71 Wetting, of surfaces, 538–539 Whipped cream, 483 White phosphorus, 119, 460 Wine, density of, 54 Wöhler, Frederick, Work: and energy, 254–257 and equilibrium/free energy change, 894 expansion, 268–269 and heat, 267–270 maximum, 890–893, 936, 937 pressure–volume work, 268–269, 871–872 X Xenon, 418 Xerogels, 765 X-ray diffraction, 568–571 X rays, 309, 568–569, 986, 998 Z Zero, in significant figures, 42–43 Zero-order reactions, 647, 663 Zinc: cathodic protection with, 929 and copper ions, 231 in galvanic cell, 927–928 and hydrochloric acid, 128–129, 227–228 Zinc–copper cells, 923–924 Zinc–manganese dioxide cells, 947–948 Zirconia, 763 11/29/10 3:18 PM This page intentionally left blank jespe_endpaper_front-hr.indd Periodic Table of the Elements Atomic number Alkali metals (except H) Alkaline earth metals 1A (1) Periods H 1.008 2A (2) Li 9.012 11 12 Halogens 1.008 Atomic mass Be 6.941 Group designation H 3A (13) 4A (14) 5A (15) 6A (16) 7A (17) B 8B C N O F 10.81 12.01 14.01 16.00 19.00 13 14 15 16 17 22.99 Mg 24.31 3B (3) 4B (4) 5B (5) 6B (6) 7B (7) (8) (9) (10) 1B (11) 2B (12) 26.98 28.09 30.97 32.06 35.45 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Na K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Al Ga Si Ge P As S Se Cl Br 39.10 40.08 44.96 47.87 50.94 52.00 54.94 55.85 58.93 58.69 63.55 65.41 69.72 72.64 74.92 78.96 79.90 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 85.47 87.62 88.91 91.22 92.91 95.94 [98] 101.07 102.91 106.42 107.87 112.41 114.82 118.71 121.76 127.60 126.90 55 56 57 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 Rb Cs Sr Ba Y La Zr Hf Nb Ta Mo W Tc Re Ru Os Rh Ir Pd Pt Ag Au Cd Hg In Tl Sn Pb Sb Bi Te Po I At 132.91 137.33 138.91 178.49 180.95 183.84 186.21 190.23 192.22 195.08 196.97 200.59 204.38 207.2 208.98 [209] [210] 87 88 89 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 [227] [267] [268] [271] [272] [270] [276] [281] [280] [285] Fr [223] Ra [226] Ac Rf Lanthanides Actinides Db 58 Ce 140.12 90 Th 232.04 Sg 59 Pr Bh 60 Nd 140.91 144.24 91 92 231.04 238.03 Pa U Hs 61 Pm [145] 93 Np [237] Mt 62 Sm 150.36 94 Pu [244] Ds 63 Eu 151.96 95 Am [243] Rg 64 Gd 157.25 96 Cm [247] Cn 65 Tb 158.93 97 Bk [247] Uut [284] 66 Dy 162.50 98 Cf [251] Uuq [289] 67 Ho 164.93 99 Es [252] Uup [288] 68 Er 167.26 100 Fm [257] Uuh [293] 69 Tm Uus [294] 70 Yb Noble gases 8A (18) He 4.003 10 Ne 20.18 18 Ar 39.95 36 Kr 83.80 54 Xe 131.29 86 Rn [222] 118 Uuo [294] 71 Lu 168.93 173.04 174.97 101 102 103 [258] [259] [262] Md No Lr 11/30/10 1:04 PM ATOMIC MASSES OF THE ELEMENTS This table is based on the 2007 table at Pure Appl Chem., 81, 2131–2156 (2009) with changes to the values for lutetium, molybdenum, nickel, ytterbium and zinc from the 2005 table Mass number of the longest-lived isotope of hassium from Phys Rev Lett., 97 242501 (2006) For the name of element 112 see Pure Appl Chem 2010, 82, 753–755 http://www.chem.qmul.ac.uk/iupac/AtWt/ The number in parentheses following the atomic mass is the estimated uncertainty in the last digit At No Symbol Name Atomic Mass Notes At No Symbol Name Atomic Mass Notes 89 13 95 51 18 33 85 56 97 83 107 35 48 55 20 98 58 17 24 27 112 29 96 110 105 66 99 68 63 100 87 64 31 32 79 72 108 67 49 53 77 26 36 57 103 82 71 12 25 109 101 80 Ac Al Am Sb Ar As At Ba Bk Be Bi Bh B Br Cd Cs Ca Cf C Ce Cl Cr Co Cn Cu Cm Ds Db Dy Es Er Eu Fm F Fr Gd Ga Ge Au Hf Hs He Ho H In I Ir Fe Kr La Lr Pb Li Lu Mg Mn Mt Md Hg Actinium Aluminium Americium Antimony Argon Arsenic Astatine Barium Berkelium Beryllium Bismuth Bohrium Boron Bromine Cadmium Cesium Calcium Californium Carbon Cerium Chlorine Chromium Cobalt Copernicium Copper Curium Darmstadtium Dubnium Dysprosium Einsteinium Erbium Europium Fermium Fluorine Francium Gadolinium Gallium Germanium Gold Hafnium Hassium Helium Holmium Hydrogen Indium Iodine Iridium Iron Krypton Lanthanum Lawrencium Lead Lithium Lutetium Magnesium Manganese Meitnerium Mendelevium Mercury [227] 26.9815386(8) [243] 121.760(1) 39.948(1) 74.92160(2) [210] 137.327(7) [247] 9.012182(3) 208.98040(1) [272] 10.811(7) 79.904(1) 112.411(8) 132.9054519(2) 40.078(4) [251] 12.0107(8) 140.116(1) 35.453(2) 51.9961(6) 58.933195(5) [285] 63.546(3) [247] [281] [268] 162.500(1) [252] 167.259(3) 151.964(1) [257] 18.9984032(5) [223] 157.25(3) 69.723(1) 72.64(1) 196.966569(4) 178.49(2) [270] 4.002602(2) 164.93032(2) 1.00794(7) 114.818(3) 126.90447(3) 192.217(3) 55.845(2) 83.798(2) 138.90547(7) [262] 207.2(1) 6.941(2) 174.9668(1) 24.3050(6) 54.938045(5) [276] [258] 200.59(2) 42 60 10 93 28 41 102 76 46 15 78 94 84 19 59 61 91 88 86 75 45 111 37 44 104 62 21 106 34 14 47 11 38 16 73 43 52 65 81 90 69 50 22 74 116 118 117 115 114 113 92 23 54 70 39 30 40 Mo Nd Ne Np Ni Nb N No Os O Pd P Pt Pu Po K Pr Pm Pa Ra Rn Re Rh Rg Rb Ru Rf Sm Sc Sg Se Si Ag Na Sr S Ta Tc Te Tb Tl Th Tm Sn Ti W Uuh Uuo Uus Uup Uuq Uut U V Xe Yb Y Zn Zr Molybdenum Neodymium Neon Neptunium Nickel Niobium Nitrogen Nobelium Osmium Oxygen Palladium Phosphorus Platinum Plutonium Polonium Potassium Praseodymium Promethium Protactinium Radium Radon Rhenium Rhodium Roentgenium Rubidium Ruthenium Rutherfordium Samarium Scandium Seaborgium Selenium Silicon Silver Sodium Strontium Sulfur Tantalum Technetium Tellurium Terbium Thallium Thorium Thulium Tin Titanium Tungsten Ununhexium Ununoctium Ununseptium Ununpentium Ununquadium Ununtrium Uranium Vanadium Xenon Ytterbium Yttrium Zinc Zirconium 95.96(2) 144.242(3) 20.1797(6) [237] 58.6934(4) 92.90638(2) 14.0067(2) [259] 190.23(3) 15.9994(3) 106.42(1) 30.973762(2) 195.084(9) [244] [209] 39.0983(1) 140.90765(2) [145] 231.03588(2) [226] [222] 186.207(1) 102.90550(2) [280] 85.4678(3) 101.07(2) [265] 150.36(2) 44.955912(6) [271] 78.96(3) 28.0855(3) 107.8682(2) 22.98976928(2) 87.62(1) 32.065(5) 180.94788(2) [98] 127.60(3) 158.92535(2) 204.3833(2) 232.03806(2) 168.93421(2) 118.710(7) 47.867(1) 183.84(1) [293] [294] [294] [288] [289] [284] 238.02891(3) 50.9415(1) 131.293(6) 173.054(5) 88.90585(2) 65.38(2) 91.224(2) 1 1, 5 1, 5 1, 2, 1 1, 5 5 1 5 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5 1, 1, 5 5 5 1 5 1, 1, 1, 5 5 5 1, 3, 1, 1 Geological specimens are known in which the element has an isotopic composition outside the limits for normal material The difference between the atomic mass of the element in such specimens and that given in the Table may exceed the stated uncertainty Commercially available Li materials have atomic masses that range between 6.939 and 6.996; if a more accurate value is required, it must be determined for the specific material [range quoted for 1995 tables 6.94 and 6.99] Range in isotopic composition of normal terrestrial material prevents a more precise value being given; the tabulated value should be applicable to any normal material Element has no stable nuclides The value enclosed in brackets, e.g [209], indicates the mass number of the longest-lived isotope of the element However three such elements (Th, Pa, and U) have a characteristic terrestrial isotopic composition, and for these an atomic mass is tabulated Modified isotopic compositions may be found in commercially available material because it has been subject to an undisclosed or inadvertant isotopic fractionation Substantial deviations in atomic mass of the element from that given in the Table can occur jespe_endpaper_front-hr.indd The names and symbols for elements 113–118 are under review The temporary system recommended by J Chatt, Pure Appl Chem., 51, 381–384 (1979) is used above 11/30/10 1:04 PM RELATIONSHIPS AMONG UNITS (Values in boldface are exact.) Length in = 2.54 cm ft = 30.48 cm yd = 0.9144 m mi = 5280 ft ft = 12 in yd = 36 in Mass oz = 28.349523125 g lb = 453.59237 g lb = 16 oz Pressure atm = 760 torr atm = 101,325 Pa atm = 14.696 psi (lb/in.2) atm = 29.921 in Hg Volume liq oz = 29.57353 mL qt = 946.352946 mL gallon = 3.785411784 L gallon = qt = pt qt = pt = 32 liq oz Energy cal = 4.184 J ev = 1.6022 × 10-19 J ev/molecule = 96.49 kJ/mol ev/molecule = 23.06 kcal/mol J = kg m2 s-2 = 107 erg PHYSICAL CONSTANTS Rest mass of electron me = 5.485799094 × 10-4 u (9.1093821 × 10-28 g) Rest mass of proton mp = 1.0072764668 u (1.67262164 × 10-24 g) Rest mass of neutron mn = 1.0086649160 u (1.67492721 × 10-24 g) Electronic charge e = 1.60217649 × 10-19 C Atomic mass unit u = 1.66053878 × 10-24 g Gas constant R = 0.0820575 L atm mol-1 K-1 = 8.31447 J mol-1 K-1 = 1.98721 cal mol-1 K-1 Molar volume, ideal gas = 22.4140 L (at STP) Avogadro’s number = 6.0221418 × 1023 things/mol Speed of light in a vacuum c = 2.99792458 × 108 m s-1 (Exactly) Planck’s constant h = 6.6260690 × 10-34 J s Faraday constant F = 9.6485340 × 104 C mol-1 LABORATORY REAGENTS (Values are for the average concentrated reagents available commercially.) jespe_endpaper_back-hr.indd Percent Mole Solute Gram Solute Reagent (w/w) Liter Solution 100 mL Solution NH3 29 15 26 HC2H3O2 99.7 17 105 HCl 37 12 44 HNO3 71 16 101 H3PO4 85 15 144 H2SO4 96 18 177 11/30/10 1:04 PM SOURCES OF USEFUL INFORMATION PERIODIC TRENDS Activity series for metals 232 Atomic and ionic radii 342 Bond energies Density of water as a function of temperature Electron affinities Electron configurations of the elements Electronegativities of the elements App C.4 52 348 App C.1 380 Entropies (25 °C, atm) App C.2 Formation and instability constants of complexes App C.7 Free energies of formation (25 °C, atm) App C.2 Gases formed in metathesis reactions 181 Half-lives, radionuclides 987 Heats of formation (25 °C, atm) App C.2 Heats of formation of gaseous atoms (25 °C, atm) App C.3 Indicators, acid–base 817 Ionization energies of first 12 elements 343 Ions formed by representative elements 81 Ions formed by transition and post-transition elements 84 Ka values for monoprotic acids (25 °C) App C.8 Ka values for polyprotic acids App C.8 Kb values for bases (25 °C) App C.8 Ksp values for insoluble salts App C.6 Kw values at various temperatures 775 Lewis structures, rules for drawing 384 Non-SI units used in chemistry Oxidation numbers, rules for calculating Organic compounds, families of Polyatomic ions Reduction potentials, standard 3.3 Electrical charges on ions 3.4 Reactivities of metals 9.7 Electron configurations of atoms 8.8 Atomic sizes 8.10 Electron affinities 8.10 Ionization energies 8.10 Electronegativities 9.7 Strengths of binary acids 16.3 Strengths of oxoacids 16.3 Crystal field splitting 22.5 217 1052 84 App C.9 33 SI prefixes and multiplication factors 35 Solubility rules 176 Strong acids 170 jespe_endpaper_back-hr.indd Metallic versus nonmetallic properties 34 SI base units Vapor pressure of water as a fuction of temperature (Trends in the following properties that can be correlated with the periodic table are discussed in the given sections.) App C.5 11/30/10 1:04 PM ... you may see an alternative way to arrive at the answer As long as the reasoning is sound and leads to the same answer as ours, you are to be applauded! Finally, by way of assurance, keep in mind... http://www.wiley.com/college/sc/jespersen facilitate dynamic learning and retention of learned concepts by promoting conceptual understanding and visualization of chemical phenomena Concept Mastery assignments have multiple... discussion of how our understanding of the atom has developed The fundamentals of the quantum mechanical atom are introduced to the extent that the material is relevant to the remainder of the text The
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Xem thêm: Chemistry, the molecular nature of matter 6th ed n jespersen, j brady, a hyslop (wiley sons, 2012) , Chemistry, the molecular nature of matter 6th ed n jespersen, j brady, a hyslop (wiley sons, 2012) , 3 Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids, 2 Electrolytes, Weak Electrolytes, and Nonelectrolytes, 1 Energy: The Ability to Do Work, 5 Heat, Work, and the First Law of Thermodynamics, 4 Lewis Symbols: Keeping Track of Valence Electrons, 6 Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures, 1 Gases, Liquids, and Solids and Intermolecular Distances, 9 Le Châtelier’s Principle and State Changes, 1 Brønsted–Lowry Definition of Acids and Bases, 2 Strengths of Brønsted–Lowry Acids and Bases, 5 Acid–Base Properties of Elements and Their Oxides, 1 Water, pH and “p” notation, 3 Ionization Constants, K[sub(a)] and K[sub(b)], 4 Determining K[sub(a)] and K[sub(b)] Values, 4 E°[sub cell] and ∆G°

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