From fossils to astrobiology

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FROM FOSSILS TO ASTROBIOLOGY Cellular Origin, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology Volume 12 Series Editor : Joseph Seckbach The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel For other titles published in this series, go to www.springer.com/series/5775 From Fossils to Astrobiology Records of Life on Earth and Search for Extraterrestrial Biosignatures Edited by Joseph Seckbach The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel and Maud Walsh Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA Editors Joseph Seckbach Hebrew University of Jerusalem Israel ISBN 978-1-4020-8836-0 Maud Walsh School of Plant, Environmental, and Soil Sciences University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA e-ISBN 978-1-4020-8837-7 Library of Congress Control Number: 2008933212 © 2009 Springer Science + Business Media B.V No part of this work may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, microfilming, recording or otherwise, without written permission from the Publisher, with the exception of any material supplied specifically for the purpose of being entered and executed on a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work Cover illustration: Upper left: NGC 6188, a dust cloud in Ara OB1 association, which sprawls across the edge of an expanding bubble of gas that could be as much as 300 light years wide Photo courtesy of Don Goldman http://www.astrodon.com/_img/image/gallery/2/NGC6188Web4.jpg Upper right:: Solar system montage of Voyager images Photo courtesy of NASA Center: JPL Image # PIA-02973 http://grin.hq.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/GPN-2003-000006.html Middle left: Hot spring in Yellowstone National Park Lower Geyser Basin White Creek area Photograph by Maud Walsh Middle right A spiny acritarch, Meghystrichosphaeridium reticulatum, preserved in 635-551 million year old phosphorite of the Doushantuo Formation at Weng’an in South China Photograph by Shuahai Xiao Photo at the bottom: Intertidal stromatolites in Hamelin Pool, Shark Bay, Western Australia Courtesy of B.P Burns and B.A Neilan (see their chapter in this volume) Printed on acid-free paper springer.com TABLE OF CONTENTS1 Foreword/Joseph Seckbach and Maud Walsh ix Introduction/A Roadmap to Fata Morgana Wladyslaw Altermann xv List of Authors and Their Addresses xxix GEOLOGY PART 1: FOSSILS AND FOSSILIZATION Nanosims Opens a New Window for Deciphering Organic Matter in Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Samples [Oehler, D.Z et al.] Disentangling the Microbial Fossil Record in the Barberton Greenstone Belt: A Cautionary Tale [Walsh, M.M and Westall, F.] Looking Through Windows onto the Earliest History of Life on Earth and Mars [Wacey, D et al.] Models for Silicate Fossils of Organic Materials in the Astrobiological Context [Kolb, V.M and Liesch, P.J.] Microfossil Phosphatization and Its Astrobiological Implications [Shuhai Xiao and Schiffbauer, J.D.] Proterozoic Unicellular and Multicellular Fossils from India and Their Implications [Tewari, V.C.] 25 39 69 89 119 PART 2: STROMATOLITES, MICROBIAL MATS, AND BIOFILMS Microbial Communities of Stromatolites [Brendan, B.P et al.] Biosedimentological Processes That Produce Hot Spring Sinter Biofabrics: Examples from the Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka Russia [Goin, J.C and Cady, S.L.] Cyanobacterial Mat Features Preserved in the Siliciclastic Sedimentary Record: Paleodeserts and Modern Supratidal Flats [Porada, H and Eriksson, P.G.] 143 159 181 The editors thank Professor Julian Chela-Flores for his suggestions for sections and chapter arrangements v vi TABLE OF CONTENTS Deciphering Fossil Evidence for the Origin of Life and the Origin of Animals: Common Challenges in Different Worlds [Antcliffe, J and McLoughlin, N.] 211 BIOLOGY PART 3: TERRESTRIAL MICROBES AS ANALOGS FOR LIFE ELSEWHERE IN THE UNIVERSE Microorganisms in the Ancient Terrestrial Subsurface – And in Outer Space? [Stan-Lotter, H et al.] Evidence of Ancient Microbial Life in an Impact Structure and Its Implications for Astrobiology: A Case Study [Hode, T et al.] Phylogenomic Dating and the Relative Ancestry of Prokaryotic Metabolisms [Blank, C.E.] Fossil Microorganisms at Methane Seeps: An Astrobiological Perspective: Astrobiology of Methane Seeps [Barbieri, R and Cavalazzi, B.] Endoliths in Terrestrial Arid Environments: Implications for Astrobiology [Stivaletta, N and Barbieri, R.] Magnetotactic Bacteria and Their Potential for Terraformation [Ardelean, I.I et al.] 233 249 275 297 319 335 PART 4: EVOLUTION AND ASTROBIOLOGY Paleontological Tests: Human-Like Intelligence Is Not a Convergent Feature of Evolution [Lineweaver, C.H.] Cosmic Life Forms [Grandpierre, A.] 353 369 SPACE SCIENCES PART 5: ASTRONOMICAL AND COSMOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN ASTROBIOLOGY Astronomical and Astrobiological Imprints on the Fossil Records: A Review [Chela-Flores, J et al.] Do Impacts Really Cause Most Mass Extinctions? [Prothero, D.R.] Irradiation of Icy Cometary Analogs: Its Relevance in Reference to Chemical Evolution and the Origin of Life [Colin-Garcia, M et al.] 389 409 425 TABLE OF CONTENTS The Big Bang at Time Zero [Bahn, P.R and Pravdo, S.H.] Molecular Imprints of Reaction Network: Living or Non-living [Matsuno, A.] vii 443 453 PART 6: THE SEARCH FOR EVIDENCE OF LIFE ON MARS The ALH84001 Case for Life on Mars [Davila, A.F et al.] Preservation Windows for Paleobiological Traces in the Mars Geological Record [Fernández-Remolar, D.C et al.] 471 491 PART 7: OUTLOOK AND SUMMARY Summary, Final Comments and Conclusions [Seckbach, J et al.] 515 Organism Index 521 Subject Index 523 Author Index 531 FOREWORD From Fossils to Astrobiology: Records of Life on Earth and Search for Extraterrestrial Biosignatures Astrobiology, the study of life in the universe, draws on many traditional areas of scientific study, including astronomy, chemistry and planetary science This volume, number 12 in the Cellular Origin, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology series (published by Springer) focuses on the study of the record of life on planet Earth, which is critical in guiding investigations in the rest of the cosmos, as well the evidence for and likelihood of extraterrestrial life The 30 contributors to this volume are experts from 16 different countries: Australia; Austria; France; Germany; Hungary; India; Israel; Italy; Japan; Mexico; Norway; Romania; South Africa; Spain; Sweden, United Kingdom; the United States of America The editors thank the authors for their contributions and their cooperation during the compilation of this volume We acknowledge the efforts of many individuals for their careful reviews of the chapters in this volume Their names are listed in alphabetical order: Wlady Altermann, Peter Bahn, Stefan Bengston, Oliver Botta, Gary Byerly, Zachary Byerly, Jeffrey Chiaranzelli, Brent Christner, Alexandra Davatzes, Stephen Dornbos, J Peter Gogartner, Jessica Goin, Richard Hugo, Hidrim Idriss, Carolina Keim, Joseph Lambert, Thomas Lindsay, Charles Lineweaver, Andrew Melott, Lori Marino, Harold Morowitz, Jared Morrow, Nora Noffke, Aharon Oren, Mary Parenteau, Russell Shapiro, Giovanni Strazzulla, Jan Toporski, Sergey Tsokolov, Peter Ward, and Frances Westall We thank Shellie Miller and Maeghan Reese of Louisiana State University for their assistance with organization and proofreading of manuscripts MMW acknowledges the support of the Louisiana Board of Regents/LaSPACE under the NASA Space Training Grant award NNG05GH22H Joseph Seckbach Hebrew University of Jerusalem Jerusalem, Israel Maud M Walsh Louisiana State University Baton Rouge, LA, USA June 21, 2008 ix Biodata of Joseph Seckbach, editor of this volume and author of “Foreword” (both with M.M Walsh) and the author with other coauthors of the “Summary and Outlook” Professor Joseph Seckbach is the founder and chief editor of Cellular Origins, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology (COLE) book series See: www.springer.com/ sereis/5775 He is the author of several chapters in this series Dr Seckbach earned his Ph.D from the University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (1965) and spent his postdoctoral years in the Division of Biology at Caltech (Pasadena, CA) Then he headed at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) a team for searching for extraterrestrial life He has been appointed to the faculty of the Hebrew University (Jerusalem, Israel) performed algal research and taught biological courses until his retirement He spent his sabbatical periods in Tübingen (Germany), UCLA and Harvard University, and served at Louisiana State University (LSU) (1997/1998) as the first selected occupant of the John P Laborde endowed Chair for the Louisiana Sea Grant and Technology transfer, and as a visiting Professor in the Department of Life Sciences at LSU (Baton Rouge, LA) Recently (2006) he spent three months in Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich with a DAAD fellowship from the German service of exchange academicians, where several forward steps of this volume have been performed Among his publications are books, scientific articles concerning plant ferritin (phytoferritin), cellular evolution, acidothermophilic algae, and life in extreme environments He also edited and translated several popular books Dr Seckbach is the co-author (with R Ikan) of the Chemistry Lexicon (1991, 1999) and other volumes, such as co-editor for the Proceeding of Endocytobiology VII Conference (Freiburg, Germany, 1998) and the Proceedings of Algae and Extreme Environments meeting (Trebon, Czech Republic, 2000); see: http://www.schweizerbart.de/pubs/books/ bo/novahedwig-051012300-desc.ht) His new volume entitled Divine Action and Natural Selection: Science, Faith, and Evolution, has been edited with Richard Gordon and published by World Scientific Publishing Company His recent interest is in the field of enigmatic microorganisms and life in extreme environments E-mail: seckbach@huji.ac.il xi 532 AUTHOR INDEX Barry, J.C., 341, 480, 481, 485 Bateson, M.M., 237 Bauer, E., 372, 375 Bauer, M., 281 Baughn, A.D., 288 Bauld, J., 155, 306 Baumgartner, L.K., 149 Bazylinski, D.A., 337–341, 343, 344, 478, 484, 485, 486 Beard, B L., 59 Beauchamp, B., 304 Beaumont, V., 10, 19, 20, 59 Becker, L., 399, 418, 478 Bekker, A., 277, 281 Bell, M.S., 481 Bell, R.A., 326, 327 Bellamy, L.J., 75, 76 Belousov, V.I., 167 Belton, D., 72 Ben Jacob, E., 381 Bengtson, S., 92, 93, 95, 109, 110 Benison, K.C., 497, 499, 503 Bennett, B., 19 Bennett, V.C., 42, 47 Benning, L.G., 16, 75, 76 Benton, M.J., 94, 359, 417 Berggren, W.A., 416 Bergsten, J., 281, 282 Berndt, M.E., 57 Berner, R.A., 203 Bernstein, M.P., 428, 434, 435 Beukes, N.J., 28 Beveridge, T.J., 338, 340 Bibring, J.P., 485, 493 Bintrim, S.B., 242 Birch, P., 338, 342 Björklund, M., 483 Blacic, J.M., 8, 16 Blackwell, M., 32 Blake, D., 430 Blakemore, R.P., 337, 338, 340, 343, 344, 478, 485 Bland, P.A., 427 Blank, C.E., 277, 280–283, 286, 287, 289 Bleil, U., 340, 484 Blick, N., 129 Blöchl, E., 236 Bloos, G., 191 Blowes, D.W., 503 Board, R.G., 338–340, 343 Bocchetta, M., 281 Bogard, D.D., 244, 328 Bohrmann, G., 305 Bolhar, R., 56 Bond, D.R., 288 Boon, J., 496 Boore, J.L., 279 Borg, L.E., 475 Bork, P., 279 Boslough, M.B.E., 416 Bottari, B., 237 Bottjer, D.J., 303 Bottomley, R.J., 253, 416 Bottrell, S.H., 93 Boucher Y., 281 Bounama, C., 494 Bouougri, E., 191, 193 Bowring, S.A., 418 Boyce, C.K., Bradley, J.P, 479 Braitseva, O.A., 167 Brake, S.S., 503 Brasier, M.D., 7, 27, 48–52, 50, 56–58, 61, 91, 146, 214, 216, 222, 223, 225, 277, 496, 516 Braun, T., 418 Braunstein, D., 165 Brearley, A.J., 16 Bridges, J.C., 328, 503 Briggs, D.E.G., 93, 94, 99, 110, 112, 113 Brochier, C., 280, 281 Brochier-Armanet, C., 280 Brocks, J.J., 16, 154, 277, 290, 495, 496, 500 Broda, E., 517 Broecker, W.S., 505 Broman, C.A., 253–257, 268, 269 Brown, J.R., 278–281 Brown, W.L., 433 Browne, P.R.L., 503 Brownlee, D., 447 Brucato, J.R., 434 Brysse, K., 415 Budd, G., 95 Buick, R., 47, 49–54, 162, 219 Burggraf, S., 280 AUTHOR INDEX Burne, R.V., 162, 164 Burns, B.P., 150–154, 516 Burr, G.S., 397 Buseck, P.R, 485 Buseck, P.R., 341 Buss, L.W., 222 Busse, H.-J Butler, R.F., 338 Butterfield, N.J., 92–94, 129, 134 Byerly, G.R., 28, 32, 54 C Cabrol, N.A., 252, 499, 500 Cady, S.L., 7, 162, 165, 171, 175, 252, 266, 269 Caetano-Anollés, G., 279 Cai, Y., 94 Callaghan, C.C., 186, 188 Callen, H.B., 373 Calvin, M., 446 Cameron, R.E., 324 Campbell, K.A., 301, 302, 307, 308, 503 Campbell, S.E., 321 Canfield, D.E., 53, 54, 277 Canuto, V.M., 396 Capria, M.T., 431 Carpini, D.D., 433 Carr, M., 493, 494 Carroll, L., 213, 223 Carson, B., 301, 302 Cassagneau, T., 75, 80 Castresana, J., 286 Catling, D.C., 50 Cavagna, S., 304, 307 Cavalazzi, B., 300, 304, 305, 306, 308, 309 Cavalier-Smith, T., 214 Chafetz, H.S., 306 Chamberlin, R.T., 427 Chamberlin T.C., 427 Chang, S., 77, 80, 430 Chapman, M.G., 417 Charlou, J.L., 268 Charnley, S.B., 428, 429, 431, 434 Chela-Flores, J., 121, 394, 397, 401, 405 Chen, D.F., 308 Chen, J., 95 Chen, J.-Y., 95 Chen, M., 109 Cheney, E.S., 186 Childress, J.J., 303 Chivas, A.R., 149 Christensen, P.R., 308, 503 Christiansen, J.W., 433 Chyba, C.F., 396, 427, 428, 437 Ciccarelli, F.D., 279, 280 Ciftỗioglu, N., 479, 483 Cisar, J.O., 479 Clague, D.A., 499 Clari, P., 304, 307 Cleaves, H.J., 396 Clemett, S.J., 477, 478 Clifford, S.M., 310 Coccioni, R., 416 Cockell, C.S., 253, 323, 324, 427 Codispoti, L., 339 Cody, G.D., 462 Coleman, D.C., 236 Colín-García, M, 427, 432, 436 Collini, B., 256 Connon, S.A., 322 Consolini, G., 380 Conway-Morris, S., 109, 223, 361, 362, 496 Cook, E., 359 Coolen, M.J.L., 154 Cooper, B.B., 433 Cooper, G.W., 77, 80 Coppi, M.V., 288 Coradin, T., 74, 75, 77 Coradini, A., 431 Corcoran, P.L., 494 Cornell, D., 46 Correns, C.W., 196 Cosmovici, C.B., 427 Cottin, H., 429, 436 Courtillot, V., 418 Cowan, D.A., 325 Cox, M.M., 77, 80, 85 Cranwell, P.A., 154 Crich, D., 154 Critchley, A.T., 326 Crofts, A.R., 377 Cronin, J.R., 77, 80 Crossey, L.J., 253 Cunningham, C.W., 287 533 534 AUTHOR INDEX D Dahlbom, M., 377 Damassa, S.P., 130 D’Amelio, E., 306 Darwin, C., 447 Das, A., 288 Daubin, V., 279, 281 Dauphas, N., 45, 59 Davidsson, B.J.R, 430 Davies, P., 383 Davies, P.C.W., 465 Davis, D.W., 91 Davis, M., 412 Davis, R.A., 503 Davis, T.M., 355 de Duve, C., 455 de la Torre, J.R., 324, 325 De Leeuw, J.W., 495 de lo Rios, A., 324 de Queiroz, A., 279 de Ronde, C.E.J., 32 De Sanctis, M.C., 431 de Wit, M.J., 32 Dean, W.E., 148 Decho, A.W., 149, 184, 198 Défarge, C., 30 Deflaun, M.F., 236 Delak, K.M., 83 DeLong, E.F., 242, 486 Delzeit, L., 430 Dempster, D.D., 366 Denner, E.B.M., 238, 240 Des Marais, D.J., 18, 155, 156, 163, 165, 175, 251, 252, 302, 307, 308, 309, 496, 506 Devouard, B., 485 Di Guilio, M., 279, 281 Dick, S.J., 371 Dickens, G.R., 309 Dickinson, W.R., 505 Dickson, J.A.D., 91 Ding, L., 109 Ding, Q., 134 Dingus, L.L., 415 Disanti, M.A., 429 Dollo, L., 356 Domack, E., 299 Donald, R., 111 Dones, L., 430 Dong, H., 327, 328 Dong, X.-p., 93 Donn, B., 428, 431 Donner, D., 129 Donoghue, P.C.J., 93 Doolittle, W.F., 281 Dorn, R.I., 505 Dornbos, S.Q., 92, 95 Dose, K., 322, 328 Douglas, S., 327 Dragani), I.D, 434 Dragani), Z.D., 434 Draganits, E., 203 Drake, F., 357, 358, 363 Drees, K.P., 322 Droser, M.L., 94 DuBois, D.L., 416 Dumitru, L., 343 Duncan, I.J., 109, 110 Dunin-Borkowski, R.E., 485 Dunlop, J.S.R., 47, 49, 51 Dupraz, C., 149 Durisch-Kaiser, E., 303 Durupthy, O., 74, 75, 77 Dutkiewicz, A., 290 Dzik, J., 223 E Edgett, K.S., 493 Edwards, H.G.M., 321, 324 Efron, B., 112 Eggleston, J.R., 148 Eglington, B.M., 186 Eglinton, G., 496 Eglinton, T.I., 16 Ehrenberg, C.G., 199 Ehrenfreund, P., 428–431, 433, 434 Ehrlich, H.L., 303 Eiler, J.M., 45 Einsele, G., 243 Einstein, A., 447, 448 Eisen, J.A., 278 Ellis, J., 401 Elvert, M., 305 Encrenaz, T., 310 Engel, A.E.J., 54 Eriksson, K.A., 183, 186, 207 AUTHOR INDEX Eriksson, P.G., 183, 184, 186, 188, 193, 194, 195 Erwin, D.H., 403, 417 F Fabian, K., 484 Fagerbakke, K.M., 18 Fairén, A.G., 308 Farley, K.A., 418 Farmer, J.D., 163, 165, 171, 251, 252, 269, 302, 306, 307, 308, 496, 506 Farquhar, J., 277 Fasset, C.I., 500 Fawcett, P.J., 416 Fedo, C.M., 43, 91, 94, 498 Fedonkin, M.A., 94, 223 Feig, Y.S., 237 Felbeck, H., 301 Felsenstein, J., 224 Fenchel, T., 198 Fendler, J.H., 75, 80 Fendrihan, S., 241 Fernández, J.A., 429 Fernández-López, S., 495, 496 Fernández-Remolar, D C., 493–495, 497–499, 503, 505, 507 Ferrell, R.E., 28 Ferris, F.G., 322, 326 Feynman, R.P., 377, 378 Firestone, R.B., 403, 413 Fish, S.A., 241 Fisher, C.R., 303 Fisher, R.C., 301 Fisk, M.R., 60, 61 Fitz-Gibbon, S.T., 279, 280 Flammarion, C., 473 Flessa, K.W., 112 Flies, C.B., 340, 341 Florenskii, I.V., 166 Floss, C., 19, 20 Fogg, M.J., 338, 341, 342 Foing, B., 244 Folk, R.L., 32, 46, 111, 479, 483 Ford, T.E., 222 Formisano, V., 300, 309, 310 Forterre, P., 280 Fowler, C.M.R., 146 Fox, G.E., 278 535 Foyn, S., 217 Fralick, P., 91 Franchi, M., 279, 281 Franck, S., 494 Francois, L.M., 494 Frankel, R.B., 337–340, 478, 484, 486 Frausto da Silva, J.J.R., 216 Fredrickson, J.K., 236 Friedmann, E.I., 60, 322, 324, 325, 326, 327, 328, 329, 337, 343, 480–482 Friedrich, G., 339 Friend, C.R.L., 43, 45 Fujikura, K., 301 Fukuda, R, 18 Fukumori, Y., 344 Furnes, H., 56 G Gabbott, S.E., 94 Gaidos, E.J., 310 Gaines, R.R., 94 Gallori, E., 279, 281 Galun, M., 326 Gamow, G., 445 Ganapathy, R., 416 Gao, L., 128, 134 Garcia-Pichel, F., 289 García-Ruiz, J.M., 7, 51, 268 Gatesy, J., 279 Gatland, K.W., 366 Gault, D.E., 252 Gehling, J.G., 94, 214, 222, 223 Gell-Mann, M., 373 Gemmell, R.T., 238, 322 Gendrin, A., 308, 328 Gerakines, P.A., 429, 433 Gerdes, G., 175, 184, 196, 198, 199, 200, 202, 203, 222, 322 Gerhart, J.C., 362 Gerstell, M.F., 338, 342 Gibson, E.K Jr., 19, 60 Gilichinsky, D.A., 235 Gillaizeau, B., 19 Giorgetti, G., 495 Giovannoni, S.J., 61 Gladman, B., 429 Glaessner, M.F., 217, 222, 223 Glass, B.P., 416 536 AUTHOR INDEX Glassener, M.F., 136 Gleason, J.D., 244, 328 Glikson, A.Y., 418 Glotch, D., 308 Glotch, T.D., 503 Gnos, E., 397 Gogarten, J.P., 279, 281 Goh, F., 151 Goin, J.C., 172, 176 Golden, D.C., 477, 480 Golubic, S., 221, 322, 495 Gómez, F., 495 Gomis, O., 433 Goodfriend, G.A., 112 Gooding, J.L., 244, 308, 328 Goodwin, A.M., 58 Gorbushina, A.A., 328 Gorby, Y.A., 338, 340 Gorlenko, V.M., 168, 169 Goswami, J.N., 395 Gould, S.J., 356, 366 Gouy, M., 279 Grady, M.M., 61, 328, 498 Grandpierre, A., 371, 376, 379, 382 Grant, J.A., 499, 501 Grant, P.R., 54 Grant, S.W.F., 91 Grant, W.D., 238, 243, 322 Grassineau, N.V., 59 Grazhdankin, D., 222 Green, D.E., 374 Greenberg, J.M., 428, 432 Greinert, J., 305 Gresse, P.G., 193 Gribaldo, S., 278, 280 Grice, K., 400 Grieve, R.A.F., 252, 253 Griffith, L.L., 309 Griffiths, E., 279 Grimes, S.T., 93 Grin, E.A., 252, 499, 500 Grotzinger, J.P., 50, 91, 147, 148, 162, 164, 191, 218, 219, 500, 504 Groves, D.I., 47, 49 Gruber, C., 238, 240 Grünberg, K., 339 Guerin, W.F., 344 Gugger, M., 288 Gupta, R.S., 279 Gutiérrez, P.J., 430 Gutzmer, J., 28 H Habicht, K.S., 279 Haeckel, E., 224 Hafenbradl, D., 280 Hagadorn, J.W., 92, 94, 95 Hagerty, J.J., 251, 253, 269, 270 Haldeman, D.L., 235 Hallam, A., 415, 417, 419 Hamade, T., 500 Han, T.-M., 91 Hancox, C.R., 338 Hansen, G., 309 Hansmann, S., 279, 280 Hanson, R.E., 186 Häntzschel, W., 191 Hardy, C.R., 287 Harold, L., 430 Harrington, H.J., 223 Harrison, T.M., 43, 45 Hartman, H.J., 427, 429 Hartmann, D.H., 403 Hartquist, T.W., 446 Harvey, R.P., 477, 479 Harvey, W.R., 377 Hashimoto, H., 338 Haskin, L.A., 505 Hassinen, H.I., 483 Hattingh, E., 186 Hatzenpichler, R., 242 Hawking, S.W., 446 Hayes, J.M., 45, 290 Hayes, P.K., 281, 286, 287, 289 Haynes, R.H., 337, 338, 342, 343 Haynie, D.T., 375 Hazen, R., 58 Hazen, R.M., xxv Head III, J.W., 500 Heaney, P.J., 80 Hedges, S.B., 50, 364 Hein, J.R., 308 Heller, H.C., 374, 377, 378 Henze, C., 279 Herrington, R.J., 301 Hessler, A.M., 500 AUTHOR INDEX Heyen, U., 343 Heymann, D., 399 Hibbs, A.R., 378 Hickman, C.S., 300 Hilgert, J.W., 91 Hino, M., 75, 76 Hinrichs, K.U., 303 Hinz-Schallreuter, I., 109 Hirsch, P., 325 Hiscox, J.A., 337, 338, 342, 343 Hode, T., 163, 253–257, 268, 269 Hoefen, T.M., xxi Hoehler, T.M., 146 Hoffmann, C., 196 Hoffmann, P., 221 Hofmann, A., 56 Hofmann, H.J., 7, 47, 49, 132, 133, 150, 164, 165, 219, 221, 277 Hoiczyk, E., 288 Holm, N.G., 268 Holmes, E.C., 224 Holser, W.T., 243 Holtkamp-Tacken, E., 328 Holtz, T., 420 Honghan, C., 309 Hooker, J.J., 359 Hoover, R.B., 60 Horgan, J., 517 Horita, J., 57, 243 Horneck, G., xx Horowitz, N.H., 324 House, C.H., 7, 279, 280 Hoyle, F., 445 Hoyng, P., 379 Hsü, K., 196 Hua, H., 91, 94 Hua, M., 325, 337, 343 Hubbard, J.S., 324 Hudson, R.L., 429, 431–435 Hueber, W.F., 430–432 Huey, R.B., 419 Hughes, K.A., 324, 327, 328 Hut, P., 412 Huynen, M.A., 279 I Iler, R.K., 72 Imai, E., 458, 461 Inagaki, F., 237, 303 Ionescu, D., 327 Irvine, W.M., 427, 429 Ishman, S.E., 413 Ivantsov, A.Yu., 223 Ivany, L.C., 416 Iwatsuki, T., 483 J Jackson, A.A., 412 Jahnke, L.L., 251 Jahren, A.H., 419 Jain, R., 280 Jakosky B.M., 499, 500 Jakubík, M., 430 James, P.B., 412 Jankauskas, T.V., 130 Jannasch, H.W., 301, 340 Jansen, H., 186 Javor, B.J., 151 Jeffroy, O., 282 Jenkins, R.J.F., 222 Jensen, S., 94, 217, 222 Jerison, H.J., 358 Jerse, G., 394 Jewitt, D., 433 Jin, Y., 418 Jõeleht, A., 253 Jogi, P., 219 Johansson, Å., 269 Johnson, C M., 59 Johnson, R.E., 431 Jones, B., 110, 111, 165, 251, 252, 503 Jonuscheit, M., 242 Jukes, H., 338 Jull, A.J.T., 59, 397, 478 Jurgens, G., 242 K Kahn, R., 309 Kaiho, K., 399 Kaiser, R.I., 433 Kajander, E.O., 479, 483 Kakegawa, T., 58, 146, 155, 277 Kaku, M., 445 Kalkowsky, V.H.E., 217 Kamber, B.S., 49, 50, 91 Kant, I., 450 537 538 Kaplan, I.R., 45, 243 Kaplan, L.D., 473 Kargel, J.S., 309, 310 Karpov, G.A., 171 Karsten, U., 327, 328 Kasama, T., 338 Kashefi, K., 236, 476 Kastele, X., 74 Kasting, J., 53 Kasting, J.F., 338, 342 Kawaguchi, T., 149 Kazmierczak, J., 7, 27, 148 Kazue, T., 503 Kearns, S.L., 94 Keeling, P.J., 281 Keim, C.N., 338 Keller, G., 398, 413, 415, 417–419 Kelley, D.S., 300, 301 Kelly,S.R.A., 305, 310 Kempe, S., 148 Kenig, F., 154 Kennedy, M.J., 94 Kennett, J.P., 300 Kent, A.J.R., 477 Kerr, R.A., 399 Kerridge, J.F., 397, 398 Khullar, M., 483 Kiel, S., 302 Kilian, E., 326, 327 Kim, J., 287 Kimmel, G.A., 433 Kirschner, M.W., 362 Kirschvink, J.L., 310, 477 Kirsimäe, K., 253 Kissin, S.A., 91 Kiyokawa, S., 499 Klaus, W., 243 Klein, C., 132, 251 Klein, H.P., 474 Klenk, H.P., 278 Klenke, Th., 198 Kminek, G., 244, 329 Knauth, L.P., 59 Knie, K., 401 Knoll, A.H., 50–54, 91, 92, 95, 107, 108, 110, 111, 128, 129, 130, 134, 147, 162, 164, 191, 218, 219, 222, 321, 419, 497, 498, 503 AUTHOR INDEX Kobayashi, K., 436 Koch, A.L., 483 Kochan, H.W., 430–432 Koeberl, C., 418 Kohnen, M.E.L., 16 Kolb, V.M., 72, 73, 75–78, 76, 78, 79, 81, 83–85 Komatsu, G., 252 Komeili, A., 480 Kömle, N.I., 429, 432 Komor, S.C., 253 Konetzka, W.A., 340 Konhauser, K.O., 165, 251, 252, 338, 339 Koriem, A.M., 60, 328 Koski, R.A., 308 Kossacki, K., 494 Kossacky, K.J., 429, 432 Kowalewski, M., 112 Krasnopolsky, V.A., 300, 310 Kring, D.A., 163, 253 Krot, A.N., 477 Krumbein, W.E., 47, 196, 198, 199, 203, 217, 328 Kubicki, J.D., 80 Kudryavtsev, A.B., 7, 45, 121, 132, 269 Kühl, M., 151, 198, 327, 328 Kuhlman, K.R., 499, 506 Kuikka, J.T., 483 Kumar, G., 128 Kumar, S., 132 Kump, L.R., 400, 419 Kunin, V., 281 Kvenvolden, K.A., 300, 309 Kyte, F.T., 418 L LaClair, D.A., 497, 503 Lake, J.A., 280 Lalonde, S.V., 165 Lambert, J.B., 74, 80, 81 Landau, L.D., 373 Lange, O.L., 326, 327 Langevin, Y., 328 Lapierre, P., 281 Larkum, A.W.D., 151 Larsen, H., 238 Laurent, J., 280 Laweley, B., 324, 327, 328 Lawless, G., 427, 429 AUTHOR INDEX Lawrence, J.G., 281 Lazcano, A., 427, 428 Lazcano-Araujo, A., 428 Lee, P., 253, 269 Lehninger, A.L., 77, 80, 85 Leistel, J.M., 499 Leliwa-Kopystynski, J., 429, 432 Lemos, R.S., 288 Lepland, A., 45, 46, 91 Lepot K., 49 Lerat, E., 281 Lercher, M.J., 281 Leto, G., 433 Leuko, S., 237 Levin, L.A., 300, 302 Levison, H.F., 427 Lewis, A., 499 Li, C., 290 Liang, E.W., 403 Liang, L., 218 Lichtschlag, A., 302 Liesch, P.J., 72, 75–78, 76, 79, 81, 83–85 Lifshitz, E.M., 373 Liljedahl, L., 301 Lin, W.C., 288 Lindblom, S., 254 Lineweaver, C.H., 355, 356, 364 Lins, U., 338 Lipkin, Y., 322, 326, 328 Lipps, J.H., 414 Little, C.T.S., 301, 302 Liu, P., 110 Liu, T., 505 Livage, J., 74, 75, 77 Lo, S.C., 129 Lodish, H., 74, 80 Loeffler, M.J., 433, 434 Löffler, T., 193 Logan, B.W., 148, 149 Logan, G.A., 252, 256, 290, 496 López-Cortés, A., 150 Love, G.D., 19 Lovley, D.R., 236, 288, 476 Lowe, D.L., 57 Lowe, D.R., 27–29, 32, 47, 49, 54, 56–58, 59, 145, 164, 165, 219, 277, 500 Lowell, P., 473 Lucas, S.G., 413, 417 Ludwig, W., 237, 288 Lugmair, G.W., xxiii Lunine, J.I., 309 Luo, Y., 279 Lyons, J.R., 437 Lysenko, S.V., 337, 338, 342, 343 M Ma, H.W., 281 MacElroy, R.D., 338 Macintyre, I.G., 148, 149 MacLeod, N., 414, 415 Maddison, D.R., 224, 283, 286–288 Maddison, W.P., 283, 286–288 Madigan, M.T., 237, 322 Maher, K.A., 183 Maier, R.M, 322 Maillard, J.P., 300, 310 Maine, A.T., 477 Maithy, P.K., 129, 137 Malamy, M.H., 288 Malin, M.C., 493 Maliva, R.G., 92 Malmqvist, K.G., 257 Mankinen, E., 416 Mann, S., 72, 338–340, 343 Manning, C.E., 45 Manzanares, M., 363 Maratea, D., 340 Margulis, L., 396 Marino, L., 363 Marinova, M.M., 338, 342 Marion, J.B., 449 Marks, J., 129 Markwardt, C.B., 403 Martill, D.M, 109 Martin, D., 113 Martin, M.J., 430 Martin, W., 279, 280 Martinás, K., 376 Martinko, J.M., 237, 322 Martinson, A., 191 Martire, L., 304, 307 Masaitis, V., 416 Mathur, V.K., 133 Matich, A.J., 433 Matsunaga, T., 339 Matsuno, K., 458, 461, 462, 464 Maurrasse, F., 416 Max, M.D., 310 539 540 AUTHOR INDEX Mayr, E., 357 Mazzini, A., 309 McCarville, P., 253 McClendon, J.H., 50 McCollom, T.M., 277, 310, 462, 499, 500 McCollum, T.M., 57 McCord, T.B., 244 McGenity, T.J., 238, 240, 243 Mcgenity, T.J., 322 McGhee, G.R., 418 McIrvine, E.C., 381 McKay, C.P., 50, 59, 322, 323, 324, 325, 328, 337, 338, 341–343, 486, 499, 506 McKay, D.S., 19, 59, 60, 244, 309, 475–481, 486 McKeegan, K.D., 45 McKinley, J.P., 237, 259, 269 McLennan, S.M., 328 McLoughlin, N., 219, 221, 516 McNamara, K.J., 145, 225 McNeill, D.F., 481 McShea, D.W., 363 McSween, H.Y., 477, 479 Medhioub, K., 200 Medvedev, M.V., 405 Meeks, J.C., 288 Melosh, H.J., 252 Melott, A.L., 404, 405 Menor-Salván, C., 505, 507 Messerotti, M., 394, 405 Meyerdierks, A., 301 Michalski, J.R., 493, 494 Mikhailov, M.V., 416 Miller, S.L., 396, 437 Mims, C.W., 32 Min, K., 477 Mishler, B., 281 Misner, C.W., 448 Mitchison, G., 280 Mittlefehldt, D.W., 477 Miyoshi, T., 483 Moench, T.T., 340 Moisescu, C., 343 Mojzsis, S.J., 43, 45, 46, 53, 91, 516 Moniot, R.K., 402 Monster, J., 58 Moorbath, S., 43, 50 Moore, J.M., 499 Moore, L S., 162, 164 Moore, L.S., 148 Moore, M.H., 429, 431–435 Moore, R.C., 223 Moran, N.A., 281 Moreno, C., 505 Morison, D., 71, 85 Mormile, M.R., 238 Morowitz, H.J., 447, 460 Moroz, L., 431 Morris, R.V., 493 Morrison, P., 427, 429 Morrow, J.R., 413, 419 Moskowitz, B.M., 340 Mueller, W.U., 494 Muir, M.D., 54 Mukhopadhyay, S., 418 Müller, K.J., 92, 109 Muller, R.A., 405, 412, 413 Mumma, M.J., 300, 429 Münch, G., 473 Murray, J., 339 Mussmann, M., 281 Muyzer, G., 237 N Naganuma, T., 483 Nagy, B., 54 Nagy, L.A., 54 Nakamura-Messenger, K., 19 Nanri, H., 146, 155 Narbonne, G.M., 94, 133, 217 Naumov, M.V., 253 Navarro-Gonzãles, R., 322, 328 Nealson, K.H., 111, 237, 251, 310 Negrón-Mendoza, A., 427, 437 Nelson, D.C., 301 Nelson, D.L., 77, 80, 85 Nemoto, A., 461 Nesbitt, E.A., 416 NesluKan, L., 430 Newsom, H.E., 163, 251, 253, 269, 270 Nhleko, N., 58 Nienow, J.A., 324, 328, 337, 343 Nieto, M.A., 363 Niewon, J.A., 325 Nisbet, E.G., 61, 91, 146, 183, 244 Noe Dobrea, E.Z., 493, 494 AUTHOR INDEX Noffke, N., 58, 175, 184, 191, 195, 198, 203, 322, 500 Norris, R.D., 416 Norton, C.F., 239 Novikov, I., 448 Nussinov, M.D., 337, 338, 342, 343 Nutman, A.P., 43, 45 Nystuen, J.P (1990b), 129 O Oberbeck, V.R., 252 Ocampo, R., 322, 324, 325 Ocampo-Friedmann, R., 325, 327, 329, 337, 343, xx Ocampo-Paus, R., 322, 326, 328 Ochman, H., 281 Oehler, D.Z., Oehler, J.H., 16, 17 Oerstedt, A.S., 198 Ofan, A., 398 Officer, C., 415 Ogasawara, H., 461 Ogata, Y., 459 Ohmoto, H., 58, 183, 277, 500 Ohta, Y., 129 Olsen, P.E., 417 Olu, K., 301 Olu-Le Roy, K., 301 Omelon, C.R., 322, 326 O’Nions, R.K., 43 Onofri, S., 328 Onstott, T.C., 236 Oort, J.H., 430 Oparin, A.I., 394, 447 Oren, A., 327, 328 Ori, G.G., 252, 300, 304, 305, 306, 308 Orians, G.H., 374, 377, 378 Orlando, T.M., 433 Oró, J., 427, 428, 431, 437 Orphan, V.J., 303 Orr, J C., 494 Orr, P.J., 94 Osinski, G.R., 253, 269 Ossendrijver, M., 379 Owen, T., 427, 437 Owen, T.C., 300, 310 Ozawa, K., 461 Oze, C., 310 P Pace, N.R., 278, 328, 503 Packer, B.M., 50 Paerl, H.W., 183 Page, J., 415 Page, R.D.M., 224 Pál, C., 281 Palij, V.M., 223 Palmer, F., 34 Palmer, R J., 327, 328 Palmisano, A.C., 151 Palumbo, M.E., 432 Pan, X.N., 433 Pankhurst, R.J., 43 Pant, C.C., 132 Papineau, D., 151, 152, 154 Papp, B., 281 Parker, J., 322 Parkes, R.J., 113 Parnell, J., 309 Patrikeev, V.V., 337, 338, 342, 343 Patterson, C., 224 Pavlov, A., 419 Peacock, J.A., 450 Peckmann, J., 300, 304, 307, 308, 309 Pedersen, K., 235, 236, 243 Pellenbarg, R.E Penzias, A.A., 445 Pepin, R.O., 393 Peretó, J., 517 Perri, E., 111 Perrier, G., 279 Perry, C.C., 72 Perry, R.S., 34, 72, 73, 79, 506 Perthuisot, J-P., 200 Petermann, H., 340 Petersen, N., 340, 478 Pflug, H.D., 54, 223 Pflüger, F., 193 Philip, A.I., 73, 79 Philip, E., 253 Philippe, H., 278, 280, 281 Philippot, P., 54 Phoenix, R.R., 16, 17 Phoenix, V.R., 16, 17 Pierazzo, E., 437 Pinckney, J.L., 149, 183 Pinter, N., 413 541 542 Pizzarello, S., 77 Poag, C.W., 416, 417 Pohnert, G., 83 Pointing, S.B., 328 Pol, D., 281 Pollard, W.H., 322, 326 Polyak, V.J., 34 Ponnamperuma, C., 394 Ponomareva, V.V., 167 Popa, R., 372 Popoviciu, D.R., 338 Porada, H., 191, 193 Porter, K.G., 237 Porter, S.M., 91 Pósfai, M., 484, 485 Potter, R.M., 495, 506 Potts, M., 322 Poulakakis, N., 359 Poulet, F., 493 Powers, D.W., 328 Pratt, B.R., 93 Prince, R.C., 308 Prothero, D.R., 195, 412–414, 416, 417, 419 Provencio, P.P., 34 Purves, W.K., 374, 377, 378 Purvis, A., 279 Pyatiletov, V.G., 130 Pykova, N.G., 137 Q Quaide, W.L., 252 R Radax, C., 240 Raff, E.C., 113 Ragozina, A.L., 130 Rainbird, R.H., 134 Raisbeck, G.M., 396 Raiswell, R., 93, 277 Rambler, M., 396 Ramos-Bernal, S., 432 Ramos-Cormenzana, A., 322 Rampino, M.R., 412, 418, 419 Rasbury, E.T, 111 Rasmussen, B., 27, 52, 252 Rathbun, J.A., 163 AUTHOR INDEX Raup, D.M., 412, 415–418 Reible, S., 374 Reid, G.C., 401 Reid, R.P., 149–152, 155, 164 Reimers, C., 306 Reimold, W.U., 253, 418 Reineck, H.E., 191, 198 Reiners, P.W., 477 Remusat, L., 16, 20 Renaut, R.W., 110, 111, 251, 252, 503 Renne, P.R., 418 Retallack, G.J., 418, 419 Reysenbach, A.-L., 286 Rickard, D., 94 Riding, R., 164, 218 Riley, M.S., 288 Ritger, S., 301, 302 Ritter, G., 462 Rivera, M.C., 280 Robert, F., 8, 10, 19, 20, 59 Robertson, D.S., 415 Robinson, C.A., 302 Rodgers, F., 338 Rodgers, S.D., 431, 433 Rodriguez-Valera, F., 322 Roederer, J., 381 Rogers, B.W., 300, 309 Rohde, R.A., 405, 413 Romanek, C.S., 477 Ronto, G., 235 Rosen, M.R., 110, 111, 503 Rosenzweig, W.D., 328 Rosing, M.T., 44, 106, 162, 498 Rossman, G.R., 495, 506 Rothman, D.H., 50, 164, 219 Rowe, T., 415 Roy, A., 32 Rudavskaya, V.V., 130 Ruderman, M.A., 401 Ruibuan, G., 134 Ruiji, C., 27, 42 Ruíz-Bermejo, M., 505, 507 Ruiz-Berraquero, F., 322 Runnegar, B.N., 91, 219, 223, 279 Rush, P.F., 306 Rushdi, A.I., Russell, M.J., 61 AUTHOR INDEX S Sagan, C., 338, 356, 357, 358, 396, 427, 437 Sahai, N., 83 Salisbury, B.A., 287 Samba-Fouala, C., 88 Sánchez-Baracaldo, P., 281, 286–289 Sancho, L.G., 324 Sanderson, M.J., 279 Sandford, S.A., 19, 428, 434, 435 Sanford, W.E., 196 Saraste, M., 286 Sassen, R., 303, 308 Sato, T., 75, 76 Satterfield, C.L., 328 Saunders, A.D., 413, 419 Savard, M.M., 304 Sawyer, D.J., 328 Scalo, J., 404 Scheffel, A., 480 Schiaparelli, G.V., 473 Schidlowski, M., 43, 162, 244, 277, 516 Schieber, J., 175, 184, 185, 193, 194, 204 Schiffman, P., 499, 506 Schilling, G., xix Schinteie, R., 503 Schleifer, K.H., 237, 288 Schleper, C., 242 Schluter, D., 287 Schneider, D.A., 91 Schneider, J., 322, 495 Schoderbek, D., 306 Schodlok, M.C., Schoell, M., 302 Schopf, J.M., 161 Schopf, J.W., 7, 8, 16, 27, 42, 45, 47, 49–52, 54, 91, 92, 121, 132, 133, 135, 146, 162, 164, 183, 251, 269 Schramm, D.N., 401 Schrödinger, E., xvii (AU: Found in the Preface only) Schübbe, S., 339 Schüler, D., 337–339, 338, 343 Schultze-Lam, S., 150 Schulz, E., 196 Schulze-Makuch, D., 499, 500 Schutte, W.A., 430, 435 Schwab, F., 195 Schwartz, R.D., 412 Schwartzman, D., 364 Schweimanns, M., 301 Scott, E.R.D., 309, 341, 477, 480, 481 Sears, D.W.G., 430–432 Secchi, A., 473 Seckbach, J., ix, 121, 447, 515 Seewald, J.S., 57, 277 Segura, T.L., 251 Seilacher, A., 214, 222, 223, 496 Selivanovskaya, T.V., 416 Semikhatov, M.A., 47, 217, 221 Seong-Joo, L., 221 Sepkoski, J.J., 405, 412, 416, 418 Sergeev, V.N., 133 Shafran, K., 72 Shankar, R., 133 Shapira, Y., 381 Shapiro, R.S., 304, 305 Sharma, M., 310 Shen, Y., 53, 54 Shi, M., 433 Shiekh, F.A., 483 Shock, E.L., 309 Shoemaker, E.M., 252 Short, K.A., 344 Shoskes, D.A., 483 Shubin, N.H., 417 Shukla, M., 128, 132 Sial, A.N., 121, 134 Sibuet, M., 301 Siddall, M.E., 281 Siebert, J., 325 Siegenthaler, C., 196 Sieger, M.T., 433 Siever, R., 92 Signor, P.W., 414 Simoneit, B.R.T., 7, 251, 462 Simonson, B.M., 92 Simpson, E.L., 183, 186–189, 195 Simpson, G.G., 356 Simpson, W.S., 433 Singh, S., 445 Singh, S.K., 483 Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., 495 543 544 AUTHOR INDEX Sivertseva, I.A., 130 Skrzypczak, A., Slayman, C.L., 377 Sleep, N.H., 61, 91, 183, 244 Slesarev, A.I., 279 Smalla, K., 237 Smith, E., 460 Smith, J.M., 366 Smith, M.J., 339, 343 Smithies, H.R., 42, 47 Snel, B., 279 Snyman, C.P., 186 Soina, V.S., 237 Sommer, A.P., 483 Sommerfield, M.R., 326, 327 Sørensen, K.B., 235 Southam, G., 111, 162, 266 Southgate, P.N., 221 Sparks, N.H.C., 338–340, 343 Spear J.R., 503 Spinks, J.W.T., 434 Spinrad, H., 473 Spooner, E.T.C., 32 Sprachta, S., 302 Spray, J.G., 253, 269 Spring, S., 340 Sprinson, D.B., 83 Squyres, S.W., 61, 163, 251, 252, 328, 485, 493, 499 Srivastava, P., 132 Stadermann, F.J., 19, 20 Stal, L.J., 198, 200 Staley, J., 34 Stanley, S.M., 412 Stan-Lotter, H., 235, 238–240 Steele, A., 478 Steiner, M., 94 Stephens, C., 338 Steppe, T.F., 183 Stern, A.S., 428–431 Stetter, K.O., 251, 254 Stevens, T.O., 237, 259, 269 Stevenson, D.J., 183 Stinnesbeck, W., 398 Stoker, C.R., 59 Stolz, J.F., 338, 340 Stothers, R.B., 412, 418, 419 Strazzulla, G., 430–432, 435 Strick, J.E., 371 Suess, E., 301, 302 Sugitani, K., 57 Sullivan, C.W., 73 Summons, R.E., 16, 27, 50, 154, 251, 495, 496, 500 Sun, H.J., 325 Susko, E., 280, 281 Sutherland, I.W., 198 Sweryda-Krawiec, B., 75, 80 Swett, K., 129, 134 Swofford, D., 283 Szathmary, E., 366 Szopa, C., 430 T Takai, K., 237, 269 Tamegai, H., 344 Tanaka, M., 339 Tanner, L.H., 417 Tarter, J., 355 Tauber, A.I., 381 Taviani, M., 304 Taylor, A.P., 341, 480, 481, 485 Taylor, P., 479, 483 Teeling, H., 281 Teichmann, S.A., 280 Terzi, C., 304 Teske, A., 235 Tewari, V.C., 121, 128, 132–135 Thamdrup, B., 54 Therriault, A.M., 252 Thiel, V., 307, 308 Thiemens, M., 277 Thode, H.G., 58 Thomas, C.H., 404 Thomas, D.J., 338 Thomas-Keprta, K.L., 59, 60, 341, 480, 485 Thorne, K., 448 Thorsett, S.E., 404 Thorsos, I.E., 251, 253, 269, 270 Tice, M.M., 56, 57, 145 Tiercelin, J.J., 110, 252 Timofeev, B.V., 134 Tiwari, M., 132 Tobias, P.V., 400, 401 Tombrello, T.A., 433 Tomitani, A., 277 AUTHOR INDEX Toon, O.B., 338, 342 Toon, O.W., 252 Toporski, J.K.W., 16 Townsend, J.P., 279 Treiman, A.H., 244, 328 Treude, T., 301, 303 Treusch, A.H., 242 Tribus, M., 381 Tripathi, A.B., 269 Trusovs, S., 79 Tsong, I.S.T., 433 Tucker, M., 111 Tuniz, C., 397 Tunnicliffe, V., 302 Tyler, S.T., 52 Tynni, R., 129 U Udry, S., xix Ueno, Y., 16, 46, 52, 303 Uhen, M.D., 363 Urban, J.E., 339 Uwins, P.J.R., 479, 483 V Vago, J., 244 Valencia, D., xix (AU: Found in the Preface only) Valentine, J.W., 223 Vali, H., 340, 477, 478 Valley, J.W., 253 Van der Neut, M., 188 Van Dover, C.L., 300, 301 Van Kranendonk, M.J., 42, 46, 47, 49, 52, 56, 145, 147, 219 Van Niekerk, H.S., 28 Van Zuilen, M.A., 7, 46, 58, 59, 61, 91 Vaniman, D.T., 328 Vanzani, V., 405 Vargas, M., 288 Varnes, E.S., 499, 500 Vasavada, A.R., 437 Veizer, J., 304 Venkatachala, B.S., 128 Versh, E., 253 Vestal, J.R., 325, 328 Vidal, G (1990b), 129 Villar, S.E.J, 324 545 Visscher, P.T., 149 Vlierboom, F.W., 256 Vockenhuber, C., 401 Vogel, G., 372 Volkova, N.A., 130 von Dalwigk, I., 253–257, 268, 269 von Dobeneck, T., 478 Vonhof, H.B., 416 Vreeland, R.H., 238–240, 328 Vrieling, E.G., 72 W Wacey, D., 49–53, 219, 516 Wächtershäuser, G., 457 Wada, H., 363 Wade, M., 223 Wadhwa, M., xxiii Waggoner, B.M., 94, 223 Wagner, D., 310 Wagner, R., 338, 342 Walker, J., 328 Walker, J.C.G., 396, 494 Walker, J.J., 503 Wallace, A.R., 473 Walossek, D., 92 Walraven, F., 186 Walsh, M.M., ix, 27–29, 55, 57, 121, 132, 500 Walter, M.R., 27, 42, 47, 50–52, 54, 133, 134, 145, 146, 162, 164, 165, 175, 217, 251, 252, 309, 516 Wang, F., 134 Wang, M., 279 Wang, S.C., 419 Wanner, G., 239 Ward, D.M., 237 Ward, P.D., 413, 417, 419, 420, 447 Warren, P.H., 477 Warren-Rhodes, K.A., 322 Watters, W.A., 91 Wayne, H.P., 326 Webb G.E., 49 Webb, R.I., 341, 479, 480, 483, 485 Wediking, W., 45 Weed, R., 325 Weidler, G.W., 242, 244 Weil, A., 415 Weinberg, S., 445, 446 Weiss, A.F., 134 546 AUTHOR INDEX Weiss, B.P., 60, 341 Weiss, D.G., 340 Weissbach, A., 83 Weissman, P.R., 427, 428 Weller, R., 237 Werne, J.P., 16 Werner, D., 47, 203 Westall, F., 27–30, 32, 46, 54–58, 121, 132, 135, 162, 183, 252, 259, 266, 269, 500 West-Eberhard, M.J., 361 Wheeler, J.A., 448 Wheeler, J.C., 404 White, R.V., 413, 419 Whitehouse, M.J., 43, 50, 91 Whiting, M.F., 281 Whitman, W.B., 236 Whitmire, D.P., 412 Whittet, D.C.B., 437 Whitton, B.A., 324 Wickman, F.E., 254 Wiebe, W.J., 236 Wieler, R., 397 Wierzchos, J., 321, 322, 323, 324, 325, 326, 328 Wignall, P.B., 415, 417–419, 419 Wilby, P.R., 109 Wilde, S.A., 43 Williams, D.A., 446 Williams, L.A., 306 Williams, R.J.P., 73, 216 Williams, T.J., 343 Wilmotte, A., 288 Wilson, L., 50, 58 Wilson, R.W., 445 Winkler, S., 401 Wirsen C.O., 301 Witt, A., 484 Woese, C.R., 278, 281, 517 Wolfe, R.S., 340 Wolfram, S., 50 Wong, A.S., 310 Wood, H.M., 483 Wood, J.A., 430 Wood, R.A., 91 Wood, W.W., 196 Woods, R.J., 434 Wray, G.A., 214 Wright, I., 61, 498 Wynn-Williams, D.D., 321, 323, 324 X Xiao, S, 92, 94, 95, 107, 108, 110, 111 Xiao, S., 128 Xie, X., 28 Xing, Yu S., 134 Xu, D., 403 Xuanyang, Z., 134 Y Yadav, V.K., 128, 132 Yakshin, M.S., 130 Yamaguchi, A., 477 Yamanaka, T., 344 Yamazaki, T., 344 Yang, H., 327 Yee, N., 16, 17 Yin, C., 128, 134 Yochelson, E.L., 94 York, D., 253 York, P.F., xx Yuan, X., 95, 107 Yue, Z., 93, 110, 134 Z Zahnle, K.J., 50 Zang, W., 130, 134 Zeng, A.P., 281 Zhang, C.L., 301, 303 Zhang, W., 92–94, 108 Zhang, Y., 95 Zhaxybayeva, O., 281 Zheng, W., 433 Zhou, C., 95 Zhou, L., 418 Zhu, M., 94 Ziegler, H., 326, 327 Zillig, W., 286 Zolensky, M.E., 244 Zolotarev, B.P., 167 Zopfi, J.T., 339 Zubay, Z., 73 Zubrin, R.M., 338, 342 Zumberge, J.E., 256 ... Introduction Joseph Seckbach, the editor of the present book series, invited me to write the introduction to From Fossils to Astrobiology during his months visit to my Institute at the Ludwig-Maximilians-University... scientific equipment, allowing us to explore new, hitherto unreachable dimensions down to atomic scale and up to unimaginable distances in time and space What Is Astrobiology? Astrobiology – a discipline.. .FROM FOSSILS TO ASTROBIOLOGY Cellular Origin, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology Volume 12 Series Editor : Joseph Seckbach The Hebrew University
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