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VIETNAM ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES GRADUATE ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES LÊ VIỆT DŨNGK LE VIET DUNG Participating in global supply chain of information technology: Experience of Taiwan Major: International economy Code: 31 01 06 ABSTRACT OF DOCTORAL THESIS Supervisors: PhD Nguyen Binh Giang Assoc., PhD Nguyen Duy Loi Hanoi– 2019 The thesis was completed at: GRADUATE ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES, VIETNAM ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES Supervisors: Supervisor 1: PhD Nguyen Binh Giang Supervisor2: Assoc., PhD Nguyen Duy Loi Reviewer 1: Assoc., PhD Bui Tat Thang Reviewer 2: Assoc., PhD Tran Cong Sach Reviewer 3: Assoc., PhD Nguyen Manh Hung The dissertation will be defended before the thesis review council of the Academy at the Graduate academy of social sciences at hour minutes, day month year The Thesis can be found at: - National Library of Vietnam - Library of Graduate academy of social sciences INTRODUCTION The urgency of the topic Taiwan began a period of rapid economic growth since the 1960s Entering the 1980s, Taiwan quickly shifted its economy to strategic industries, in which information technology (IT) was among important industries invested by the government Since then, Taiwan's IT has made great progress, from the stage of manufacturing and supplying consumer electronics, electronic components, to the world's leading high-tech products with products like semiconductors, optics, laptops, tablets, etc By adopting reasonable support policies in IT development such as establishing technology parks, developing human resources, attracting foreign investment, encouraging IT businesses to develop product brands, Taiwan has increasingly participated in global supply chains, even leading some chains Meanwhile, Vietnam's IT industry is still in a low link, has not developed sustainably for many reasons Some of them can be named as weak and inadequate human resource quality, the system of domestic suppliers is small, backward IT infrastructure, etc Is there any possibility to bring Taiwan's experience apply to other countries like Vietnam? Systematic and focused research is needed to explain Taiwan's success story and explore their applicable experiences This is the motivation for PhD students to carry out the thesis with the topic "Participating in global supply chain of IT industry: Experience of Taiwan" The purpose and research question of the thesis - The purpose of this study is to clarify how Taiwan has taken to successfully participate in global IT supply chains and draw lessons for Vietnam - Research tasks: + Systematizing with supplementing and completing scientific arguments on global supply chains, developing concepts, criteria framework for evaluating global supply chains and factors affecting supply chain participation global of IT industry + Analyzing characteristics, policies and tools to join the global supply chain of the IT industry + Analyzing and evaluating the process of joining the global supply chain of Taiwan IT industry; Key measures to help Taiwan's IT industry join global supply chains + Studying achievements and limitations of Taiwan IT industry when participating in global supply chain + Drawing lessons and policy recommendations for Vietnam Object and scope of the thesis research - Research objectives: strategies, policies and measures at the Government level to successfully participate in global supply chains - Scope of research: from the 1980s to the present Methodology and research methods As generated from the global supply chain theory and the global supply chain operating mechanism, the topic will show how a global supply chain can be theoretically possible Applying that analytical framework, the topic will explore the hierarchy that Taiwan has participated in the global supply chain in the IT industry, the improvement in the supply chain through each stage and explain the reasons for its upgrade From the practice of joining the global supply chain in Taiwan's IT industry, the topic will assess the industry's prospects in the global supply chain in the future - System analysis method: The thesis will use this method to analyze the formation and development of the global IT supply chain of Taiwan from the 1980s to the present to clarify policies and characteristics development of the chain in each stage, each industry, creating the basis for drawing lessons and policy recommendations for Vietnam - General analysis method: The thesis collects research works related to the participation of Taiwan IT industry global supply chain for analysis and evaluation, thereby seeing gaps and gaps in previous research projects, from then on, continue to research to improve - Comparison method: The thesis uses comparative methods among subsectors, fields and stages in the development of supply chain of Taiwan's IT industry At the same time, the thesis also uses comparative methods to compare the effectiveness of participating in the supply chain of Taiwan's IT industry with other countries in the region and the world in order to clarify the role and position of Taiwan in the chain global IT supply - Experts method: The thesis will conduct research and get opinions of some Vietnamese experts specializing in trade research, export of IT goods, experts on Taiwan and Chinese economy to Find out what lessons can be learned for Vietnam New scientific contributions of the thesis The dissertation deeply analyzes and clarifies the status of participating in the global supply chain of Taiwan IT industry, policies and measures of Taiwan so that the IT industry can join the global supply chain; thereby assessing position, rank, success and limitations when participating in global supply chain of Taiwan IT industry The thesis provides necessary and sufficient conditions to participate in the global supply chain of the IT industry in Taiwan, compared with Vietnam, analyzing the importance of upgrading the global supply chain of Vietnam's IT industry ; From that, analyzing the impact of these factors on Vietnam in the current period is very different from the previous period of Taiwan's IT development Analyzing and evaluating practices in Taiwan's global supply chain to help clarify the reasoning of the global supply chain of the IT industry, help better understand and better use reasoning in chain development Global supply of IT industry in Vietnam The theoretical and practical significance of the thesis The thesis has a profound theoretical meaning because the thesis contributes to systematizing the theoretical bases of the global supply chain and the participation of the global supply chain of the IT industry through the implementation of unified concepts , categorize supply chains and supply chain participants, provide criteria for assessing factors affecting global supply chains; policies and tools to engage and upgrade global supply chains of industries, including IT The thesis has high practical meaning because studying the participation and upgrading of global supply chain of Taiwan IT industry will help Vietnam to have more reference lessons and practical policy recommendations and help the industry Vietnam IT effectively participates in global supply chain Chapter OVERVIEW OF RESEARCHES OF THE GLOBAL SUPPLY CHAIN OF TAIWAN IT INDUSTRY 1.1 Overview of research projects at home and abroad - Study theoretical issues about global supply chains and chain characteristics - Study the status of taiwan's participation in global IT supply chain - Research related to solutions to help vietnam improve the position of the IT industry in the global supply chain 1.2 The values of domestic and foreign researches, unrevealed gaps and new points of the thesis 1.2.1 The values of domestic and foreign researches In the theory part, the above-mentioned studies have partly clarified the concept of supply chain, IT industry, global supply chain of IT The basic theories related to the supply chain of goods, the characteristics of the global supply chain in the IT industry were also analyzed and evaluated by many authors These are the research values that the thesis will inherit to build the analytical framework and criteria for evaluating global supply chain of IT industry in Taiwan In the practical basis, previous research studies have the context of formation and development of global IT supply chain in East Asia region, some case studies on supply chain participation This is the region's countries These are important information for the dissertation author to understand the position and ranking of Taiwan in the global supply chain of the IT industry, helping the author to inherit materials and documents to form a practical basis for the topic Studies on the status of participation in the global supply chain of Taiwan's IT industry are various in scope These studies provide information, assessments, arguments, and arguments to help the thesis author have a basis for analyzing policies, the status of participating in global supply chain of Taiwan's IT industry, but success and limitations in participating in Taiwan's global IT supply chain Research on Vietnam's global supply chain engagement in IT is presented through various reports, books, and research materials, with different data and approaches These studies mainly research on measures, policies to develop Taiwan's IT industry, the development status of Taiwan's IT industry, the role and position of Taiwan's IT industry in the economy and in the Global rankings Through these studies, the author has the basis to assess the status and position of Vietnam in participating in global IT supply chain 1.2.2 Unrevealed gaps and new points of the thesis Firstly, there are many gaps in research on supply chains and characteristics of supply chains in the IT industry Studies of the above listed theory groups have approached the supply chain in one or several ways As listed above, domestic and foreign research materials are abundant, but these have not yet answered the questions related to global supply chains, global supply chains in the IT industry; characteristics of the global supply chain in the IT industry; operating mechanism of global IT supply chain; necessary and sufficient conditions to join the global supply chain of IT industry; key policies and measures for countries to join the global supply chain of IT These small questions have not been thoroughly addressed by previous studies, there has not even been a complete study to thoroughly address the theoretical basis of the global supply chain in the IT industry This is the "gap" that needs to be further studied to form an analytical framework and evaluation criteria for the topic Secondly, the approach and viewpoint of research on the status of participation in the global supply chain of Taiwan's IT industry is still various Data, materials and evaluation are still quite sporadic, multi-point, not logical, systematic and not updated Moreover, no research has answered the questions completely: How has Taiwan participated in the global supply chain in the IT industry and has achieved successes and limitations? This is the "gap" which is further studied in the thesis to clarify the successes and limitations in participating in the global supply chain of Taiwan's IT industry Thirdly, there are no studies on lessons learned for Vietnam This is the gap that the thesis continues to study Although there have been many studies on the status of Vietnam's IT industry development, policies and influencing factors, previous studies have not clearly identified the level of participation of Vietnamese IT in Global supply chain, in-depth analysis of the factors affecting the participation of Vietnamese IT in the global supply chain This is an extremely necessary task, need to be further studied in the thesis to be able to give lessons and propose specific and most feasible solutions to improve the efficiency of the IT industry Vietnam in the global supply chain in the near future This is also the expected result of practical contributions of the thesis Fourthly, im terms of technique, domestic and foreign research projects provide the basis of discrete, un systematic, not updated data, from different sources with different approaches Therefore, the task of the thesis is to continue to update data, systematization and logic of data and data according to the research tasks of the thesis 1.2.3 Analytical framework of the topic Based on the results inherited from domestic and foreign research works, gaps and research tasks, the thesis will proceed according to the analytical framework as follows: Chapter THEORETICAL BASIS AND PRACTICE RELATED TO THE PARTICIPATION OF THE GLOBAL SUPPLY CHAIN OF THE IT INDUSTRY 2.1 Overview of the global supply chain 2.1.1 The basic concepts - Supply chain: Supply chain includes all activities related to the supply, production and distribution of a complete product or service, starting from the first supplier to the final consumer customer In other words, a single supply chain is a process that begins with raw materials until the final product is created and delivered to the end consumer - Global supply chain: Global supply chain is understood as a worldwide supply network when a company buys or uses goods and services from abroad The global supply chain involves connecting all partners, resources and businesses involved in the production, processing and distribution of raw materials, finished products or providing services to consumers final - Distinguish global supply chains and global value chains: Global supply chains and global value chains are conceptually different Global supply chains imply all activities related to the connection of procurement, production and logistics activities of products on a global scale; meanwhile, the value chain involves a series of production activities, creating added value for the product through consumers The supply chain involves managing the operations of the business, so that the product is moved from one place to another, while the value chain is related to the business administration of the enterprise - International production network and global supply chain: Global production networks are production and service enterprises in many different countries around the world closely linked, interdependent, involved in the production, distribution, and provision of services maintenance service, warranty during use of a product 2.1.2 Global supply chain structure and global supply chain actors 2.1.2.1 Supply chain structure The supply chain links many independent businesses, each with its own internal structure and organization corresponding to its own characteristics and objectives A supply chain consists of vertical structure and horizontal structure The vertical structure of the chain is calculated by the number of levels / classes along the length of the chain, the vertical distance is calculated as the distance from the central enterprise to the final customer In the longitudinal structure, its previous activities (from a business moving to suppliers of materials) are called upstream structures; and the activities behind it (from a business moving products out to customers are called downstream structures The horizontal structure of the chain is calculated by the number of enterprises at each level / tier The arrangement of tier / tier enterprises allows identification of central businesses of the chain In many chains, customers are aware of the central business through the product brand that the chain brings, even if the business does not perform the production function and does not have large fixed assets 2.1.2.2 Subjects participating in the supply chain A supply chain consists of many stakeholders The term supply chain shows that a link provides products that move from suppliers to manufacturers, distributors, retailers and ultimately customers along the supply chain 2.1.3 Factors that influence supply chain development There are five key factors that govern the development of a global supply chain: production, storage, location, transport and information 2.1.4 Policies and measures to join the global supply chain Firstly, developing infrastructure to improve trade operations, facilitating cost reduction in global supply chains The role of logistics infrastructure for global supply chains relates to weaknesses Element: (a) Warehouse, (b) Ship goods from one location to another in the country, (c) Ship from one country to another, (d) Transportation (road, rail, air, ship), (e) IT infrastructure and communications, (f) Outsourcing, (g) Innovation-innovation, (h) Government policy (how to facilitate logistics, giving how innovation, trade policy) Second, policies related to trade liberalization and economic opening Third, improve internal resources of domestic enterprises to effectively participate in global supply chains Fourth, develop human resources to help businesses effectively participate in global supply chains 2.2 Join the global supply chain of the IT industry 2.2.1 Global supply chain of IT industry - IT supply chain: IT supply chain includes all activities related to the supply, production and distribution of an IT product or a complete IT service, starting from the first supplier to final consumer customers The main feature of IT products is the scale, complexity and fragmented manufacturing processes in the global supply chain The IT industry consists of many different sectors and products (from computers and peripherals, to components in automotive and aviation products), so it has a very large market segmentation consumer, business and industrial equipment IT products also have similar characteristics, modularized and easily exchanged in the market 2.2.2 Subjects participating in the IT supply chain The supply chain of the IT industry is often characterized by very high levels of outsourcing and outsourcing The natural starting point of the IT supply chain also starts with materials, raw materials, then goes to the processing stages (Contract manufacturer-CM) and original design manufacturers (Original design manufacturer - ODM), followed by the original equipment manufacturer (OEM), followed by the branded companies, then to the distribution channel through level 1, 2, customers, n, then to the final consumer Each industry can have many different global supply chains Each global chain consists of many member companies participating in each other A company can simultaneously participate in many global supply chains Participation in the global supply chain means that the business becomes a member of the chain, a country with a domestic enterprise or a foreign direct investment enterprise participates in the chain 2.2.3 Conditions for participating in the global supply chain of IT industry - Human conditions: Supply chain activities of IT industry require low labor costs in the first stage of the supply chain because most of the assembly activities use a lot of labor, and spend Cheap labor costs can minimize the overall costs of businesses entering the supply chain - Capital conditions: to participate deeply in the IT supply chain, requiring businesses to raise their capital potential The more deeply involved in the supply chain, the greater the level of automation and modern technological processes This creates difficulties for small businesses, with little capital because it creates higher risks and cannot bring big, valuable contracts to small businesses that are financially scarce Because of this condition, the IT industry is often the industry attracting more FDI because FDI often comes with abundant capital, modern technology, can create spillover effects and increase efficiency in using resources force in IT businesses - Conditions on the policy environment: The Government needs to create a friendly business environment for the activities of the IT supply chain as incentives for import tax, tax credit, infrastructure Normally, IT industry businesses often seek local producers in places with attractive investment environment and favorable infrastructure Signing free trade agreements, building technology parks, export processing zones, technology parks with advanced infrastructure, and geographic proximity will help businesses save money types of costs (including transportation costs) when participating in the supply chain - Technological conditions: IT products all have a short product life cycle, so businesses that want to participate deeply in the global supply chain must constantly innovate technology in a very short time At the same time, it also requires goods to be delivered to the final market in a very short time The life cycle of IT products is gradually shrinking along with the development of technology 4.0 is a great challenge for businesses that want to deeply participate in the supply chain The short product life cycle also causes enterprises to focus more on geographical advantages, because the remote location makes the challenges of the IT product life cycle even bigger because the products must be transported to the localities Away from the main supplier With the above conditions when participating in the global supply chain of IT industry, governments often make policies suitable to each stage of development of the industry to help businesses deeply participate in the supply chain The detail as below: 10 manufacturing operations of US, European and Japanese producers to the next NIE and ASEAN-4 countries that is expanded to all ASEAN countries and China When electronics manufacturers in NIE countries gain expertise and when labor costs increase, the second wave of outsourcing and outsourcing in the global supply chain of IT has occurred to countries Asia has lower wages In the early 1990s, China began to participate in the global IT supply chain In early 2004, 70% of Taiwanese laptops were manufactured in China Also, in the mid-1990s, Vietnam started to participate in the global supply chain of East Asia IT sector when Japanese consumer electronics enterprises such as Matsushita, Sony, JVC, Toshiba moved their production sites to Vietnam From 2005 onwards, Vietnam started to become a supplier of electronic components and other IT products to the US, Japan, Europe and many other regions of the world The participation of East Asian countries in the global supply chain of IT is quite different For nearly 30 years, East Asia in general and China in particular have become increasingly important in the global IT supply chain The participation of East Asia in the global supply chain IT industry is tested by many standards: In the first phase of the development process, the East Asian electronic enterprises produced many types of goods Quality consumer electronics, signing contracts with foreign customers assembling electronic chips, making integrated circuits, moving forward to become ODMs, producing laptops with trade private label In the next phase, suppliers in Asia have moved to technology development activities, developing design capabilities, providing global support services and using effective digital information systems fruit Each country has its own way of participating in the supply chain and in East Asia it forms two types of suppliers, which are high-level suppliers and low-end suppliers - Opportunities to join the global supply chain of IT for countries: The 4.0 revolution is strongly impacting the global supply chain of IT impacts of the 4.0 revolution on global supply chains, which are: (1) Smart factory; (2) Internet of Services; (3) Big data; (4) High quality of human resources And to cope with these changes, supply chain managers need to focus: Supplier management; Implementing transparent supply chain; Planning needs; Design supply network Chapter PRACTICE PARTICIPATING IN THE CHAIN OF GLOBAL IT INDUSTRY OF TAIWAN 3.1 Domestic and international context when Taiwan participates in global IT supply chain 3.1.1 Domestic context Taiwan's economic development history underwent major development stages: 12 Stage 1: Land reform in the 1950s to form a small and medium-scale agricultural economy; Stage 2: Developing labor-intensive export industries in the 1960s such as textiles and light industry; Stage 3: Due to the impact of the Middle East oil crisis (1970s), Taiwan shifted its focus to developing chemical industries; Stage 4: from the early 1980s began to shift to processing and exporting electronics and semiconductors; Stage 5: In the early 2000s, deep integration into the global economy, taking IT and digital technology as the basic foundation for economic development Corresponding to these periods of economic development, Taiwan joined the global IT supply chain starting very early, in the 1960s when the country started from the assembly of electronic devices such as machines recording (radio) transistors, cassette recorders, etc In the 1970s, Taiwan began to develop enterprises producing electronic components such as CRT electronic discharge tubes, microchips, electronic clocks, drums words for the beginning of the video In the 1980s, Taiwan began to participate in the field of computer manufacturing with semiconductor equipment products, personal computers, color screen computers In the 1990s, Taiwan started implementing microelectronics production, quickly became the world's leading supplier of motherboard products, monitors, scanners and computer mice In the first two decades of the 21st century, Taiwan has been one of the most deeply involved countries in the global IT chain, especially in the areas of IC packaging, microchip testing, IC design, processing create DRAM 3.1.2 International context Taiwan is deeply involved in the global IT supply chain in the context of the world entering the era of regionalization and globalization The basic characteristics of globalization and regionalization have placed Taiwan in new opportunities and challenges The biggest opportunity is to make it easy for Taiwan to participate in the global economy, because the country has made remarkable progress in capital-intensive and labor-intensive industries and human resources High quality and skilled However, the challenge posed to Taiwan from globalization is not much Taiwan is forced to join global organizations, such as the WTO, liberalize domestic industries and finance, loosen foreign exchange controls, quickly implement export-oriented industrialization strategies to adapt with the flow of science and technology in the world and adapting to the value chain, global supply chain Since the IT revolution broke out, overseas production has grown very fast in this area The leaders of OEM branches have established a new system of production and sales points in foreign countries and in some cases, they have established their strong position in the network global production The rapid 13 development of the information technology industry in the world has forced East Asian countries, including Taiwan, to be flexible in investing in the country's electronic information businesses, diversified produce products of all kinds, expand the network of supply components and goods processing for foreign firms, and at the same time, to benefit the OEMs and contract manufacturers, thereby grasping technological know-how and management skills, gradually upgrading the country's IT industry under active government policy support 3.2 The policies and measures for IT development of the Taiwan government to join the global supply chain 3.2.1 Develop infrastructure for global supply chain of IT industry As of 2011, Taiwan has about 19 state-established technology research institutes, including eight research institutes with the function of designing industrial policies, technology, and 11 research institutes with functions the ability to perform industry and technology Among those research institutes, there are institutes specializing in information technology functions such as the Institute of Industrial Technology Research (ITRI), IT Research Institute (III), Hsinchu Science Park 3.2.2 Policy related to trade liberalization and economic opening: Together with Kaohsiung Export Processing Zone, other export processing zones have been set up by Taiwan to serve export, focusing on R&D investment and production High-value IT products, testing and packaging of electronic chips (such as Nantze export processing zones), LCD modules (Kaohsiung processing zone) and optoelectronics (optoelectronics) products (processing zones) export Taichung) These Nantze, Kaohsiung and Taichung export processing zones are also the largest FDI attraction in Taiwan So far, there are processing zones in Taiwan, built in central and southern Taiwan 3.2.3 Developing small and medium enterprises to effectively participate in the global IT supply chain According to the Ministry of Economic Relations, in 2010 Taiwan had about 1.24 million small and medium enterprises, accounting for 97.77% of Taiwan's total enterprises To support the development of small and medium enterprises, the Taiwanese government has established a number of funds such as the Small and Medium Enterprise Development Fund and the National Development Fund In Taiwan today there are about 140 incubators and 81% of them belong to universities Taiwan also has two venture capital funds, Angel Fund and National Development Fund (NDF), to invest in reciprocal investments in the internet sector with international investment funds 3.2.4 Developing human resources for IT Taiwan in the process of IT industrialization and development has been very successful in investing in developing highly qualified human resources in a systematic and serious way In the process of industrialization, Taiwan was soon 14 devoting resources to invest in developing human resources to meet the technology transfer process, thus jumping up the technological ladder higher than many other developing countries The economic development process of Taiwan in general and the IT industry in particular has a close connection with education and vocational training in high-tech industries According to Taiwan Ministry of Education (2012) data, Taiwan as of 2012 has 155 high-level vocational schools, 14 low-level universities and 77 research universities A total of 246 universities and vocational schools across the country The boom of the vocational and higher education system in Taiwan has produced generations of IT engineers who are capable of meeting the nation's industry development strategy In 2011, there were about 3,176 PhDs, 37,303 masters, 485,371 engineers and bachelors, 366,499 graduates of high-level vocational schools 3.3 The process of participating in Taiwan's global IT supply chain 3.3.1 Before the 1980s: In the 1960s, in Taiwan, established consumer electronics enterprises in the form of attracting foreign investment Taiwanese electronics in the 1960s were mainly outsourced to US manufacturers based in Taiwan, in which small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) of Taiwan served as the core to provide assembly process for export to the US In the 1970s, due to Taiwan's implementation of an import substitution strategy, the heavy industry and chemical industry were focused on, so most of the electronics industry in Taiwan was still due to foreign enterprises hold During this period, more than three-quarters of Taiwan's electric and electronic enterprises were foreign enterprises, accounting for two-thirds of Taiwan's exports In 1973, the Institute of Industrial Technology (ITRI) was established and in 1974, the Electronic Industry Institute (ERSO) was established, part of the ITRI, focusing on semiconductor products In 1978, the first microchip factory was established at ITRI and in 1979 ITRI successfully developed a commercial microchip chip for watches and began ordering for domestic industrialists to make progress Production of electronic watches in the country With these products, Taiwan began officially entering the global supply chain at the global stage of manufacturing (CM) and original equipment manufacturing (OEM) In this period, the way of participation of Taiwanese businesses in the global supply chain is as follows: a Taiwanese IT product manufacturer conducts production and assembly of products in accordance with the requirements Detailed and exact requirements for products ordered by the ordering party 3.3.2 From the 1980s to the present: In the early 1980s, Taiwan IT industry strongly developed OEM products During this period, Taiwan's production and export of IT goods was mainly related to intermediate goods such as electronic circuits, packaging and testing of electronic IC products, liquid crystal displays (LCD ), light-emitting diodes 15 (LEDs) In general during the 1980s, Taiwanese enterprises focused on global supply chains in OEM form, becoming order-processing manufacturers In the 1990s, the Taiwanese government made an effort to invest in IT, shifting the development of this industry from a production-oriented stage to an investment-oriented stage , leading to the rapid development of the IT industry since 1992 At this time, Taiwan has become the third largest IT producer in the world, in which the concentration of IT investment is mainly the type of TFT screen -LCD Since 1996, grasping the huge market demand for tablets (notebooks) and network monitors, Taiwan has focused on attracting FDI and Japanese technology transfer to produce Massively these types of products, become a major TFT-LCD supplier worldwide In 1999, Taiwan exceeded Japan for the first time in notebook production Along with that, Taiwan also focuses on investing in hardware IT industry and is always at the leading position in the world market share in products such as computer keyboards, monitors, scanner, graphich cards and modems However, the hardware IT industry in Taiwan during this period still focused on manufacturing reticent computers, so Taiwan has slowly upgraded high value-added activities of hardware in the IT industry global value chain Supplier jobs for major firms around the world have helped Taiwanese businesses capture diverse technologies and management know-how During this period, Taiwan tried to upgrade its IT industry from original equipment manufacturer (OEM) to original designer (original design manufacturer - ODM) on order In the process of participating in ODM, Taiwanese IT firms are trying to hold the pioneering position in technology, gradually shifting to the stage of design, marketing and branding Since 2000, Taiwan has gradually upgraded its IT industry to become original brand manufacturers, meaning that Taiwan's IT products have gradually reached consumers final Thanks to the upward movement in the value chain created for end-users, Taiwanese firms have been easily accepted by consumers for brands of personal computers, smartphones and other peripherals by the products are cheaper than foreign brands and the quality of Taiwanese companies is relatively good However, in the process of participating in OBM, IT firms also face significant challenges in brand promotion by consumers who are familiar with old brands such as HP, Samsung, Apple, etc Therefore, In order to have such famous brands, Taiwan's IT enterprises have focused on R&D and investing in major market channels to avoid brand competition with other foreign firms, copper Time can locate your brand in the world market 3.4 Evaluation the participation of Taiwan's IT industry supply chain 3.4.1 Success First, Taiwan is in a high position in the global IT supply chain Taiwan IT industry currently has an important position in the global supply chain Taiwan 16 is the world's No laptop manufacturer with an average monthly output of more than 14 million units Taiwan is trying to become the world's tech giant By the end of 2013, the total value of global IC design reached 81.36 billion USD, Taiwan reached 16.32 billion USD, ranked second in the world market for global IC design In IC packaging and inspection, Taiwan ranked first in the world with revenue of 4.35 billion USD in 2013 In the semiconductor manufacturing service phase, Taiwan ranked first in the world with revenue reached 25.5 billion USD In addition, Taiwan also ranks high in the global supply chain in the field of manufacturing microelectromechanical systems (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems - MEMS), LED and many other products Taiwan IT enterprises have focused on R&D investment, participating in cross-border supply chain management, logistics services and after-sales services Second, Taiwan is deeply involved in ODM and OEM supply chains both in hardware and software IT products In the past few years, Taiwan's IT products have always achieved high growth rates in export turnover Many products have high export value and occupy an important position in the world market, especially notebook and netbook products (NB PC), tablet, motherboard (motherboard - MB), server (server ) and liquid crystal display (LCD MTR) In 2014, notbook and netbooks accounted for 84.9% of the world market share, motherboards accounted for 85%, servers accounted for 85.9% and LCD MTR accounted for 66.5% of the world market share In the field of software technology, Taiwanese businesses have recently designed and launched the world of 4G LTE network service equipment, favored by consumers all over the world Taiwan has become a provider of affordable and competitive quality smartphone devices in the ODM and OEM supply model, and has expanded the brand of 4G LTE products worldwide The dominance of Taiwan's hardware and software IT products market share in the global market has made Taiwan an increasingly important position in the global IT supply chain Thirdly, the linking stages in the global supply chain of Taiwan IT industry ensure smooth and efficient To deeply participate in the global supply chain, Taiwan's large information businesses have expanded their production networks around the world, thus forming a close relationship between production and consumption final For example, Acer firm currently has subsidiaries in many parts of the world, typically in the US, Central and Middle East, China and Latin America Fourth, the level of cooperation in the supply chain of the IT industry is relatively effective, products go to the end consumers Through supply contract relationships with trademark-owned companies and leading manufacturing networks around the world, Taiwan OEMs and ODMs gradually become aware of the end consumer (corporate customers) head of 17 network) Some Taiwanese companies started proactively proposing product designs, organizing production lines, packaging and logistics plans Taiwan continues to penetrate the global supply chain thanks to product packaging lines Among the 10 largest IT packaging enterprises in the world, there are Taiwanese firms: ASE, SPIL, PTI, ChipMOS In the number of the world's top 20 IT design firms, the US has 11 firms (ranked at the top of the list), followed by Taiwan (5 firms), Europe (2 firms), Singapore (1 firm), China (1 firm) Taiwan's largest IT product design firms are Media Tek, Novatek, Reatek, Avago and MStar Taiwan's success in joining the global IT supply chain thanks to three basic characteristics: 1) creating low-cost products and becoming a strategic provider for foreign businesses; 2) Use different technology channels to become make products in Taiwan; 3) accept the presence of transnational companies in strategic industries 3.4.2 Limitations First, Taiwan participates in mainly supply chain of hardware IT products, is facing competition with other countries, especially China: When participating in OEM and ODM supply chain, The IT industry is mainly interested in two types of business, that is to take advantage of price and control the quantity of products Therefore, when participating in the product supply chain to the outside market, Taiwan's IT products face a number of challenges such as losing a lot of waiting time, products going away with repeated nature (not new) and must maintain price advantages Although Taiwan's IT products have a great advantage in terms of product design and manufacturing, these challenges have made Taiwanese products compete with some competitors, especially China The country - where IT products of the same type are much cheaper This is also the reason in recent times that Taiwan's IT enterprises have chosen China as Taiwan's overseas production base, strengthening FDI into China in the IT fields, bringing China back become the location for IT products processing for Taiwan to take advantage of labor and land in China Second, the Bullwhip effect in the Taiwan IT industry supply chain: The Bullwhip effect (the whip effect) suggests that inaccurate demand information conveys from one supply chain component to another can lead to huge waste: excessive reserve levels, bad customer service, loss of sales, incorrect production plans, inefficient transportation In Taiwan, due to the many achievements in IT development and high rankings in the global supply chain for this product for a long time, the demand for IT product forecasts in the world market becomes inaccurate In recent years, Taiwan's hardware IT products production has continuously decreased due to reduced exports and larger inventories, affecting Taiwan's competitiveness in the global supply chain In particular, the rise of 18 China with Korea's low-cost technology products and higher-quality goods is making it difficult for Taiwanese IT businesses to join the supply chain Thirdly, weakness in branding and product quality improvement: When participating in OBM chain, most Taiwanese IT enterprises depend on ODM and OEM to develop their brand demand and they have to rely on B2B business, ie e-commerce transactions directly between businesses and businesses Although Taiwan has tried to build a brand and bring products to end-users in flexible form B2B2C, but compared to other competitors in the market such as US and Japanese IT corporations Korean and Korean, the competitiveness of IT products in quality still faces many problems * Causes of limitations Firstly, in the global supply chain of IT industry, Taiwanese enterprises focus heavily on technology innovation and product branding, there is no link and direct contact with consumers Secondly, enterprises in Taiwan's IT industry are mostly small and medium enterprises The drawback of these businesses is that there is not enough potential to acquire new technology or bring the production process to the most advanced technological process in the world with branches of global business networks worldwide as big businesses Third, Taiwan's IT enterprises are now facing increasingly fierce competition pressure not only from China, but also from other emerging economies in Asia Fourth, due to historical disagreements between Taiwan and mainland China, Taiwan has difficulty in participating in bilateral and regional free trade agreements (FTAs) Chapter PROSPECT TO PARTICIPATE IN THE GLOBAL SUPPLY CHAIN OF VIETNAM'S IT INDUSTRY AND SOME POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS 4.1 The participation of Vietnam's IT industry in the global supply chain 4.1.1 The process of IT formation and development in Vietnam Since the early 1990s Vietnam has begun to develop the electronics industry From a small number of civil electronic assembly enterprises, joint venture with Japanese electronics companies such as SONY, NATIONAL, SANYO, etc in the 1990s, by the end of 2008, Vietnam had 909 manufacturing enterprises installed assemble and trade these items Types of products, modes of production and business are diversified at high speed, typically in consumer electronics, industrial electronics and computers From the form of importing SKD to IKD, domestic enterprises have formed their own strategic ideas of branding for electronic products manufactured in 19 Vietnam Enterprises producing electronics such as Viettronic Thu Duc, Bien Hoa, Dong Da, Tan Binh and Hanel are practical evidence for this development In recent years, Vietnam's electronics industry occupies an important position in the regional and world markets In the early 1990s, there were only about 50 electronic enterprises in the whole industry, now there are about 500 enterprises, attracting about 250,000 employees and meeting the domestic demand for electronic products, IT - telecommunications common with a speed of 20-25% / year From 2005 up to now, the industry has consistently ranked top 10 among the highest value export sectors of Vietnam However, Vietnam's electronic information products are still mainly components and accessories lawsuit, located in a low position in the global supply chain 4.1.2 The position of Vietnam's IT industry in the global supply chain In the global supply chain, Vietnam's IT industry is at an early stage of development compared to other countries in the region such as Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines, before that, South Korea and Taiwan In the supply chain, Vietnamese enterprises are located on the floor / layer of processing, assembling products, manufacturing components of complex electronic products Compared to other industries in Vietnam, Vietnam's participation in the global supply chain seems to be at lower levels, mainly EMS (electronic production service) and OEM (spiritual production) Under these manufacturers are the manufacturers and suppliers of basic materials used in the production of components and equipment The industry is dominated by FDI enterprises, including Samsung, Canon, Microsoft, LG, Intel The FDI factories in the IT industry invest in Vietnam to reduce production costs by channel: FDI enterprises import most of the necessary components for production, after that has gradually shifted to using local input sources to simplify input logistics activities However, because domestic enterprises in Vietnam's IT industry are weak, FDI enterprises in this sector account for 90-95% of export value and 60% of domestic consumption demand Domestic small and medium enterprises have low added value FDI companies not use domestic supply but mainly import spare parts and components for assembly They mainly use cheap labor and land Thus, although Vietnam IT industry has achieved rapid growth in recent years, has made great contributions to export, which brings high value of foreign currency and attracts large forces Domestic workers, evaluated as a symbol of Vietnam's economic integration, but Vietnamese domestic enterprises in the IT industry are almost out of the supply chain Domestic enterprises can only supply packaging, carton boxes, fasteners and packing, which is more difficult to participate in high value-added supply stages 4.1.3 Advantages and disadvantages of Vietnam IT industry when participating in global supply chain 20 * Advantages First, Vietnam has a favorable geographical position, located in an area with a fast-growing and dynamic industry, including the IT industry This is a great advantage because geography is one of the factors affecting supply chain operations Second, the advantage of labor and resources for the IT industry Third, Vietnam integrates deeply into the world economy, creating favorable conditions for participation in the global supply chain of IT * Disadvantages Firstly, domestic enterprises are weak, can only participate in low positions in the global supply chain Secondly, Vietnam completely depends on IT industry outsourcing contracts in the global supply chain Due to the lack of self-supply of raw materials for ourselves, we have to import from outside, so Vietnam depends on that supply itself The production capacity of the industry is still limited Thirdly, the technology level of the IT industry in Vietnam is still low, the technology gap is too far from the regional countries, so it is very difficult to deeply participate in the global supply chain 4.2 Lessons learned from Taiwan Lesson 1: The Government has reasonable support policies in IT development One point to note is that Taiwanese companies are not protected against foreign corporations because the Government has a strategy to create a healthy competitive environment between domestic and foreign companies Moreover, IT research institutes in Taiwan are not State organizations, but only receive state support in terms of mechanisms, policies, infrastructure and finance The state is also not fully subsidized, annually supporting a part of regular funding (based on performance results) and providing research funding through research tasks (financing under competition mechanisms) At the same time, research institutes must also find other sources of income from the industrial sector, from their patent rights Lessons learned from Taiwan are when the government actively supports research institutes and IT development technology parks, talent is an invaluable asset Lesson 2: Employee's ability to learn and a good education system has helped Taiwan's IT industry absorb good technology transfer and master the technological know-how of transnational companies Lesson 3: Quality, cost and service are the main pillars for Taiwan IT products to successfully participate in the global supply chain Quality is a prerequisite Taiwanese IT enterprises had to conduct a series of rigorous quality tests In terms of investment, the advantage with a wide range of products in the demand21 supply IT supply chain, Taiwan IT enterprises have provided products with the most reasonable prices Lesson 4: Encourage Taiwanese IT businesses to develop product brands In order to build a successful global brand, some Taiwanese IT businesses have to go through people who are able to create consumer trends to promote their products Due to a long time working for large IT firms in foreign countries, Taiwan IT enterprises have chosen to select separate products, satisfying customers both in price and quality, making the difference of Taiwan IT products among hundreds of IT products in the world market Lesson 5: caution in brand development to avoid unfortunate faults in the global supply chain Taiwan has encountered those faults when assessing the potential of the world market for hardware IT, lead to Bullwhip effect in global supply chain To avoid this unfortunate break, the development of global brands of Taiwanese IT enterprises took place with extreme caution Because electronics technology changes so rapidly, transnational companies are ready to deliver the latest technologies to developing countries to focus their efforts on new technologies The lesson is: how to consider the strategy of placing your supply chain to control risks and achieve potential equilibrium for the parties These solutions range from defining the basic strategy of supplying the market to deciding the right tactics On the other hand, it is difficult for Taiwanese IT enterprises to have their own supply chain system to build completely a supply chain system, but need to cooperate with businesses other foreign countries 4.3 Policy recommendations for Vietnam Firstly, focus on developing industry to support IT industry In order to implement the industrial development policy supporting the IT industry, the following groups of solutions should be implemented: - Thoroughly review and supplement policies and solutions for industrial development to support IT sector, with priority given to reviewing and supplementing policies and solutions on taxes, land and import administrative procedures components, technology support, product consumption support, investment promotion, etc - Review, adjust the planning, establish industrial parks, transaction centers specializing in industry to support IT industry, create focal points, link programs and information between domestic and foreign enterprises with Supporting industry enterprises - Identify typical supporting industry products of the IT industry, to focus on investment in order to improve the content of gray matter, science - technology into the fields, product groups with edge advantages paintings and high added value The State needs to invest strongly in the portfolio of products to support IT industry, etc 22 - Identify appropriate product, market and customer segments to effectively participate in the global supply chain of Vietnamese businesses Secondly, focus on developing human resources for the IT industry - Need to think from the perspective of both comprehensive and labororiented sequences in the chain of production and supply in accordance with the development trend of the world's advanced science and technology It is necessary to build and improve advanced policies and standards for high quality human resources in each segment of the IT supply chain; Check and evaluate the quality of human resources - Building a reasonable industry structure in the IT industry, thereby identifying priorities in human resource development In each segment, there will be methodical and specific measures to develop human resources - Arrange, segment, supplement and perfect training institutions at all levels in training IT human resources (vocational training, college, university and postgraduate) Associating theoretical training with practice, scientific research, especially passion for scientific research - It is necessary to review and select qualified and appropriate institutes and universities to organize the training program with practical use of IT enterprises; effectively applying and exploiting the assistance of trade promotion organizations, scientific and technical research and development organizations of foreign countries such as JETRO, JICA (Japan), KATECH (Korea), INSA LYON (France), etc - Build research institutes, applications and organizations in the IT field - Apply the training model of parties: enterprises - institutes, schools - state management agencies to train highly skilled human resources according to enterprises' requirements - Actively cooperate in research, attract foreign experts to transfer and support IT development Thirdly, developing IT industry clusters - The State should have measures to master the development of the IT industry, thereby building industrial parks, industrial clusters and key technology parks to attract the gathering and investment of enterprises, creating making connections, improving the performance of IT businesses - Forming electronic industrial clusters (clusters): Forming electronic industrial clusters to promote the gathering and investment of enterprises in order to create links and improve the efficiency of electric enterprises death It is necessary to research and develop policies and support the establishment of electronic industrial clusters Fourthly, actively develop domestic and international production links to control supply chain activities 23 - Enterprises need to proactively seek market information, potential industry and international standards, based on that, orient and develop long-term development plans, focusing on forming a specialized production segment in the global electronics industry - Enterprises need to promote links both horizontally and vertically - Enhance the role of industry organizations in the IT industry to connect business links - Actively linking domestic enterprises with foreign enterprises to produce components, details, intermediate products, etc Fifth, attaching importance to the role of small and medium enterprises, focusing on building and promoting corporate image to enhance the level of trust in transactions with suppliers - Encourage and have preferential policies for small and medium enterprises to invest in innovation of modern technology and equipment, not polluting the environment - Actively improve the production process and perfect the standards in supplying products and components for FDI factories such as Samsung, Itel, LG, etc - Support to build and improve the capacity of small and medium enterprises to participate in the supply chain - Develop active strategies on the supply of raw materials, equipment, components and other products for small and medium enterprises, helping small and medium enterprises effectively utilize domestic raw materials, term import processing, gradually self-sufficient domestic materials, and limiting and minimizing inventory and product defects when participating in the supply chain Sixth, developing infrastructure for IT industry - Development of airports in the region, IT industry cluster should be concerned - Stable power supply system is also essential for IT industry CONCLUSION First, participating in the global supply chain is a necessary task for each country to be able to upgrade the position and rank of its economy and the key products of each country international markets To join the global supply chain, countries use a variety of different measures and policies, depending on the industry/ product) because participating in global supply chains is not easy first of all in the internal forces of domestic enterprises, the competitiveness of enterprises, government support policies, to minimize the risks and faults that are always present in the supply chain Especially in the context of global supply chain IT industry has a very high level of product outsourcing and outsourcing 24 The internal forces of each nation will determine the position of participating in the supply chain at different levels Secondly, in East Asia, the global supply chain participation in IT industry is very dynamic, which has formed high-level suppliers (Japan, Taiwan, Korea), houses lower supply (Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, China), followed by Vietnam and other countries In the era of IT revolution 4.0 is developing strongly and affecting all countries in the world as well as East Asia region, countries in the region are facing great opportunities and challenges in participating in the chain Global supply of IT industry Thirdly, the participation of Taiwan's global IT supply chain started in the early 1980s, before Vietnam a decade, but has achieved a lot of success So far, Taiwan is considered to have participated in OBM position, but the strongest participation in the class of providing OEM and ODM Taiwan's IT products currently stand high in the world, highly competitive In the process of participating in the supply chain, Taiwan has avoided the break in the chain, there is a strong connection between the stages in the chain Although there are some limitations, in general, participation in Taiwan's supply chain is considered successful, for many different reasons, in which the effectiveness of policy and measures of the Taiwanese rights during the past few decades in upgrading the supply chain position of Taiwan IT enterprises Fourthly, Taiwan's IT industry provides many lessons and policy recommendations for Vietnam, especially in the context of Vietnam's young IT industry, making positive contributions to exports and increasing chief economist Compared to Taiwan, Vietnam has not accumulated enough conditions to upgrade the position of IT industry in the global supply chain for many different reasons The experience of Taiwan is completely practical, helping Vietnam reconsider the shortcomings and bottlenecks of the IT industry when participating in the world market The author of the thesis has proposed groups of policy recommendations and some solutions to implement those recommendations Derived from Vietnamese practices and practices to join the global supply chain of Taiwan's IT industry, policy recommendations and solutions that hope to have practical value to help Vietnam improve its industry production capacity IT, more deeply involved in the global supply chain 25 LIST OF WORKS OF THE AUTHOR RELATED TO THE THESIS 1) Le Viet Dung (2016), "Taiwan in the process of joining the global supply chain of IT industry", Chinese Studies, No - 2016, page 59 - 72 2) Le Viet Dung (2016), "Policy to develop Taiwan's IT industry to join the global supply chain", Vietnam Review of Northeast Asia Studies, No - 2016, pages 39-50 3) Le Viet Dung (2015), "Chapter I: Concepts and scientific perspectives on sector upgrading and participation in international production networks" in Nguyen Binh Giang (Editor, 2015), "Upgrading the sector with problems to participate in international production network: East Asia Experience ", Social Science Publishing House 4) Le Viet Dung (2015), "Chapter III, Section 3.2: Experience of upgrading Taiwan's electronics industry" in Nguyen Binh Giang (Editor, 2015), "Upgrading the industry with the issue of joining the production network International: East Asia Experience ", Social Sciences Publishing House 26 ... Systematizing with supplementing and completing scientific arguments on global supply chains, developing concepts, criteria framework for evaluating global supply chains and factors affecting supply chain... optics, laptops, tablets, etc By adopting reasonable support policies in IT development such as establishing technology parks, developing human resources, attracting foreign investment, encouraging... Analyzing and evaluating practices in Taiwan's global supply chain to help clarify the reasoning of the global supply chain of the IT industry, help better understand and better use reasoning
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