Advances in agronomy volume 91

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Agronomy D VA N C E S I N VOLUME 91 Advisory Board John S Boyer University of Delaware Paul M Bertsch University of Georgia Ronald L Phillips University of Minnesota Kate M Scow University of California, Davis Larry P Wilding Texas A&M University Emeritus Advisory Board Members Kenneth J Frey Iowa State University Eugene J Kamprath North Carolina State University Martin Alexander Cornell University Prepared in cooperation with the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America Book and Multimedia Publishing Committee David D Baltensperger, Chair Lisa K Al-Amoodi Kenneth A Barbarick Hari B Krishnan Sally D Logsdon Michel D Ransom Craig A Roberts April L Ulery Agronomy D VA N C E S I N VOLUME 91 Edited by Donald L Sparks Department of Plant and Soil Sciences University of Delaware Newark, Delaware AMSTERDAM • BOSTON • HEIDELBERG • LONDON NEW YORK • OXFORD • PARIS • SAN DIEGO SAN FRANCISCO • SINGAPORE • SYDNEY • TOKYO Academic Press is an imprint of Elsevier Academic Press is an imprint of Elsevier 525 B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego, California 92101-4495, USA 84 Theobald’s Road, London WCIX 8RR, UK This book is printed on acid-free paper Copyright ß 2006, Elsevier Inc All Rights Reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the Publisher The appearance of the code at the bottom of the first page of a chapter in this book indicates the Publisher’s consent that copies of the chapter may be made for personal or internal use of specific clients This consent is given on the condition, however, that the copier pay the stated per copy fee through the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc (, for copying beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the U.S Copyright Law This consent does not extend to other kinds of copying, such as copying for general distribution, for advertising or promotional purposes, for creating new collective works, or for resale Copy fees for pre-2006 chapters are as shown on the title pages If no fee code appears on the title page, the copy fee is the same as for current chapters 0065-2113/2006 $35.00 Permissions may be sought directly from Elsevier’s Science & Technology Rights Department in Oxford, UK: phone: (ỵ44) 1865 843830, fax: (ỵ44) 1865 853333, E-mail: You may also complete your request on-line via the Elsevier homepage (, by selecting ‘‘Support & Contact’’ then ‘‘Copyright and Permission’’ and then ‘‘Obtaining Permissions.’’ For information on all Academic Press publications visit our web site at ISBN-13: 978-0-12-000809-4 ISBN-10: 0-12-000809-2 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 06 07 08 09 Contents CONTRIBUTORS PREFACE xi xiii GEOCHEMICAL ASPECTS OF PHYTOSIDEROPHOREPROMOTED IRON ACQUISITION BY PLANTS S M Kraemer, D E Crowley and R Kretzschmar I Introduction II Strategies of Plant Iron Acquisition A Strategy I B Strategy II III How Much Is Enough? Plant Iron Requirements IV Iron-Bearing Minerals and Soluble Iron Species in the Rhizosphere A Iron-Bearing Minerals, the Penultimate Iron Source B Iron Complexation by Organic Ligands C Iron Complexes with Low-Molecular Weight Organic Acids D Microbial Siderophore Complexes E Natural Organic Matter V The Chemistry of Phytosiderophores in the Rhizosphere A Structure of Phytosiderophores B Concentrations of Phytosiderophores in the Rhizosphere C Speciation of Phytosiderophores and Iron in Solution D EVect of Phytosiderophores on Iron Solubility E Adsorption of Phytosiderophores on Iron Oxides VI Geochemical Aspects of Iron Shuttling A EVect of Organic Ligands on Iron Oxide Dissolution Rates B Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Ligand-Exchange Reactions with Phytosiderophores as Receiving Ligands VII Conclusions and Outlook References v 4 10 12 14 14 17 18 18 19 20 22 23 25 25 29 37 38 vi CONTENTS TAKING STOCK OF THE BRAZILIAN ‘‘ZERO-TILL REVOLUTION’’: A REVIEW OF LANDMARK RESEARCH AND FARMERS’ PRACTICE Adrian Bolliger, Jakob Magid, Telmo Jorge Carneiro Amado, Francisco Sko´ra Neto, Maria de Fatima dos Santos Ribeiro, Ademir Calegari, Ricardo Ralisch and Andreas de Neergaard I Introduction II Historical Background A Zero-Till Development in Subtropical Southern Brazil B Zero-Till Development in Tropical Brazil C Development of Smallholder Zero-Till Systems III Individual Issues, Innovations, and Challenges A Permanent Soil Surface Cover B Cover Crops, and Crop Rotations and Associations C Soil Organic Matter Build-Up D Nutrient Management E Soil Compaction F Soil Acidity and Aluminum Toxicity G Weed Management H Pests and Disease Management I Integrating Livestock and Crops J Suitable Equipment for Resource-Poor Farmers IV Concluding Remarks Acknowledgments References 49 51 51 54 55 56 56 59 66 71 75 77 80 85 86 88 90 93 93 MECHANISMS AND PATHWAYS OF TRACE ELEMENT MOBILITY IN SOILS R Carrillo-Gonza´lez, Jirka Sˇimu˚nek, Se´bastien Sauve´ and Domy Adriano I Introduction II Mechanisms of Trace Element Mobility A Physicochemical Processes B Biological Processes C In Situ Stabilization 112 113 113 121 122 CONTENTS III Trace Element Transport Pathways A DiVusion and Dispersion B Preferential Flow C Colloidal Transport D Soluble Metal Complexes E Leaching and RunoV F Volatilization IV Factors AVecting Trace Element Mobility and Transport A Soil pH B Chemical Speciation C Soil Organic Matter D Fertilizers and Soil Amendments E Redox Potential F Clay Content and Soil Structure V Transport Modeling A Variably Saturated Water Flow B Solute Transport C Colloid Transport and Colloid-Facilitated Solute Transport VI Model Applications and Case Studies A Single-Component Models B Multicomponent Models VII Summary and Conclusions Acknowledgments References vii 124 126 126 128 129 131 134 134 135 136 138 139 140 142 143 145 147 153 155 155 157 161 163 163 THE AGRONOMY AND ECONOMY OF CARDAMOM (ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM M.): THE ‘‘QUEEN OF SPICES’’ K P Prabhakaran Nair I Introduction A Historical Background of Cardamom B Cardamom Production, Productivity: A World View II Cardamom Botany A Taxonomy B Crop Improvement III Cardamom Chemistry A Biosynthesis of Flavor Compounds B Industrial Production 182 182 185 188 189 201 215 218 220 viii CONTENTS IV The Agronomy of Cardamom A Distribution B Climate C Management Aspects D Establishing a Cardamom Plantation E Shade Management in Cardamom F Cardamom-Based Cropping Systems G Cardamom Nutrition H Fertilizer Requirements V The Role of ‘‘The Nutrient BuVer Power Concept’’ in Cardamom Nutrition A The ‘‘BuVer Power’’ and EVect on Nutrient Availability B Measuring the Nutrient BuVer Power and Its Importance in AVecting Nutrient Concentrations on Root Surfaces C Quantifying the BuVer Power of Soils and Testing Its EVect on Potassium Availability D The Importance of K BuVer Power Determination in Predicting K Availability to Perennial Crops E The Commercial Significance of K BuVer Power Determination in K Fertilizer Management for Perennial Crops F Conclusions VI Cardamom Pathology A Major Diseases B Minor Diseases C Integrated Management of Viral Diseases in Cardamom VII Cardamom Entomology A Major Pests B Minor Pests C Storage Pests D Conclusions VIII Harvesting and Processing of Cardamom A Harvesting B Curing C Moisture Content D Grading E Bleached and Half Bleached Cardamom F Commercial Cardamom Grades in Sri Lanka G Grading and Packing H Conclusions IX Industrial Processing of Cardamom and Cardamom Products A Cardamom Seeds B Packaging and Storage of Cardamom Seeds C Cardamom Powder D Grinding 228 228 228 230 232 249 259 264 271 276 276 278 281 281 288 290 290 291 298 317 323 323 329 332 332 333 333 336 340 341 341 347 347 348 348 349 350 350 351 CONTENTS Storage Powder Cardamom Oil Industrial Production of Cardamom Oil Improvement in Flavor Quality of Cardamom Oil Storage of Cardamom Oil Cardamom Oleoresin Solvent Extraction Large Cardamom (Nepal Cardamom) Other Products Conclusions The Economy of Cardamom Production A The Emerging Trends in Cardamom Production B Export Performance of Cardamom C Direction of Indian Export Trade D India’s Competitive Position in the International Cardamom Market E Demand and Supply Pattern F Model Identification G The Forecast H Demand I Projections of Supply J Conclusions Pharmacological Properties of Cardamom A Pharmacological Properties B Carminative Action C Antimicrobial Activity D Anticarcinogenetic Activity E Anti-Inflammatory Activity F Other Pharmacological Studies G Toxicity H Other Properties I Cardamom as a Spice J Conclusions A Peep into the Future of Cardamom A Potential Applications B Future Outlook Large Cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb.) A Habit and Habitat B Cultivars C Plant Propagation D Plant Nutrition E Crop Improvement F Insect Pest Management G Diseases E F G H I J K L M N X XI XII XIII ix 352 352 354 354 356 356 357 361 362 363 363 366 371 372 373 374 374 375 376 377 379 380 380 381 381 381 382 383 384 385 388 394 396 399 399 403 403 404 407 412 413 414 420 476 INDEX Cardamom chemistry (cont.) forms of, 215 industrial production evaluation of flavor quality, 222–5 fixed oil, 226 history, 220–2 oleoresins and extract, 225 pharmaceutical properties of oil, 226 variability in composition, 226 volatile oil components, 216 specifications, 216 Cardamom entomology major pests Conogethes punctiferalis, 325–7 hairy caterpillars, 328–9 Kanakarajiella cardamomi, 327–8 Sciothrips cardamomi, 323–4 minor pests capsule borers, 329–32 storage pests, 332 Cardamom necrosis disease etiology and epidemiology, 316 importance of, 315 infectious variegation virus, 316–17 symptomatology and crop loss, 315–16 transmission of, 316 Cardamom pathology diseases found in nurseries nursery leaf spot, 307–8 major diseases capsule rot disease, 291–4 leaf blight disease, 296–8 rhizome rot disease, 295–6 minor diseases anthracnose disease, 304 capsule canker, 305 capsule ring spot, 305 capsule tip rot disease, 304–5 Erwinia rot, 305–6 leaf blotch, 298–300 leaf rusting, 300–1 leaf spot disease, 301–3 scooty mould, 303 stem lodging, 303–4 viral diseases infectious variegation virus, 316–17 integrated management of, 317–22 mosaic or katte disease, 309–13 necrosis disease, 315–16 vein clearing disease, 313–15 Cardamom plantation, establishment of earthing aspects, 245 establishing secondary nursery, 243–4 field operations, 239 irrigation and drainage, 245 main field preparation, 232 manuring, 244–5 mulching of nursery beds, 243 nursery site, selection of, 242, 246–7 planting methods determining factors, 233–4 gap filling, 236–7 installing suckers, 236 mulching, 237–8 planting, 235–6 planting season, 235 presowing treatment of seeds, 242 propagation, 240 of seed, 248 vegetative, 248–9 rapid clonal nursery techniques, 249 replanting aspects, 239–40 rotation and fallow in nursery sites, 246 seedling selection age of, 247–8 cost analysis, 247 seed preparation, 241 seed rate and sowing, 242–3 seed selection, 240–1 seed viability, 241–2 shading aspects, 245 spacing aspects, 232–3 weed control, 238–9, 245 Cardamom vein-clearing disease and crop loss, 313 importance of disease, 313 spread of, 314–15 symptoms of, 314 transmission and etiology of, 314 Ca–rhizoferrin complexes, 15 Casparian strip, Cation exchange capacity (CEC), 67 CCE See Counter current extraction CDTA, 130 CEC See Cation exchange capacity Cedrella toona, 251 Central Food Technological Research Institute, 358, 394 Cercospora leaf spot, 301–2 Ceriospora leaf spot, 303 Charged ligands, 12 477 INDEX Chirke disease, 420 Chlorophyll stability index, 201 Cinnamomum tamala, 388 CIRAD See French Agricultural Development Corporation Citrate, 12 Cluster root formation, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, 304 column chromatography, 220 capillary, 222 Conogethes punctiferalis, 325–7 CO2 partial pressures, Coprogen, 31 Cotton, 64 Counter current extraction (CCE), 357 Cover crops general functions of, 59 integration of, with existing system, 59 major, in Brazil, 60–1, 62–6 Cowpea, 70 Crocus sativus, 388 Crop rotation, 84 See also Zero-Till systems Crotalaria juncea, 66 Crusting, of surface, 57 Cryogrinding technique, 217, 220 CSI See Chlorophyll stability index Cucumber, 31 Cu–Zn complexes, in soils, 23 Cymbopogon citratus, 87 Cynodon dactylon, 66 Cynodon spp., 77 Cypbostigma spp See Cardamom Cyperus rotundus, 80 D Demulching See Cardamom plantation, establishment of Dermatophagoides farinae, 386 Dermatophagoides petronyssinus, 386 Desferrioxamine-B (DFO-B), 12 Diabrotica spp., 86 Diammonium phosphate, 245 Diaporthe phaseolorum ssp meridionalis, 85 Diethylenetetraaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), 36 Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, 130 Dihydroxyethyl glycine, 130 Dimethylallyl pyrophosphate, 219 Dioscorides, 183 Diospyros ebenum Koenig, 251 Disjunctive pathway, 34 Dissolution reactions, 10 Dissolved organic matter (DOM), 18 Diurnal exudation, 19, 33 Diurnal phytosiderophores, release of, 28–9 DMA See Dry matter accumulation DMA adsorption, on goethite, 24 Dolomite, 78 DOM See Dissolved organic matter Drechslera spp., 86 Dry matter accumulation (DMA), 201 DTPA See Diethylenetetraaminepentaacetic acid E E ensal Abheywickrama spp See Cardamom botany, taxonomy EDDHA See Ethylenediamine-di(ohydroxyphenylacetic acid) Elettaria cardamomum See Cardamom Elettaria spp., 430–1 Elettariopsis spp See Cardamom Eleusine coracana, 66 Eleusine spp., 77 Encarsia dialeurodes, 328 Encarsia septentrionalis, 328 Erwinia chraysanthemi, 305 Erwinia rot disease, 305 Erythrina indica, 251 Erythrina lithosperma, 251 Ethylene-bisoxyethylenenitrilotetraacetate, 130 Ethylenediamine-di(o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) (EDDHA), 34 Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 29, 33–4, 131 Eucalyptol, 219 Eukaryotic organisms, Euphorbia heterophylla, 80 Eupterote spp., 328 European Spice Association, 402 F Farming technologies See Zero-Till systems FEBRAPDP See Brazilian Federation for Direct Planting 478 INDEX Fe complexes –DMA complex, 21, 24 –fulvic acid complexes, 17 with humic acid, 31 –MA complexes, 24, 27 –phytosiderophore complexes, 8, 21 –siderophore complex, 9, 16, 30 soluble, 25 Fe(II) transporter, Fe(OH)3* nH2O stoichiometry, 10 Ferrichrome, 31 Ferrihydrite, 10–11, 23, 27–8 FIAM See Free ion activity models Fick’s law, 126 Flower rot disease, 421 Flue pipe curing system, 423–4 Fodder grasses, 70 Foorkey disease, 420 Formaldehyde, 242 Formosina flavipes, 330 Fractional distillation, 220–1 Free ion activity models (FIAM), Free lime See Calcium carbonate French Agricultural Development Corporation, 54 Freundlich isotherm, 119–20 Fusarium capsule disease, 304 Fusarium spp., 86 Fusarium moniliforme, 304 G Gahwa, 388–9 Galen, 183 Galinsoga parviflora, 80 Gas chromatography, 220, 359 Geranyl diphosphate, 219 Germplasm See Cardamom botany, crop improvement Gibberellic acid (GA), 200 Gibbs free energy, 26 Glcyrrhiza glabra, 388 Gliricidia sepium, 87 Glomella leaf spot, 302 Glycine max, 51 Glyphosate, 66 release of, 53 Gralha Azul-type planter, 89 Gramaxone, 239 Graminaceous plant species, 5, 23 Green manure, 66 Green revolution, 253 Grevellia robusta, 251 H Harvest index, 201 Harvesting and processing, of cardamom bleached and half bleached, 341–6 commercial grades, 347 curing artificial drying, 337–8 bin drying, 338 bleaching, 339–40 cross-flow electric drying, 338 mechanical cardamom drying, 339 melccard drying, 338 solar cardamom drying, 338–9 sun drying, 337 through flow drying, 339 grading and packing, 341, 347–8 harvesting time and stage of, 333–6 and moisture content, 340–1 Harvesting machines See Zero-Till systems Heliminthrosporium spp., 86 Heme proteins, HI See Harvest index High molecular weight high-density polyethylene (HMWHDP), 356 High production technology, 240 HMWHDP See High molecular weight high-density polyethylene Homona spp., 331 Hydroxyethylenthylen diaminotriacetic acid, 130 Hydroxyethyliminodiacetate, 130 I IAA See Indole acetic acid IBA See Indole butyric acid India, in cardamom production, 372–4 Indole acetic acid (IAA), 200 Indole butyric acid (IBA), 200 Industrial processing, of cardamom products cardamom oil, 352–4 flavor quality improvement, 354–6 storage of, 356 479 INDEX cardamom oleorisin, 356–7 cardamom powder, 350–1 storage quality, 352 through grinding process, 351–2 cardamom seeds, 349 packaging and storage of, 350 large or Nepal cardamom, 361 other products, 362–3 solvent extraction of critical carbon dioxide, 358–9 for encapsulated flavor, 360–1 Infrared spectroscopy, 221 Integrated weed management (IWM) program, 82 International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, 203 IPGRI See International Plant Genetic Resources Institute Ipomoea grandifolia, 80 Iron See also Fe complexes; Iron bearing minerals and soluble iron species, in rhizosphere; Iron shuttling, geochemical aspects of in aerated soils, 10 binding, by NOM, 17 –citrate complexes, 13–14 -deficiency chlorosis, deficiency control costs, functions of, –hexaquo complex, –sulfur proteins, Iron bearing minerals and soluble iron species, in rhizosphere effect of phytosiderophores, 22–3 iron complexation with low-molecular weight organic acids, 14 by organic ligands, 12–14 iron source mineral structures and solubilities, 10–11 surface chemistry of iron oxides, 11–12 microbial siderophore complexes, 14–17 natural organic matter, 17–18 Iron shuttling, geochemical aspects of effect of organic ligands on iron oxides inhibitory effects, 27–8 synergistic effects, 28–9 thermodynamics and kinetics of ligand-exchange reactions in apoplasm, 36–7 equilibria of, 29–33 kinetics of, 33–4 between phytosiderophores and humic substances, 36 between phytosiderophores and siderophores, 34–6 Irving–Williams sequence, of complex stabilities, 12 Isopentenyl pyrophosphate, 219 IWM See Integrated weed management program J Jamides alecto, 329–30 Journal of Indian Travels (book), 183 K Kanakarajiella cardamomi, 327–8 Katte-resistant cardamom, development of, 321–2 KCl-exchangeable Al, 77 King of spices See Piper nigrum Knife-rolling technique, 65, 84 Kokke kandu disease See Cardamom vein-clearing disease L Lagerstroemia lanmceolata, 251 LAI See Leaf area index Langmuir-type isotherm, 24 Lasioderma serricorne, 332 Lathyrus sativus, 72 Leaf area index (LAI), 201 Leaf blight disease causal pathogen, 296–7 disease management, 297 symptoms and damages, 296 Leaf blotch causal pathogen, 299 symptoms, 298 Leaf rust, 300–1 Leaf spot diseases, 301 Leaf streak disease, 421 Lema fulvimana, 331 Lemon grass, 87 480 INDEX Leucaena leucocephala, 79 Ligand-controlled dissolution, model of, 27–8 Ligand exchange reactions, 29 in apoplasm, 36–7 of dihydroxamate siderophores, 36 effects on iron oxides inhibitory, 27–8 synergistic, 28–9 equilibria of, 29–33 kinetics of, 33–4 of monohydroxamate siderophores, 36 between phytosiderophores and humic substances, 36 between phytosiderophores and siderophores, 34–6 Lindane, 242 Lipoxygenase, Listronotus spp., 86 Lolium spp., 63 Lotus corniculatus, 66 Lotus uliginosus, 66 Lupines, 70 Lupinus albus, 5, 64 Lupinus angustifolius, 64 cardamom–coffee combination, 262–3 effects on Rhizosphere, 263–4 nutmeg–clove–cardamom combination, 260 Morgenella morganii, 381 Mosaic or Katte disease and crop loss, 309 distribution, 309 spread of disease disease-incubation period, 311 etiology, 312 host range of virus, 311–12 primary spread, 310–11 secondary spread, 311 sources of infection, 310 virus-vector relationship, 311 symptomatology, 310 transmission, 310 Mucuna spp., 63 Mugineic acid, 18–19, 21–2 Mulching See Cardamom plantation, establishment of Mulch producing crops, 57–8 Multitier cropping, 259 Mutation breeding, of cardamom, 208 M Macroptilium atropurpureum, 82 Maesopsis eminii, 251 Maize, 31, 64, 66, 70, 72, 77, 80 yields in southern Brazil, 73 MAs See Mugineic acid Matraca, 89 Maxwell Stefan formulation, 126 Mesua ferrea, 388 Metal aquo complex, Metapodistis polychrysa, 332 Michaelis–Menten law, Microbial siderophores, 14–17 Microporopagation technique, 208–10 through auxillary branching method, 211 Millet, 70 See also Pennisetum americanum Mimusops elangi, 251 Mineral weathering, Mixed cropping system arecanut–tree spices and cardamom combination, 261–2 cardamom–arecanut combination, 260–1 N NaCl solutions, 18 Natural organic matter (NOM), 9, 17–18 Nematodes infection disease management, 298 symptoms and damages, 297 Nilgiri necrosis disease See Cardamom necrosis disease Nitrilotriacetate, 130 Nitrogen mineral requirements, 72 NMR See Nuclear magnetic resonance NOM See Natural organic matter Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 221 Nutrient buffer power management effects on nutrient availability, 276–8 measuring of nutrient buffer power and its effects on root surfaces, 278–81 quantifying buffer power and testing potassium availability, 282 481 INDEX commercial significance of potassium buffer power determination, 288–90 importance of potassium buffer power determination, 282–8 Nutrient management See Zero-Till systems O Onthophagus coorgensis, 330 Opuntia spp., 87 Organic acids, of low molecular weight, 14, 17 Organic iron complexation, Oryza sativa, 58 Oxalate concentrations, 28–9 Oxygen donor groups, 12 P Pannicum maximum, 66 Particulate organic matter, 67 Partitioning See Trace element mobility and transport, mechanisms of Paspalum notatum, 66 Paspalum spp., 81 Pennisetum americanum, 65 Pennisetum clandestinum, 66 Pentalonia nigronervosa f caladii, 331 Phaeotrichoconis leaf spot, 302 Phalaris hibrida, 87 Phaseolus sativa, 54 Phosphorus fertilizer, 74 Phyllanthes emblica, 243 Phytophthora leaf blight, 299–300 Phytophthora meadii infection, 293 Phytophthora nicotianae var nicotianae, 292–3 Phytopthora spp., 207 Phytosiderophores in rhizosphere, chemistry of adsorption on iron oxides, 23–4 concentration of, 19–20 effects on iron solubility, 22–3 speciation of, 20–2 structure of, 18–19 Pigeonpea, 87 Pinene cyclase I, 219 Piper nigrum, 182 ‘‘Plantio direto na palha,’’ See Zero-Till systems Plant iron acquisition strategy I, 4–5 strategy II, 5–6 Plant iron requirements, 7–9 Plant modification, elements for substance and acid release, Plant roots, 37 Plowing, 75, 81 Polyethylene bags, in cardamom nursery, 247 Polyploids, of cardamom, 208 Poly vinyl chloride, 258 POM See Particulate organic matter Potassium, 72 fertilizers, 74 Prokaryotic organisms, Pseudalentia spp., 86 Pueria phaseoloide, 66 Q Queen of spices See Cardamom R Radish, 70 Raphanus sativus, 63 Redox potential See Trace element mobility and transport, factors affecting Rhizoctonia solani, 304 Rhizoferrin, 15, 31, 33 Rhizome, 236 rot disease biological control, 296 causal pathogen, 295 disease management, 295 symptoms of, 295 Rhizosphere, chemistry of phytosiderophores adsorption on iron oxides, 23–4 concentration, 19–20 iron solubility, 22–3 speciation, 20–2 structure, 18–19 effects of mixed cropping system, 263–4 iron bearing minerals and soluble species in See Iron bearing minerals and soluble iron species, in rhizosphere 482 INDEX Rhodotorulic acid, 30 See also Tetradentate siderophores Rice, 66 Ricinus communis, 77 Ryegrass, 85–6 S Sacharum offcinarum, 87 Sapindus saponaria, 340 SCFE See Super critical fluid extraction Sciothrips cardamomi, 323–5 Secale cereale, 64 Shade management, in cardamom beneficial effects of, 250 biorecycling, 254 ideal shade trees, 250–1 irrigation methods contour furrows, 258 drip, 257–8 perfospray, 258 sprinkler, 255–7 time and frequency of, 258 and pest outbreak, 253 shade requirements, 251–3 water harvesting, 258–9 water requirements and irrigation management, 254–5 Sida rhombifolia, 83 Silent Valley Biosphere Reserve, 203 Sitophilus zeamais, 385 Soil acidity, 77–9 Soil compaction See Zero-Till systems Soil iron oxide See Ferrihydrite Soil mineralogy, 66–7 Soil organic matter (SOM), 48–9, 52, 59, 67–8 sampling depth, 68 and soil compaction, 76 in zero-till systems, 69 SOM See Soil organic matter Sooty mould, 303 Sorghum, 66, 70 Sorghum bicolor, 63 Soybean, 64, 66, 80 See also Glycine max Spergula arvensis, 63 Spermacoce latifolia, 81 Sphaceloma leaf spot, 301 Sprinkler irrigation, 255 effects on cardamom yield, 256 Sri Lankan Wild Cardamom See Cardamom, taxonomy Steam distillation, 217 Stem lodging, 303–4 Stenotaphrum spp., 66 Stephanitis typicus, 330–1 Stizolobium aterrinum, 66 Strobilanthes ureceolaris Gamb, 238 Stylosanthes spp., 66, 87–8 Super critical fluid extraction (SCFE), 356 Surface sealing, significance of, 57 Syzygium aromaticum, 388 T TE See Trace element mobility and transport Tephrosia pedicellata, 66 Tetradentate siderophores, 14 Thammurgides cardamomi, 330 Thermodynamic formation equilibrium constants, 32 Thin layer chromatography, 220, 359 TLA See Total leaf area Total leaf area (TLA), 199 Trace element mobility and transport complexation of, 120–1 factors affecting chemical speciation, 136–7 clay content and soil structure, 142–3 fertilizers and soil amendments, 139–40 redox potential, 140–1 soil organic matter, 138–9 soil pH, 135–6 mechanisms of biological processes, 121–2 physiochemical processes, 113–21 in situ stabilization, 122–3 model applications and case studies multicomponent models, 157–61 single-component models, 155–7 pathways of colloidal transport, 128–9 diffusion and dispersion, 126 leaching and runoff, 131–4 preferential flow, 126–7 soluble metal complexes transport, 129–31 volatilization, 134 483 INDEX transport modeling colloid transport and colloid-facilitated solute transport, 153–5 solute transport, 147–52 variably saturated water flow, 145–7 Tribolium castaneum, 332 Trichoderma spp., 294 Triethanolamine, 130 Trifolium semipilosum, 66 Trihydroxamate siderophores, 31 Trilobium castaneum, 385–6 Tripsacum laxum, 87 Triticum aestivum, 51 Typic Hapludox Oxisol, 68 U Uptake systems, types of, 7–8 V Vector management, 318–21 Vernonia monocis, 251 Vernonia polyanthes, 81 Vetches, 70 Vetiver grass, 87 Vetiveria zizanioides, 87 Vicia sativa, 64 Vicia villosa, 63–4 W Water infiltration, 57 Weed management See also Zero-Till systems weed species, 89 Wheat, 3, 51, 80 Wilt disease, 422 Z Zea mays, 58 Zero-Till systems associations promoting, 53 developments of smallholder, 55–6 in subtropical Southern Brazil, 51–4 in tropical Brazil, 54–5 individual issues, challenges and innovations aluminium toxicity, 77–9 cover crops, in Brazil, 60–1 cover crops, in subtropical southern Brazil, 63–5 cover crops, in tropical cerrado region, 65–6 crop rotations, 59–66 equipments for poor farmers, 88–90 livestock and crop integration, 86–7 nutrient management, 71–5 permanent soil surface cover, 56–9 pests and disease management, 84–6 soil acidity, 77–9 soil compaction, 75–7 soil organic matter build-up, 66–71 weed management, 80–4 model Brazilian, 91 SOM, importance of, 69 trials of, 53, 56 Zinc sulfate, 244 ... graminaceous plants (including wheat and barley) exhibit a rather low susceptibility to iron deficiency These species respond to iron‐limiting conditions by the exudation Advances in Agronomy, Volume. .. proteins (including cytochromes, catalases, and peroxidases), iron–sulfur proteins (including ferredoxin, superoxide dismutase, and aconitase), lipoxygenase, and so on (Marschner, 1995) Considering... bearing minerals Most iron‐bearing primary minerals are not stable over pedological timescales Iron liberated by weathering of primary minerals in well‐aerated soils forms secondary iron oxide minerals
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Xem thêm: Advances in agronomy volume 91 , Advances in agronomy volume 91 , II. Strategies of Plant Iron Acquisition, C. Iron Complexes with Low-Molecular Weight Organic Acids, A. Effect of Organic Ligands on Iron Oxide Dissolution Rates, B. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Ligand-Exchange Reactions with Phytosiderophores as Receiving Ligands, A. Zero-Till Development in Subtropical Southern Brazil, A. Permanent Soil Surface Cover, B. Cover Crops, and Crop Rotations and Associations, C. Soil Organic Matter Build-Up, F. Soil Acidity and Aluminum Toxicity, J. Suitable Equipment for Resource-Poor Farmers, II. Mechanisms of Trace Element Mobility, III. Trace Element Transport Pathways, IV. Factors Affecting Trace Element Mobility and Transport, D. Fertilizers and Soil Amendments, F. Clay Content and Soil Structure, A. Variably Saturated Water Flow, VI. Model Applications and Case Studies, Chapter 4: The Agronomy and Economy of Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum M.): The "Queen of Spices", A. Historical Background of Cardamom, B. Cardamom Production, Productivity: A World View, A. Biosynthesis of Flavor Compounds, IV. The Agronomy of Cardamom, D. Establishing a Cardamom Plantation, E. Shade Management in Cardamom, B. Measuring the Nutrient Buffer Power and Its Importance in Affecting Nutrient Concentrations on Root Surfaces, D. The Importance of K Buffer Power Determination in Predicting K Availability to Perennial Crops, E. The Commercial Significance of K Buffer Power Determination in K Fertilizer Management for Perennial Crops, C. Integrated Management of Viral Diseases in Cardamom, VIII. Harvesting and Processing of’Cardamom, E. Bleached and Half Bleached Cardamom, B. Packaging and Storage of Cardamom Seeds, I. Storage of Cardamom Oil, X. The Economy of Cardamom Production, A. The Emerging Trends in Cardamom Production, E. Demand and Supply Pattern, XI. Pharmacological Properties of Cardamom, I. Cardamom as a Spice, XII. A Peep Into the Future of Cardamom, I. Harvesting and Postharvest Technology

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