Advances in agronomy volume 74

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Agronomy DVANCES I N VOLUME 74 Advisory Board Martin Alexander Ronald Phillips Cornell University University of Minnesota Kenneth J Frey Kate M Scow Iowa State University University of California, Davis Larry P Wilding Texas A&M University Prepared in cooperation with the American Society of Agronomy Monographs Committee Jerry M Bigham Jerry L Hatfield David M Kral Linda S Lee Diane E Stott, Chairman David Miller Matthew J Morra John E Rechcigl Donald C Reicosky Wayne F Robarge Dennis E Rolston Richard Shibles Jeffrey Volenec Agronomy DVANCES IN VOLUME 74 Edited by Donald L Sparks Department of Plant and Soil Sciences University of Delaware Newark, Delaware San Diego San Francisco New York Boston London Sydney Tokyo This book is printed on acid-free paper Copyright C ∞ 2001 by ACADEMIC PRESS All Rights Reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the Publisher The appearance of the code at the bottom of the first page of a chapter in this book indicates the Publisher’s consent that copies of the chapter may be made for personal or internal use of specific clients This consent is given on the condition, however, that the copier pay the stated per copy fee through the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc (222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, Massachusetts 01923), for copying beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the U.S Copyright Law This consent does not extend to other kinds of copying, such as copying for general distribution, for advertising or promotional purposes, for creating new collective works, or for resale Copy fees for pre-2001 chapters are as shown on the title pages If no fee code appears on the title page, the copy fee is the same as for current chapters 0065-2113/01 $35.00 Explicit permission from Academic Press is not required to reproduce a maximum of two figures or tables from an Academic Press chapter in another scientific or research publication provided that the material has not been credited to another source and that full credit to the Academic Press chapter is given Academic Press A Harcourt Science and Technology Company 525 B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego, California 92101-4495, USA http://www.academicpress.com Academic Press Harcourt Place, 32 Jamestown Road, London NW1 7BY, UK http://www.academicpress.com International Standard Book Number: 0-12-000792-4 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 01 02 03 04 05 06 SB Contents CONTRIBUTORS PREFACE ix xi SOIL QUALITY: CURRENT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS D L Karlen, S S Andrews, and J W Doran I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX Introduction Response to Reservations Regarding the Soil Quality Concept Evolution of the Soil Quality Concept Soil Quality as an Educational Tool Soil Quality as an Assessment Tool Indexing Soil Quality Current Soil Quality Applications Other Soil Quality Research and Outreach Programs Summary and Conclusions References 10 12 14 21 26 34 35 FRONTIERS IN METAL SORPTION/PRECIPITATION MECHANISMS ON SOIL MINERAL SURFACES Robert G Ford, Andreas C Scheinost, and Donald L Sparks I Introduction II From Adsorption to Precipitation: An Overview III Macroscopic Evidence for Surface Precipitation: Utility and Pitfalls IV Approaches to Modeling Surface Precipitation V The Role of the Mineral Surface VI Environmental Implications: Mechanisms for Metal Stabilization VII Conclusions and Future Research References v 42 43 46 49 52 54 56 59 vi CONTENTS ORGANIC ACIDS EXUDED FROM ROOTS IN PHOSPHORUS UPTAKE AND ALUMINUM TOLERANCE OF PLANTS IN ACID SOILS Peter J Hocking I II III IV V VI Introduction Phosphorus Organic Acids and Phosphorus Solubilization in the Rhizosphere Organic Acids and Soil Organic Phosphorus Aluminum Tolerance Genetic Engineering Approaches to Increase Organic Acid Exudation VII Concluding Remarks References 64 65 68 80 82 86 87 89 ASPECTS OF BAMBOO AGRONOMY Volker Kleinhenz and David J Midmore I II III IV Introduction Manipulating Growth and Development in Bamboo Managing the Environment for Bamboo Production Summary References 100 101 125 139 142 MANAGING WORLD SOILS FOR FOOD SECURITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY R Lal I II III IV V VI VII VIII Introduction Historical Development of Agriculture The Green Revolution Relation Between Extensive Agriculture, Soil Degradation, and the Greenhouse Effect Challenges of Soil and Water Management for the 21st Century Toward Sustainable Management of Soil Resources Respecting “The Dirt” for Feedin1–25 Van Noordwijk, M., Schoonderbeek, D., and Kooistra, M J (1992) Root-soil contact of field-grown winter wheat Geoderma 56, 277–286 246 S P HOAD ET AL Van Noordwijk, M., Brouwer, G., Harmony, K (1993) Concepts and methods for studying interactions of roots and soil structure Geoderma 56, 351–375 Van Noordwijk, M., Brouwer, G., Koning, H., Meijboom, F W., and Grzebisz, W (1994) Production and decay of structural root material of winter-wheat and sugar-beet in conventional and integrated cropping systems Agric Ecosyst Environ 51, 99–113 Van Vuuren, M M I., Robinson, D., and Griffiths, B S (1996) Nutrient inflow and root proliferation during the exploitation of a temporally and spatially discrete source of nitrogen in soil Plant Soil 178, 185–192 Van Vuuren, M M I., Robinson, D., Fitter, A.H., Chasalow, S.D., Williamson, L., and Raven, J A (1997) Effects of elevated CO2 and soil water availability on root biomass and root length, and N, P, and K uptake by wheat New Phytol 135, 455–465 Vetter, H., and Scharafat, S (1964) Die Wurzelverbreitung Landwirtschaftlicher Kulturpflanzen im Unterboden Z Acker Pflanzenbau 120, 275–298 Vetterlein, D., Marschner, H., and Horn, R (1993) Microtensiometer technique for in situ measurement of soil matric potential and root water extraction from a sandy soil Plant Soil 149, 263–273 Wahbi, A., and Gregory, P J (1995) Growth and development of young roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes Ann Bot 75, 533–539 Weaver, J E (1926) “Root Development of Field Crops.” McGraw-Hill, New York Weibel, R O., and Pendleton, J W (1964) Effect of artificial lodging on winter wheat grain yield and quality Agron J 56, 487–488 Welbank, P J., and Williams, E D (1968) Root growth of a barley crop estimated by sampling with portable powered soil-coring equipment J Appl Ecol 5, 477–481 Welbank, P J., Gibb, M J., Taylor, P J., and Williams, E D (1974) Root growth of cereal crops Rothamsted Exp Stat Rep 1973 Part 2, 26–66 Wulfsohn, D., Gu, Y., Wulfsohn, A., and Mojlaj, E G (1996) Statistical analysis of wheat root growth patterns under conventional and no-till systems Soil Till Res 38, 1–16 Young, I M (1995) Variation in moisture contents between bulk soil and the rhizosheath of wheat (Triticum aestivum L cv Wembley) New Phytol 130, 135–139 Zenisceva, L (1990) The importance of the root-system in adaptation of spring barley genotypes to the conditions of environment Rostlinna Vyroba 36, 937–945 Index A Aeration, effect on cereal roots, 211–212 Age bamboo culm, 106–108, 117–125 bamboo rhizomes, 104 roots, and nutrient uptake, 217 Aging effects bamboo leaves on photosynthesis, 105–106 on surface precipitate stability, 54–56 Agricultural soil acid P-fixing, management, 64–65 degradation, Agriculture historical development, 160–166 intensification, 179–183 Alternation, monopodial bamboos, 107–108 Aluminum Co–Al layered double hydroxide, 51 Ni–Al layered double hydroxide, 55 solubilization, 64 Aluminum tolerance citrate role, 84–85 malate role, 83–84 oxalate role, 85–86 plant chelating ability, 82–83 Assessment tools documenting soil properties changes, soil quality role, 12–13, 21–22 Australia changes in land use, 33 Oxisol P levels, 66–67 soil organic carbon, 33–34 B Bamboo biomass accumulation and partitioning, 110–114 photosynthesis, 104–108 products, annual use in Asia, 100 root systems, water uptake, 139–140 storage and translocation of photosynthates, 108–110 water and nutrient uptake, 102–104 Bamboo growth fast, 101 management, 114, 117–125 surface soil depth correlated with, 104 Bamboo production soil chemical properties, 130–139 soil physical properties, 126–130 water management for, 125–126 Barley climate effects, 204–205 crop yield limited by rooting, 235 farming practices appropriate, 232–235 and rooting, 228–231 genetic variations, root attributes, 201–203 root extension rate and distribution, 200–201 rooting depth, 197–200 root:shoot allocation, 220–228 root systems, 196–197 biological factors affecting, 218–220 soil heterogeneity and rooting, 205–206 soil structure and root growth, 206–210 soil types for, 203–204 water and nutrient availability, 210–217 yield improved by root manipulation, 236–237 Biodegradation, citrate, 78 Biomass accumulation and partitioning in bamboo, 110–114 litter, nutrient supply from, 130–131 microbial, 27–28 root, small-grained cereals, 197, 219 Brick manufacture, soil extraction for, 171 Buckwheat, Al tolerance, 85–86 C Canada, tillage systems comparison, 32 Canopy, bamboo, photosynthetic capacity, 104–108 247 248 INDEX Carbon, see also Soil organic carbon microbial biomass, 27 sequestration in soil, 184–185 transported by wind and water, 175–176 Central Park, soil compaction, 22–23 Cereals, see also specific types biological factors affecting, 218–220 roots, waterlogging and aeration effects, 211–212 small-grained root systems, 196–197 soil structure and root growth, 206–210 use of fertilizers for, 165 world average yields, 167 Chemical properties, native soil, in bamboo stands, 130–131 Chickpea root organic acid exudation, 71 sorghum following, 79–80 Chromium, sorption to hydrous ferric oxide, 48 Citrate biodegradation, 78 exudation from P-deprived plants, 75 exuded by proteoid roots, P uptake and, 68–69, 73–74 role in Al tolerance, 84–85 Citrate synthase gene, bacterial and plant, 86 Climate change, effect on nutrient uptake from soil, 222–223 effects on soils for small-grained cereals, 204–205 Cobalt Co–Al layered double hydroxide, 51 hydroxide-like precipitates at rutile surface, 53–54 Compaction effect on root:shoot allocation, 223–224 and penetration resistance, 207–210 reduction of, 233–235 yield reduction induced by, 172 Congestion, bamboo stands, 119 Contaminants bonding environment of, 59 phosphate, 168 Continuum model, surface precipitate formation, 51–52 Coprecipitation surface, 50–51 weathering and, 53 Cropland, rainfed, and crop yields, 183 Cropping systems interrow, 234 optimal, for Great Plains, 28–29 Crop residue management, 27 Crop rotation effect on rooting, 228–229 sunflower in, 28 Crop yield improved by root manipulation, 236–237 limited by rooting, 235 Culm, bamboo age, effect on photosynthesis, 106–108 growth, 101–102 management, 114, 117–125 storage of nutrients, 108–110 D Data set, soil quality indices, 18–20 Deforestation Mediterranean Basin, 169 tropical rainforests, 160–161 Density bulk, and cereal root growth, 206–207 cereal plant population, 231 planting, bamboo species, 127–128 standing-culm, bamboo, 117–119 Desertification control, 179 historical, 169–170 Developing countries food security, 177 population increase, 157 soil productivity, 32 Diagnosis Recommendation Integrated System, 138 Direct drilling, effects on cereal rooting, 229 Drought, effect on cereal root system size, 212–213 Droughtiness, effect on cereal fields, 205 Dynamic soil quality, 12–13, 35 E Earliness, soils for small-grained cereals, 204 Earthworms, no-till effect on, 31 ... 14–15 Indicator interpretation, 3–4, 23–24 response to no-till, 31 soil quality indexing and, 17–21 Inherent soil quality, 12, 35 Intercropping bamboo with leguminous crops, 129 sorghum following... Microorganisms, affecting cereal root systems, 218 Minerals P-containing, organic acid dissolution of, 70 structural modification rates, 57 Mineral surface, role in directing sorption end point, 52–54 Natural... yield declines, 172–173 Organic acids exuded from roots genetic engineering approach, 86–87 P supply and, 74 76 quantities, 72 74 phosphatases and, 81–82 species secreting, intercropping, 77–80
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Xem thêm: Advances in agronomy volume 74 , Advances in agronomy volume 74 , Chapter 1. Soil Quality: Current Concepts and Applications, III. Evolution of the Soil Quality Concept, V. Soil Quality as an Assessment Tool, VII. Current Soil Quality Applications, VIII. Other Soil Quality Research and Outreach Programs, II. From Adsorption to Precipitation: An Overview, III. Macroscopic Evidence for Surface Precipitation: Utility and Pitfalls, IV. Approaches to Modeling Surface Precipitation, VII. Conclusions and Future Research, Chapter 3. Organic Acids Exuded from Roots in Phosphorus Uptake and Aluminum Tolerance of Plants in Acid Soils, III. Organic Acids and Phosphorus Solubilization in the Rhizosphere, IV. Organic Acids and Soil Organic Phosphorus, VI. Genetic Engineering Approaches to Increase Organic Acid Exudation, II. Manipulating Growth and Development in Bamboo, III. Managing the Environment for Bamboo Production, Chapter 5. Managing World Soils for Food Security and Environmental Quality, II. Historical Development of Agriculture, IV. Relation Between Extensive Agriculture, Soil Degradation, and the Greenhouse Effect, VI. Toward Sustainable Management of Soil Resources, VII. Respecting “The Dirt” for Feeding 10 Billion and Mitigating the Greenhouse Effect, Chapter 6. The Management of Wheat, Barley, and Oat Root Systems, IV. Soil Structure and Root Growth, V. Water and Nutrient Availability, VIII. Farming Practices and Rooting, IX. Selection of Appropriate Farming Practices

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