Advances in agronomy volume 68

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Agronomy D VA N C E S VOLUME I N 68 Advisory Board Martin Alexander Ronald Phillips Cornell University University of Minnesota Kenneth J Frey Larry P Wilding Iowa State University Texas A&M University Prepared in cooperation with the American Society of Agronomy Monographs Committee Jon Bartels Jerry M Bigham Jerry L Hatfield David M Kral Linda S Lee Diane E Stott, Chairman David M Miller Matthew J Morra John E Rechcigl Dennis E Rolston Donald C Reicosky Wayne P Robarge Richard Shibles Jeffrey J Volenec Agronomy DVANCES IN VO L U M E 68 Edited by Donald L Sparks Department of Plant and Soil Sciences University of Delaware Newark, Delaware ACADEMIC PRESS San Diego London Boston New York Sydney Tokyo Toronto ∞ This book is printed on acid-free paper ࠗ Copyright © 2000 by ACADEMIC PRESS All Rights Reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the Publisher The appearance of the code at the bottom of the first page of a chapter in this book indicates the Publisher’s consent that copies of the chapter may be made for personal or internal use of specific clients This consent is given on the condition, however, that the copier pay the stated per copy fee through the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc (222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, Massachusetts 01923), for copying beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the U.S Copyright Law This consent does not extend to other kinds of copying, such as copying for general distribution, for advertising or promotional purposes, for creating new collective works, or for resale Copy fees for pre-1999 chapters are as shown on the title pages If no fee code appears on the title page, the copy fee is the same as for current chapters 0065-2113/00 $30.00 Explicit permission from Academic Press is not required to reproduce a maximum of two figures or tables from an Academic Press chapter in another scientific or research publication provided that the material has not been credited to another source and that full credit to the Academic Press chapter is given Academic Press A Harcourt Science and Technology Company 525 B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego, California 92101-4495, USA http://www.apnet.com Academic Press 24-28 Oval Road, London NW1 7DX, UK http://www.hbuk.co.uk/ap/ International Standard Book Number: 0-12-000768-1 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 99 00 01 02 03 04 BB Contents Contributors Preface vii ix A LIFETIME PERSPECTIVE ON THE CHEMISTRY OF SOIL ORGANIC MATTER M Schnitzer I Introduction II Soil Organic Matter (SOM) III Humic Substances: Analytical Characteristics IV Chemical Structure of Humic Substances V Nitrogen-, Phosphorus-, and Sulfur-Containing Components of SOM VI Colloid Chemical Characteristics of Humic Acids and Fulvic Acids VII Water Retention by Humic Substances VIII Reactions of Humic Substances with Metals and Minerals IX Interactions of Pesticides and Herbicides with Humic Substances X Functions and Uses of Humic Substances XI Conclusions and Outlook for the Future XII Personal Encounters with Outstanding Scientists References 11 21 30 36 38 41 44 45 46 47 54 REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT IN GRAIN CROPS DURING DROUGHT Hargurdeep S Saini and Mark E Westgate I Introduction II Sensitivity to Drought at Various Reproductive Stages III Nature of Injury IV Water Relations of Reproductive Tissues and Their Influence on Yield V Physiological and Metabolic Bases for Reproductive Failure under Drought VI Concluding Remarks References v 60 61 62 68 71 85 86 vi CONTENTS ADVANCES IN CHLORIDE NUTRITION OF PLANTS Guohua Xu, Hillel Magen, Jorge Tarchitzky, and Uzi Kafkafi I Introduction II Behavior of Chloride in Soil III Chloride in Plants IV Chloride in Crops V Chloride Management in Fertilization and Irrigation VI Summary References 98 99 103 127 134 139 140 OXISOLS S W Buol and H Eswaran I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX Introduction Historical Background Geography of Oxisols Definition and Kinds of Oxisols Processes and Formation of Oxisols Soil–Landscape Interactions Features and Processes Ecosystem Management Summary References 152 153 158 163 164 167 170 180 187 187 CROP RESIDUES AND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES: EFFECTS ON SOIL QUALITY, SOIL NITROGEN DYNAMICS, CROP YIELD, AND NITROGEN RECOVERY K Kumar and K M Goh I II III IV V VI VII Introduction Crop Residues and Their Uses Decomposition of Crop Residues Crop Residues and Management Practices Soil Nitrogen Dynamics and Crop Nitrogen Recovery Nitrogen Benefits to Subsequent Crops Conclusions References 198 199 200 230 257 271 278 279 Index 321 Contributors Numbers in parentheses indicate the pages on which the authors’ contributions begin S W BUOL (151), Department of Soil Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 H ESWARAN (151), Natural Resources Conservation Service, U.S Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC 20013 K M GOH (197), Soil, Plant, and Ecological Sciences Division, Lincoln University, Canterbury, New Zealand UZI KAFKAFI (97), Department of Field Crops, Vegetables, and Genetics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100, Israel K KUMAR (197),1 Soil, Plant, and Ecological Sciences Division, Lincoln University, Canterbury, New Zealand HILLEL MAGEN (97), Extension Service, Ministry of Agriculture, Tel Aviv 61070, Israel HARGURDEEP S SAINI (59), Institut de recherche en biologie vegetale, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H1X 2B2 M SCHNITZER (1), Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Center, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0C6 JORGE TARCHITZKY (97), Dead Sea Works Ltd., Potash House, Beer-Sheva 84100, Israel MARK E WESTGATE (59), Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50010 GUOHUA XU (97),2 College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agicultural University, Nanjing 210095, People’s Republic of China 1Present address: Department of Soils, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141 004, Punjab, India 2Present address: Department of Field Crops, Vegetables, and Genetics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100, Israel vii This Page Intentionally Left Blank Preface Volume 68 contains five outstanding and contemporary reviews on topics dealing with soil chemistry, plant physiology, plant nutrition, pedology, and soil and crop management Chapter is a classic review by one of the great pioneers in soil organic matter chemistry (SOM), Dr Morris Schnitzer Dr Schnitzer clearly and brilliantly summarizes past and present knowledge on SOM, discussing humic substances (HS), analyses, chemical structure, N-, P-, and S-containing components of SOM, colloid chemical characteristics of HS, water retention by HS, interactions of HS with metals, minerals, and organic chemicals, and future prospects, with a lively personal discussion of interactions with other pioneers in the field over an almost 50-year distinguished career Chapter is a comprehensive treatise on reproductive development in grain crops during drought by two leading experts: Hargurdeep S Saini and Mark E Westgate The authors discuss the sensitivity of plants to drought at various reproductive stages, types of injury, water relations of reproductive tissues and their influence on yield, and physiological and metabolic bases for reproductive failure under drought Chapter 3, by Guohua Xu, Hillel Magen, Jorge Tarchitzky, and Uzi Kafkafi, presents advances in the chloride nutrition of plants Aspects of chloride in soil, plants, and crops and chloride management in fertilization and irrigation are extensively discussed Chapter is another review in our continuing series on the 12 soil orders S W Buol and H Eswaran, distinguished pedologists, provide a very useful review on Oxisols They provide a historical background on Oxisols and cogent discussions of the geography, kinds, and processes/formation of Oxisols, soil–landscape interactions, features and processes, and ecosystem management Chapter is a timely review on crop residues and management practices as they relate to soil quality and nitrogen dynamics The authors, K Kumar and K M Goh, discuss aspects of crop residues, including uses, decomposition, management practices, and soilnitrogen dynamics and nitrogen benefits to subsequent crops I thank the authors for their excellent reviews Donald L Sparks ix 318 K KUMAR AND K M GOH Voroney, R P., Winter, J P., and Gregorich, E G (1991) MicrobeĐlantòoil interactions In “Carbon Isotope Techniques” (D C Coleman and B Fry, eds.), pp 79–99 Academic Press, San Diego, CA Voss, R D., and Shrader, W D (1984) Rotation effects and legume sources of nitrogen from corn In “Organic Farming: Current Technology and its Role in Sustainable Agriculture” (D A Bezdicek, ed.), Spec Publ 46, pp 61– 68 Am Soc Agron., Madison, WI Vossbrinck, C R., Coleman, D C., and Woolley, T A (1979) Abiotic and biotic factors in litter decomposition in a semi-arid grassland Ecology 60, 265 –271 Vreeken-Buijs, M J., and Brussaard, L (1996) Soil mesofauna dynamics, wheat residue decomposition and nitrogen mineralization in buried litter bags Biol Fertil Soils 23, 374 – 381 Vyn, R J., and Raimbault, B A (1993) Long-term effect of five tillage systems on corn response and soil structure Agron J 85, 1074 –1079 Wagger, M G., and Denton, H P (1989) Influence of cover crop and wheel traffic on soil physical properties in continuous no-till corn Soil Sci Soc Am J 53, 1206 –1210 Wagner, G H., and Broder, M W (1993) Microbial progression in the decomposition of corn stalk residue in soil Soil Sci 155, 48 – 52 Wagner, G H., and Zapata, F (1982) Field evaluation of reference crops in the study of nitrogen fixation by legumes using isotope techniques Agron J 74, 607– 612 Walters, D T., Aulakh, M S., and Doran, J W (1992) Effects of soil aeration, legume residue and soil texture on transformations of macro- and micronutrients in soils Soil Sci 153, 100 –107 Wani, S P., and Shinde, P A (1977) Studies on biological decomposition of wheat straw I Screening of wheat straw decomposing micro-organisms in vitro Plant Soil 47, 14 –16 Wardle, D A (1995) Impact of disturbance on detritus food-webs in agroecosystems of contrasting tillage and weed management practices Adv Ecol Res 26, 105 –185 Wardle, D A., and Lavelle, P (1997) Linkages between soil biota, plant litter quality and decomposition In “Driven by Nature: Plant Litter Quality and Decomposition” (G Cadisch and K E Giller, eds.), pp 107–124 CAB International, Wallingford, UK Wardle, D A., Yeates, G W., Watson, R N., Nicholson, K S., and Ahmed, M (1993) The belowground food-web as an indicator of disturbances resulting from weed management practices in two contrasting agro-ecosystems Proc N.Z Plant Prot Conf 46, 338 – 343 Watkins, N., and Barraclough, D (1996) Gross rates of N mineralization associated with the decomposition of plant residues Soil Biol Biochem 28, 169 –175 Weaich, K., Bristow, K L., and Cass, A (1996) Simulating maize emergence using soil and climate data Agron J 88, 667– 674 Weil, R R., Bendetto, P W., Sikora, L J., and Bandel, V A (1988) Influence of tillage practices on phosphorus distribution and forms in three Ultisols Agron J 80, 503 – 509 Weill, A N., Mckyes, E., and Mehuys, G R (1989) Agronomic and economic feasibility of growing corn (Zea mays L.) with different levels of tillage and dairy manure in Quebec Soil Tillage Res 14, 311–325 Westcott, M P., and Mikkelson, D S (1987) Comparison of organic and inorganic sources for rice Agron J 79, 937– 943 Westerman, R L., and Kurtz, L T (1973) Priming effect of N-15 labelled fertilizers on soil nitrogen in field experiments Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 37, 725 –727 Westerman, R L., and Tucker, T C (1974) Effect of salts and salts plus nitrogen-15-labelled ammonium chloride on mineralization of soil nitrogen, nitrification and immobilization Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 38, 602– 605 Weston, L A (1996) Utilization of allelopathy for weed management in agroecosystems Agron J 88, 860–866 Weston, L A., and Putnam, A R (1985) Inhibition of growth, nodulation and nitrogen fixation of legumes by quackgrass Crop Sci 25, 561– 565 CROP RESIDUES AND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES 319 Wheatley, D M., Macleod, D A., and Jessop, R S (1995) Influence of tillage treatments on N2 fixation of soybean Soil Biol Biochem 27, 571– 574 White, I., Sully, M J., and Melville, M D (1989) Use and hydrological robustness of time-to-incipient-ponding Soil Sci Soc Am J 29, 1343 –1346 Whitehead, D C (1995) “Grassland Nitrogen.” CAB International, Wallingford, UK Whitley, G M., and Pettit, C (1994) Effect of lignite humic acid treatment on the rate of decomposition of wheat straw Biol Fertil Soil 17, 18 –20 Whitmore, A P., and Handayanto, E (1997) Simulating the mineralisation of N from crop residues in relation to residue quality In “Driven By Nature: Plant Litter Quality and Decomposition” (G Cadisch and K E Giller, eds.), pp 337– 348 CAB International, Wallingford, UK Wilbert, G G., Smith, L., and Malanchuk, J L (1992) Emissions inventory of heavy metals and hydrophobic organics in the Great Lakes basin In “Fate of Pesticides and Chemicals in the Environment” (J L Schnoor, ed.), pp 27– 50 Wiley, New York, Wilhelm, W W., Doran, J W., and Power, J F (1986) Corn and soybean yield response to crop residue management under no-tillage production systems Agron J 78, 184 –189 Wilhelm, W W., Bouzezour, H., and Power, J F (1989) Soil disturbance—residue management effect on winter wheat growth and yield Agron J 81, 581– 588 Wiltshire, G H., and du Preez, C C (1993) Long-term effects of conservation practices on the nitrogen fertility of a soil cropped annually to wheat S Af J Plant Soil 10, 70 –76 Winteringham, F P W (1984) “Soil and Fertilizer Nitrogen,” Tech Rep Ser No 244 IAEA, Vienna Wise, D H., and Schaefer, M (1994) Decomposition of leaf litter in a mull beech forest: Comparison between canopy and herbaceous species Pedobiology 38, 269 –288 Witkamp, M (1969) Environmental effects on microbial turnover of some mineral elements I Abiotic factors Soil Biol Biochem 7, 199 –204 Wood, A W (1985) Soil degradation and management under intensive sugarcane cultivation in north Queensland Soil Use Manag 1, 121–124 Wood, T G (1988) Termites and the soil environment Biol Fert Soils 6, 228–236 Wood, C W., and Edwards, J H (1992) Agroecosystem management effects on soil carbon and nitrogen Agric., Ecosyst Environ 39, 123 –128 Woods, L E., Cole, C V., Porter, L K., and Coleman, D C (1987) Transformations of added and indigenous nitrogen in gnotobiotic soil: A comment on the priming effect Soil Biol Biochem 19, 673–678 Xu, J G., and Juma, N G (1995) Carbon kinetics in Black Chernozem with roots in situ Can J Soil Sci 75, 299–305 Yan, F., Schubert, S., and Mengel, K (1996) Soil pH changes during legume growth and application of plant material Biol Fertil Soils 23, 236 –242 Zagal, E., and Persson, J (1994) Immobilization and remineralization of nitrate during glucose decomposition at four rates of nitrogen addition Soil Biol Biochem 26, 1313 –1321 Zapata, F., and van Cleemput, O (1986) Fertilizer nitrogen recovery and biological nitrogen fixation in fababean-sugar beet and spring wheat-fababean cropping sequences Fert Res 8, 263 –268 Zhu, W., and Ehrenfield, J G (1996) The effects of mycorrhizal roots on litter decomposition, soil biota, and nutrients in a spodosolic soil Plant Soil 179, 109 –118 This Page Intentionally Left Blank Index A Abscisic acid, drought effects in grain crops, 63, 81–86 Actinidia deliciosa, chloride response, 118 –120, 130 Africa, tertiary surfaces, oxisol soils, 168 –169 Alfalfa, chloride response, 112, 138 Alfisols, global distribution, 161–162 Allium ssp., chloride response, 106, 116 –117 Alluvium, oxisol soil relations, 169 –170 Almond, chloride response, 138 Aluminum, humic acid adsorption, 43 Amazon basin, oxisol soils, 167–168 Amino acids, soil component, 32 Amino sugars, soil component, 32 Ammonium, see also Nitrogen chloride uptake interactions, 121 mineralization, 257–262 nitrification inhibitors, chloride effects, 102– 103 Andisols, global distribution, 161–162 Anthesis, drought effects in grain crops, 69 –70 Apple, chloride response, 106 Apricot, chloride response, 138 Arachis hypogaea, chloride response, 118 –119, 121, 131 Aridisols, global distribution, 161–162 Avocado, chloride response, 118 –119, 123, 130–131 B Barley chloride response, 106, 118 –119, 127, 138 drought effects, see Drought nitrogen response, 263 –267 residue analysis, 200 Barton, D H R., 49–50 Bean, see also specific types chloride response, 106, 112 nitrogen fixation benefits, 276 Beta vulgaris chloride response, 105 –106, 133, 138 nitrogen response, 263 –264 Brassica ssp., chloride response, 105–106, 118 –119 Brazil, planation surfaces, oxisol soil relations, 167 Bremner, J M., 53 Broad bean chloride response, 106 nitrogen dynamics benefits to subsequent crops, 273 –278 crop nitrogen recovery, 265 –268 Broccoli, chloride response, 106, 118 –119 Burning, crop residue management, 230, 241– 242, 247 C Cabbage, chloride response, 105 –106 Cadmium, humic acid adsorption, 43 Calcium, chloride uptake interactions, 123 –125 Carbohydrates crop residue management, 247 drought effects in grain crops, 73 –75, 84 – 85 Carbon dioxide, crop residues decomposition, 219 –223 Carbon/nitrogen ratio, crop residue decomposition role, 203 –209, 220 –221, 261, 270 Carrot, chloride response, 106 Chickpea, nitrogen dynamics benefits to subsequent crops, 273 –278 crop nitrogen recovery, 265 –268 Chinese cabbage, chloride response, 105 –106 Chloride behavior in soil, 99 –103 accumulation, 99 –101, 139 clay surface reactions, 101 nitrification inhibitor, 102–103 sources, 99 –101 fertilization, 100 –101 irrigation, 100 –101, 140 rainwater, 99 –100 reserves, 99 uptake, 101–102 321 322 INDEX Chloride (continued) management, 134–139 accumulation in soil, 134 fertilization under saline conditions, 134 – 136 irrigation foliar damage, 137–139 root zone leaching, 136 –137 sprinklers, 137–139 leaching, 136–137 monitoring methods, 135 overview, 98–99, 139 –140 plant response, 103 –133 biochemical functions, 113 –115 crops alfalfa, 112, 138 almond, 138 apple, 106 apricot, 138 avocado, 118–119, 123, 130 –131 barley, 106, 118 –119, 127, 138 bean, 106, 112 broadbean, 106 broccoli, 106, 118 –119 cabbage, 106 carrot, 106 Chinese cabbage, 105 –106 citrus fruit, 108, 112, 118 –119, 124, 129–130 coconut palm, 117, 123, 132–133 corn, 106, 112, 118, 133, 138 cotton, 106, 110, 133, 138 cowpea, 106 cucumber, 106, 138 flax, 106 grapevine, 106, 111, 131, 138 kiwi fruit, 118 –120, 130 lettuce, 106, 111, 118 melon, 118–119, 123 onion, 106, 116 –117 peanut, 118–119, 121, 131 pepper, 106, 138 plum, 138 potato, 105–106, 112, 118, 121, 127– 128 radish, 106 rice, 105–106, 127 sorghum, 106 soybean, 105–106, 113, 132 spinach, 106 strawberry, 106, 110, 118 –119, 123 sugar beet, 105 –106, 133, 138 sugar cane, 105 –106 sweet potato, 105 –106 tobacco, 105 –106, 118 tomato, 106, 108, 112, 118 –119, 121, 128 –129 turnip, 106 wheat, 105 –106, 118 –119, 122, 127 disease suppression, 125 –126, 140 distribution, 112–113 ion uptake interactions ammonium, 121 calcium, 123 –125 nitrate, 117–121 phosphorus, 121–122 potassium, 123 physiological functions, 115 –117 anionic balance, 115 –116 osmotic balance, 115 –116 stomatal regulation, 116 –117 tolerant crop selection, 113 translocation, 112–113, 139 uptake mechanisms, 111–112 yield response, 103 –111 content in harvested plant parts, 108 – 111 crop sensitivity, 104 –108 positive yield response, 103 –104 tolerance, 104 –108 yield quality, 108 –111 Chromium, humic acid adsorption, 43 Citrus ssp., chloride response, 108, 112, 118 – 119, 124, 129 –130 Clay chloride surface reactions, 101 crop residue decomposition role, 213 –214 mineral adsorption, 44 Clover, nitrogen dynamics benefits to subsequent crops, 273 –278 crop nitrogen recovery, 265 –268 nitrogen response, 263 –264 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry crop residue analysis, 225 –227 soil organic matter analysis analytical characteristics, 13 –16 direct analysis, – Cobalt, humic acid adsorption, 43 Coconut palm, chloride response, 117, 123, 132–133 INDEX Compost, see Decomposition Copper humic acid adsorption, 43 water-soluble complex formation, 42– 43 Corn chloride response, 106, 112, 118, 133, 138 drought effects, see Drought nitrogen response, 263 –267 residue analysis, 200 Cotton, chloride response, 106, 110, 133, 138 Cover crops, residue decomposition management, 218–219 Cowpea, chloride response, 106 Crop residue decomposition, 200–230 affecting factors, 201–220 accessibility, 216 –217 aerobic conditions, 211 age, 202, 207 anaerobic conditions, 211 carbon dioxide, 219 –220 carbon/nitrogen ratio, 203–209, 220 – 221, 261, 270 chemical composition, 205 –208 clay content, 213 –214 climate factors, 219 crop cover, 218–219 decomposition index, 208 –209 desiccation, 203, 210 –211, 217 edaphic factors, 209 –215 freezing, 210 indigenous organisms, 214 –215 irrigation, 213–214, 217 leaf toughness, 202–203 lignin role, 204–209, 221 loading rate, 215 –216 management factors, 215 –219 methodology problems, 206 –208, 216 – 217 nitrogen content, 203 –204, 212–213 nutrient availability, 212 ozone role, 219–220 particle size, 201–202, 207–208 polyphenols role, 205, 207–209 quality index, 208 –209 quality of residue, 203 –208 soil moisture, 210 –211, 219 soil pH, 209 soil salinity, 211–212 soil structure, 213 –214 soil temperature, 209 –210, 219 thawing, 210 definition, 199 management practices affecting factors, 215 –219 accessibility, 216 –217 crop cover, 218 –219 irrigation, 213 –214, 217 loading rate, 215 –216 crop yield responses, 247–256, 278 diseases, 254 –256 germination, 247–248 growth, 247–248 herbicide efficiency, 253 –254 nitrogen fixation, 250–252, 272 pests, 254 –256 phytotoxicity, 252–253 seedling establishment, 247–248 weed control, 253 –254 direct drilling, 230 environmental effects, 256–257 residue burning, 230, 241–242, 247 residue incorporation, 230 soil quality affects, 231–247 aggregation, 232–233 biological properties, 242–247 biomass, 243 –244 bulk density, 233 –234 carbohydrates, 247 chemical properties, 236 –242 compaction, 233 –234 enzymes, 246 –247 erosion, 232 hydrology, 234 –235 indicators, 231–232 micronutrients, 241 microorganisms, 243 –247 moisture content, 235 –236 mycorrhiza, 245 –246 nitrogen content, 237–241 penetration resistance, 233 –234 pH, 236 –237 phosphorus content, 241 physical soil properties, 232–236 soil fauna, 244 –245 soil organic matter, 237–240 soil structure, 232–233 soil temperature, 235 straw removal, 231, 247 undersowing, 230 –231 323 324 INDEX Crop residue (continued) modeling, 227–229 nitrogen dynamics, 257–278 benefits to subsequent crops, 271–278 biological nitrogen fixation, 274–275 fertilizer nitrogen equivalences, 272– 273 fixed nitrogen responses, 275–276 grain yield responses, 250 –252, 272 legume nitrogen, 273 –278 nonfixed nitrogen responses, 275–276 crop nitrogen recovery, 262–271 cereal crops, 265 fertilizer, 263–268 legume nitrogen, 265 –268 mineralization process, 268 –271 immobilization turnover, 257–262 fertilizer, 259–261 residues, 261–262 mineralization, 257–262 fertilizer, 259–261 process, 268–271 residues, 261–262 overview, 197–199, 278 –279 study methods, 220 –227 carbon dioxide evolution measurement, 220–223 isotopic techniques, 225 –227 lignin analysis, 225 profusion methods, in vitro, 224 –225 size density fractionation, in situ, 225 weight loss measurement, 223 –224 utilization, 199–200 world production, 199 –200 Crops, see specific aspects; specific crops Crop yields, see also specific crops chloride effects, 103 –111 content in harvested plant parts, 108 –111 crop sensitivity, 104 –108 positive yield response, 103 –104 tolerance, 104–108 yield quality, 108 –111 crop residue management, 247–256, 278 crop yield, 249–250 diseases, 254–256 germination, 247–248 growth, 247–248 herbicide efficiency, 253 –254 nitrogen dynamics, 250 –252, 272 nitrogen fixation, 250–252, 272 pests, 254 –256 phytotoxicity, 252–253 seedling establishment, 247–248 weed control, 253 –254 Cucumber, chloride response, 106, 138 Cultivation crop residue management, 230 long-term effects, soil organic matter chemistry, –11 Curie-point pyrolysis, soil organic matter analysis, 26 –27 D Daucus carota, chloride response, 106 Decomposition, crop residues, 200 –230 affecting factors, 201–220 accessibility, 216 –217 aerobic conditions, 211 age, 202, 207 anaerobic conditions, 211 carbon dioxide, 219 –220 carbon/nitrogen ratio, 203–209, 220 –221, 261, 270 chemical composition, 205 –208 clay content, 213 –214 climate factors, 219 crop cover, 218 –219 decomposition index, 208 –209 desiccation, 203, 210 –211, 217 edaphic factors, 209 –215 freezing, 210 indigenous organisms, 214 –215 irrigation, 213 –214, 217 leaf toughness, 202–203 lignin role, 204 –209, 221 loading rate, 215 –216 management factors, 215 –219 methodology problems, 206 –208, 216 – 217 moisture, 210 –211, 219 nitrogen content, 203 –204, 212–213 nutrient availability, 212 ozone, 219 –220 particle size, 201–202, 207–208 pH, 209 polyphenols role, 205, 207–209 quality index, 208 –209 quality of residue, 203 –208 salinity, 211–212 325 INDEX soil structure, 213–214 temperature, 209–210, 219 thawing, 210 Disease chloride effect in plants, 125 –126, 140 control, crop residue role, 254 –256 Drought crop residue decomposition, 203 grain crop reproductive development effects, 59–86 carbohydrate metabolism, 84 – 85 hormonal sterility induction, 81– 84 injury nature, 62–68 cell division inhibition, 67 fertilization initiation, 65 – 66 flower initiation and development, 62–63 gametophyte development, 63 – 65 grain initiation, 65 – 66 kernel growth and maturation, 66 – 68 pollination initiation, 65 – 66, 71–73, 85 overview, 59–61, 85 – 86 reproductive failure physiology, 71– 85 carbohydrate availability, 73 –75 grain maturation regulation, 75 – 81 kernel abortion, 73 –75 pollen development, 71–73 sensitivity, 61–62 water–tissue relationship, 68 –71 anthesis stress, 69 –70 flower initiation and development, 68 grain filling and maturation, 70 –71 meiotic-stage stress, 68 – 69, 82, 85 E Ecosystem management crop residue effects, 256 –257 oxisol soils, 180–186 agriculture, 185–186 forests, 180–183 pasture, 183–185 Elaeis guineenisis, chloride response, 117, 123, 132–133 Electron microscopy, soil organic matter analysis, 19–21 Electron spin resonance spectroscopy, soil organic matter analysis, 16 –19 Entisols, global distribution, 161–162 Environment, see Ecosystem management F Faba bean chloride response, 106 nitrogen dynamics benefits to subsequent crops, 273 –278 crop nitrogen recovery, 265 –268 Ferrasols, see Oxisols Fertilizer, see also specific types drought effects in grain crops, 65 – 66 Field burning, crop residue management, 230, 241–242, 247 Field pea, nitrogen dynamics benefits to subsequent crops, 273 –278 crop nitrogen recovery, 265 –268 Flaig, W., 47– 48 Flax, chloride response, 106 Flower development, drought effects in grain crops injury nature, 62– 63 water–tissue relationship, 68 Forests, management, oxisol soils, 180 –183 Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, soil organic matter analysis, 12–13 Fragaria ssp., chloride response, 106, 110, 118 – 119, 123 Fruit trees, see specific types Fulvic acid oxidation products, see Soil organic matter G Gametophyte development, drought effects in grain crops, 63 – 65 Gelisols, global distribution, 161–162 Glycine max chloride response, 105 –106, 113, 132 nitrogen fixation benefits, 275 –276 Gossypium hirsutum, chloride response, 106, 110, 133, 138 Grain crops, see also specific crops chloride response, 105 –106, 118 –119, 122, 127, 133 drought effects on reproductive development, 59 – 86 carbohydrate metabolism, 84 – 85 hormonal sterility induction, 81– 84 injury nature, 62– 68 cell division inhibition, 67 fertilization initiation, 65 – 66 326 INDEX Gain crops (continued) flower initiation and development, 62–63 gametophyte development, 63 – 65 grain initiation, 65 – 66 kernel growth and maturation, 66 – 68 pollination initiation, 65 – 66, 71–73, 85 overview, 59–61, 85 – 86 reproductive failure physiology, 71– 85 carbohydrate availability, 73 –75 grain maturation regulation, 75 – 81 kernel abortion, 73 –75 pollen development, 71–73 sensitivity, 61–62 water–tissue relationship, 68 –71 anthesis stress, 69 –70 flower initiation and development, 68 grain filling and maturation, 70 –71 meiotic-stage stress, 68 – 69, 82, 85 nitrogen response, 250 –252, 272 straw residue management, 231, 247 Grape, chloride response, 106, 111, 131, 138 H Herbicides efficiency, crop residue role, 253 –254 humus substance interactions, 44 – 45 Histosols, global distribution, 161–162 Hordeum vulgare chloride response, 106, 118 –119, 127, 138 drought effects, see Drought nitrogen response, 263 –267 residue analysis, 200 Hormones, see specific hormones Humus substances, 1– 53, see also Crop residue amino acids, 32 amino sugars, 32 analytical characteristics, 11–21 chemical methods, 11–12 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, 13–16 electron microscopy, 19 –21 electron spin resonance spectroscopy, 16–19 fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, 12–13 infrared spectroscopy, 12–13 15N nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, 33 chemical structure analysis, 21– 30 amino acids, 32 amino sugars, 32 Curie-point pyrolysis, 26 –27 gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, 26 –27 nucleic acid bases, 32 oxidative degradation, 21–24 pyrolysis-field ionization spectrometry, 24 –26 reductive degradation, 24 three-dimensional structure, 28 – 30 two-dimensional structure, 27–28 colloid chemical characteristics, 36 – 38 definitions, – direct analysis 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, – pyrolysis-field ionization spectrometry, 6–9 extraction problems, – functions, 45 future research directions, 46 – 47 long-term cultivation effects, –11 metal reactions, 41– 44 adsorption characteristics, 43 desorption characteristics, 43 mixed ligand complexes, 42– 43 water-soluble complexes, 41– 42 mineral reactions, 41– 44 adsorption, 44 dissolution, 43 – 44 nitrogen-containing components, 30 – 31, 34 – 35 15N nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, 33 nucleic acid bases, 32 overview, 1– pesticide interactions, 44 – 45 phosphorus-containing components, 35 pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis, 26 –27, 34 – 35 sulfur-containing components, 35 – 36 surface pressure, 36 – 38 surface tension, 36 – 38 uses, 46 viscosity, 36 – 38 water retention, 38 – 41 Hydrogen ion pump, chloride role, 116 –117 Hydrology, see Drought; Water 327 INDEX I Inceptisols, global distribution, 161–162 Infrared spectroscopy, soil organic matter analysis, 12–13 Iron, humic acid adsorption, 43 Irrigation chloride nutrition management foliar damage, 137–139 root zone leaching, 136 –137 sprinklers, 137–139 sources, 100–101, 140 crop residue decomposition role, 213 –214, 217 K Kaolisols, see Oxisols Kiwi fruit, chloride response, 118 –120, 130 Kononova, M M., 50–51 L Lateritic soils, see Oxisols Lead, humic acid adsorption, 43 Legumes, see also specific types nitrogen dynamics benefits to subsequent crops, 273 –278 crop nitrogen recovery, 265 –268 Lettuce, chloride response, 106, 111, 118 Ligands, metal–humic substance reactions, mixed ligand complexes, 42– 43 Lignin, crop residue component decomposition role, 204 –209, 221 study methods, 225 Lupinus, nitrogen dynamics benefits to subsequent crops, 273 –278 crop nitrogen recovery, 265 –268 Lycopersicum esculentum, chloride response, 106, 108, 112, 118–119, 121, 128 –129 M Malus ssp., chloride response, 106 Manganese humic acid adsorption, 43 water-soluble complex formation, 41– 42 Mass spectrometry, soil organic matter analysis, 26–27, 34–35 Medicago sativa, chloride response, 112, 138 Meiosis, drought effects in grain crops, 68 – 69, 82, 85 Melon, chloride response, 118 –119, 123 Mercury, humic acid adsorption, 43 Metals humic substance reactions adsorption, 43 desorption, 43 mixed ligand complexes, 42– 43 water-soluble complexes, 41– 42 oxisol soils, 180 Minerals humic substance reactions clay interlayer adsorption, 44 external adsorption, 44 minerals dissolution, 43 – 44 oxisol soils, 170 –172, 187 Mollisols, global distribution, 161–162 N Nickel, humic acid adsorption, 43 Nitrate, chloride uptake interactions, 117– 121 Nitrogen chloride uptake interactions, 117–121 crop residues, 257–278 benefits to subsequent crops, 271–278 biological nitrogen fixation, 274–275 fertilizer nitrogen equivalences, 272– 273 fixed nitrogen responses, 275–276 grain yield responses, 250 –252, 272 legume nitrogen, 273 –278 nonfixed nitrogen responses, 275–276 decomposition affecting factors carbon/nitrogen ratio, 203–209, 220 – 221, 261, 270 nitrogen content, 203 –204, 212–213 immobilization turnover, 257–262 fertilizer, 259 –261 residues, 261–262 management practices crop yield responses, 250 –252 soil nitrogen, 237–241 mineralization, 257–262 fertilizer, 259 –261 process, 268 –271 residues, 261–262 328 INDEX Nitrogen (continued) recovery, 262–271 cereal crops, 265 fertilizer, 263–268 legume nitrogen, 265 –268 mineralization process, 268 –271 soil component detection, 34–35 distribution, 31 function, 30–31 management practices, 237–241 15N nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry crop residue analysis, 225 –227 soil organic matter analysis, 33 Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry crop residue analysis, 225 –227 soil organic matter analysis 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry analytical characteristics, 13 –16 direct analysis, – 15N nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, 33 Nucleic acid bases, soil component, 32 O Oats drought effects, see Drought nitrogen response, 265 –267 residue analysis, 200 Onion, chloride response, 106, 116 –117 Organic matter, see Crop residue; Soil organic matter Orlov, D S., 51–53 Oryza sativa chloride response, 105 –106, 127 drought effects, see Drought nitrogen response, 265 –267 Osmoregulation, chloride role, 115 –116 Oxidative degradation, soil organic matter analysis, chemical structure, 21–24 Oxisols, 151–187 definition, 163–164 ecosystem management, 180 –186 agriculture, 185–186 forests, 180–183 pasture, 183–185 formation, 164–167 geography, 158–163 global distribution, 161–162 historical perspectives, 153 –158 early European contributions, 153 –154 modern pedology, 154 –158 landscape relations, 167–170 African tertiary surfaces, 168 –169 alluvium occurrence, 169 –170 Brazilian planation surfaces, 167 central Zaire basin, 168 localized rock formations, 169 lower amazon basin, 167–168 sur Americana, 167 overview, 151–153, 187 properties, 170 –180 chemistry, 173 –175 color, 175 –178 consistence, 173 fertility characteristics, 180 heavy metals, 180 hydrologic properties, 178 –179 micromorphology, 170 –172 micronutrients, 180 mineralogy, 170 –172, 187 nutrient retention characteristics, 179 physics, 173 –175 structure, 173 types, 163 –164 Ozone, crop residue decomposition role, 219 – 220 P Pasture management, oxisol soils, 183 –185 nitrogen response, 263 –264 residue analysis, 200 Pea, nitrogen dynamics benefits to subsequent crops, 273 –278 crop nitrogen recovery, 265 –268 Peanut, chloride response, 118 –119, 121, 131 Pepper, chloride response, 106, 138 Persea americana, chloride response, 118 –119, 123, 130 –131 Pest control crop residue role, 254 –256 pesticide–humus substance interactions, 44 – 45 Phaseolus vulgaris chloride response, 106, 112 nitrogen fixation benefits, 276 Phosphorus chloride uptake interactions, 121–122 329 INDEX crop residue analysis, 227, 241 soil component, 35, 241 Phytotoxicity crop residues, 252–253 pesticide–humus substance interactions, 44–45 Pisum sativum, nitrogen dynamics benefits to subsequent crops, 273 –278 crop nitrogen recovery, 265 –268 Planation surfaces, oxisol soil relations, 167 Plant disease chloride effects, 125–126, 140 control, crop residue role, 254 –256 Plants chloride nutrition, see Chloride crops, see specific crops drought effects, see Drought yields, see Crop yields Ploughing, see Cultivation Plum, chloride response, 138 Pollination, drought effects in grain crops, 65 – 66, 71–73, 85 Polyphenols, crop residue decomposition role, 205, 207–209 Potassium, chloride uptake interactions, 123 Potato chloride response, 105 –106, 112, 118, 121, 127–128 nitrogen response, 263 –264 Prunus ssp., chloride response, 138 Pyrolysis-field ionization spectrometry, humus substance analysis direct analysis, 6–9 soil organic matter structure analysis, 24– 26 Pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, soil organic matter analysis, 26 –27, 34–35 R Radish, chloride response, 106 Rainwater, see Water Rape, nitrogen response, 263 –264 Reductive degradation, soil organic matter analysis, chemical structure, 24 Rice chloride response, 105 –106, 127 drought effects, see Drought nitrogen response, 265 –267 Rye, nitrogen response, 263–264 S Salinization chloride behavior in soil, 99 –101 crop residue decomposition role, 211–212 management, 134 –136 Salts, see specific types Secale cereale, nitrogen response, 263 –264 Soil chloride behavior, 99 –103 accumulation, 99 –101, 139 clay surface reactions, 101 nitrification inhibitor, 102–103 sources, 99 –101 fertilization, 100 –101 irrigation, 100 –101, 140 rainwater, 99 –100 reserves, 99 uptake, 101–102 organic matter, see Crop residue; Soil organic matter oxisol soils, see Oxisols quality management, 231–247 biological properties, 242–247 biomass, 243 –244 carbohydrates, 247 enzymes, 246 –247 microorganisms, 243 –247 mycorrhiza, 245 –246 soil fauna, 244 –245 chemical properties, 236 –242 micronutrients, 241 nitrogen, 237–241 pH, 236 –237 phosphorus content, 241 soil organic matter, 237–240 indicators, 231–232 physical properties, 232–236 aggregation, 232–233 bulk density, 233 –234 compaction, 233 –234 erosion, 232 hydrology, 234 –235 moisture content, 235 –236 penetration resistance, 233 –234 structure, 232–233 temperature, 235 salinization chloride behavior in soil, 99 –101 management, 134 –136 three-dimensional structure analysis, 28 – 30 330 INDEX Soil organic matter, see also Crop residue chemistry, 1–53 colloid chemical characteristics, 36 – 38 definitions, 4–5 direct analysis 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, – pyrolysis-field ionization spectrometry, 6–9 extraction problems, – future research directions, 46 – 47 humus substances amino acids, 32 amino sugars, 32 analytical characteristics, 11–21 chemical structure, 21– 30 colloid chemical characteristics, 36 – 38 definition, functions, 45 metal reactions, 41– 44 mineral reactions, 41– 44 15N nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, 33 nucleic acid bases, 32 pesticide interactions, 44 – 45 pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis, 26 –27, 34–35 sulfur-containing components, 35 – 36 uses, 46 water retention, 38 – 41 long-term cultivation effects, –11 nitrogen-containing components, 30 – 31, 34–35 overview, 1–4 phosphorus-containing components, 35 sulfur-containing components, 35 – 36 surface pressure, 36 – 38 surface tension, 36 – 38 viscosity, 36–38 Solanum tuberosum chloride response, 105 –106, 112, 118, 121, 127–128 nitrogen response, 263 –264 Sorghum chloride response, 106 drought effects, see Drought Soybean chloride response, 105 –106, 113, 132 nitrogen fixation benefits, 275 –276 Spinach, chloride response, 106 Spodosols, global distribution, 161–162 Stevenson, F J., 53 Straw, residue management, 231, 247 Strawberry, chloride response, 106, 110, 118 – 119, 123 Sugar beet chloride response, 105 –106, 133, 138 nitrogen response, 263 –264 Sugar cane, chloride response, 105 –106 Sugars, see Carbohydrates Sulfur crop residue analysis, 227 soil component, 35 – 36 Sur Americana, oxisol soils, 167 Surface pressure, soil organic matter characteristics, 36 – 38 Surface tension, soil organic matter characteristics, 36 – 38 Sweet potato, chloride response, 105 –106 T Tobacco, chloride response, 105 –106, 118 Tomato, chloride response, 106, 108, 112, 118 – 119, 121, 128 –129 Translocation, chloride distribution, 112–113, 139 Trifolium ssp., nitrogen response, 263 –264 Triticum aestivum chloride response, 105 –106, 118 –119, 122, 127 drought effects, see Drought nitrogen response, 263 –267 residue analysis, 200 Turnip, chloride response, 106 U Ultisols, global distribution, 161–162 Ultraviolet radiation, crop residue decomposition role, 220 Undersowing, crop residue management, 230 – 231 V Vertisols, global distribution, 161–162 Vicia faba chloride response, 106 331 INDEX nitrogen dynamics benefits to subsequent crops, 273 –278 crop nitrogen recovery, 265 –268 Vigna unguiculata, chloride response, 106 Viscosity, soil organic matter characteristics, 36–38 Vitus vinifera, chloride response, 106, 111, 131, 138 Weed control, crop residue role, 253 –254 Wheat chloride response, 105 –106, 118 –119, 122, 127 drought effects, see Drought nitrogen response, 263 –267 residue analysis, 200 Y W Yields, see Crop yields Water chloride sources irrigation, 100–101, 140 rainwater, 99–100 crop residue decomposition role, 203, 210 – 211, 217 drought effects, see Drought humic substance retention characteristics, 38–41 metal–humic substance reactions, water-soluble complexes, 41– 42 osmoregulation, chloride role, 115 –116 oxisol hydrologic properties, 178 –179 Z Zaire basin, oxisol soils, 168 Zea mays chloride response, 106, 112, 118, 133, 138 drought effects, see Drought nitrogen response, 263 –267 residue analysis, 200 Zinc, humic acid adsorption, 43 This Page Intentionally Left Blank ... Sulfur-Containing Components of SOM A Origins and Functions of Soil Nitrogen B Nitrogen Distribution in Soils and Humic Substances C Amino Acids in Soils and Humic Substances D Amino Sugars in Soils... advances in the chemistry of N-, P-, and S-containing components of soil organic matter Especially noteworthy is progress in the chemistry of N in soil organic matter, which points to a prominent... colorimeters requiring filters for changing wavelengths In the early 1950s, recording ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometers became available, and in the mid-1950s, I remember convincing my director
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Xem thêm: Advances in agronomy volume 68 , Advances in agronomy volume 68 , Chapter 1. A Lifetime Perspective on The Chemistry of Soil Organic Matter, II. Soil Organic Matter (SOM), III. Humic Substances: Analytical Characteristics, IV. Chemical Structure of Humic Substances, V. Nitrogen-, Phosphorus-, and Sulfur-Containing Components of SOM, VII. Water Retention by Humic Substances, VIII. Reactions of Humic Substances with Metals and Minerals, XII. Personal Encounters with Outstanding Scientists, II. Sensitivity to Drought at Various Reproductive Stages, V. Physiological and Metabolic Bases for Reproductive Failure under Drought, II. Behavior of Chloride in Soil, V. Chloride Management in Fertilization and Irrigation And irrigation, V. Processes and Formation of Oxisols, III. Decomposition of Crop Residues, IV. Crop Residues and Management Practices, V. Soil Nitrogen Dynamics and Crop Nitrogen Recovery, VI. Nitrogen Benefits to Subsequent Crops

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