Advances in agronomy volume 53

205 38 0
  • Loading ...
    Loading ...
    Loading ...

Tài liệu hạn chế xem trước, để xem đầy đủ mời bạn chọn Tải xuống

Tài liệu liên quan

Thông tin tài liệu

Ngày đăng: 08/05/2019, 15:38

Advisory Board Martin Alexander Eugene J Kamprath Cornell University North Carolina State University Kenneth J Frey Larry P Wilding Iowa State University Texas A&M University Prepared in cooperation with the American Society of Agronomy Monographs Committee P S Baenziger J Bartels J N Bigham L P Bush M A Tabatabai, Chairman R N Carrow W T Frankenberger, Jr D M Kral S E Lingle G A Peterson D E Roiston D E Stott J W Stucki D V A N C E S I N ono V O L U M5E3 Edited by Donald L Sparks Department of Plant and Soil Sciences University of Delaware Newark, Delaware ACADEMIC PRESS San Diego New York Boston London Sydney Tokyo Toronto This book is printed on acid-free paper @ Copyright 1994 by ACADEMIC PRESS, INC All Rights Reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher Academic Press, Inc A Division of Harcourt Brace & Company 525 B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego, California 92101-4495 United Kingdom Edition published by Academic Press Limited 24-28 Oval Road, London NWI 7DX International Standard Serial Number: 0065-2 I 13 International Standard Book Number: 0-1 2-000753-3 PRINTED IN THE UNITEDSTATES OF AMERlCA 94 95 9 98 9 B B Contents CONTRIBUTORS PREFACE vii ix CROPROTATIONSFOR THE s CENTURY ~ D L Karlen G E Varvel D G Bullock and R M Cruse I Origin of Crop Rotations I1 t h Century Crop Rotations I11 Agronomic Impacts of Crop Rotation IV Soil Quality Effects V Biological Diversity VI Economics of Crop Rotation VII Policy Impacts on Crop Rotations VIII Summary and Conclusions References 11 22 30 32 33 36 37 ROLEOF DISSOLUTION AND PRECIPITATION OF MINERALS INCONTROLLING SOLUBLE ALUMINUMIN ACIDICSOILS G S P Ritchie I Introduction I1 A Framework for Understanding Mineral Dissolution and Precipitation in Soils I11 Factors Affecting Dissolution and Precipitation of AluminumContaining Minerals Iv Modeling Soluble Aluminum V Aluminum in Acidic Soils: Principles and Practicalities References V 47 50 51 64 77 80 CONTENTS vi MANAGINGPLANTNUTRIENTS FOR OPTIMUM WATERUSEEFFICIENCY AND WATER CONSERVATION Jessica G Davis I Introduction 11 Conserving Water Supply by Optimizing Water Use Efficiency 111 Conserving Water Quality through Nutrient Management Iv Needs for Further Research References INTERPARTICLE FORCES: A BASIS FOR THE INTERPRETATION OF SOILPHYSICAL BEHAVIOR J P Quirk Introduction Interparticle Forces Soil Water Relations: Swelling and Shrinkage 85 86 92 108 109 Iv Swelling of Sodium Clays v Swelling of Calcium Clays VI Surface Area and Pore Size VII Water Stability of Soil Aggregates VIII Sodic Soils and the Threshold Concentration Concept Ix Concluding Remarks References 122 124 143 146 152 161 166 169 176 177 INDEX 185 I 11 111 Contributors Numbers in parentheses indicate the pages on which the authors’ contributions begin D G BULLOCK (l), Department ofAgronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 R M CRUSE (I), Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University,Ames, Iowa 5001 I JESSICA G DAVIS (85), Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, University of Georgia, Coastal Plain Experiment Station, Tifton, Georgia 793 D L KARLEN (I), National Soil Tilth Laboratory, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Ames, Iowa JOOl I J P QUIRK (1 l), Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, School of Agriculture, The University of Western Australia, Nedhnd, WesternAustralia 6009, Australia G S P RITCHIE (47), Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, School of Agriculture, The University of WesternAustralia, Nedlands, Western Azlsh-alia 6009, Australia G E VARVEL (l), Soil/Water Conservation Research Unit, United States Department of Agriculture,Agricultural Research Service, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68583 vii This Page Intentionally Left Blank Preface Volume 53 contains four excellent reviews that cover a broad spectrum of important advances and topics in the plant and soil sciences Sustainable agriculture is one of the most discussed issues and venues for research in agronomy at the present time The first chapter comprehensively reviews the history of crop rotations and future directions in this important area Topics that are covered include twentieth century rotations, agronomic impacts of crop rotations, effects of rotations on soil quality, economics of crop rotations, and policy impacts The second chapter provides a thorough discussion on how dissolution and precipitation affect soluble aluminum in acid soils The author reviews factors that affect dissolution and precipitation, ways to model soluble aluminum including thermodynamic and kinetic approaches, and the effects of aluminum on aspects of acid soils Water quality and conservation are of paramount importance in protecting and preserving our environment and are among the most active areas of research in agronomy The role that nutrient management has on optimal water use efficiency and conservation is the topic of the third chapter Discussions on conserving water supplies via optimization of water use efficiency and preservation of water quality through nutrient management are thoroughly covered The fourth chapter is a definitive treatise on how interparticle forces affect soil physical behavior which, of course, has immense effects on plant growth and yield Topics that are discussed include interparticle forces, soil water relations, swelling of clays, surface area and pore size, water stability of soil aggregates, and sodic soils I thank the authors for their comprehensive and timely reviews DONALD L SPARKS ix 180 J P QUIRK Kjellander, R., and Marcelja, S 1985 Inhomogeneous fluids with image interactions between planar surfaces J Chem Phys 82, 2122-2135 Kjellander, R and Marcelja, S 1986 Double-layer interaction in the primitive model and the corresponding Poisson-Boltzmaan description J Phys Chem 90, 1230- 1232 Kjellander, R., and Mitchell, D J 1992 An exact but linear Poisson-Boltzmann-like theory for electrolytes and colloid dispersions in the primitive model Chem Phys Lett 200, 7682 Kjellander, R., Marcelja, S., and Quirk, J P 1988 Attractive double-layer interactions between calcium clay particles J Colloid Interjace Sci 126, 194-2 I I Kjellander, R., Marcelja, S , Pashley, R M., and Quirk, P 1990 A theoretical and experimental study of forces between charged mica surfaces in aqueous CaCI, solutions J Chem Phys 92, 4399-4407 Laffer, B G., Posner, A M., and Quirk, P 1969 Optical density of montmorillonite suspensions during sodium-calcium exchange J Colloid lnterfacc Sci 30, 355-358 Langmuir, I 1938 Role of attractive and repulsive forces in the formation of tactoids, thixotropic gels, protein crystals and coacervates J Chem Phys , 873-896 Lauritzen, C W 1948 Apparent specific volume and shrinkage characteristics of soil materials Soil Sci 65, 155-179 Lebron, Suarez, D L., Amrhein, C., and Strong, J E 1993 Size of mica domains and distribution of the adsorbed Na-Ca ions Clay Clay Miner 14, 380-388 Low, P F 1987 Structural component of the swelling pressure of clays Lamguir 3, 18-25 Mahanty, J., and Ninham, B W 1976 “Dispersion Forces.” Academic Press, New York Marshall, T 1959 “Relations Between Water and Soil,” Tech Comm No 50 Bur Soils, Commonw Agric Bur., Farnham Royal, England Marshall, T J and Stirk, G B 1949 Pressure potential of water moving downward into soil Soil Sci 68, 359-370 McGeorge, W T., and Fuller, W H 1950 Relation between Na:Ca ratio in the saturation extract and the percentage sodium in the exchange complex Trans Int Congr Soil Sci., 4th, Amsterdam (F A van Baren et a / , eds.), 1, 400-403 Hoitsema Groningen, Netherlands McGuiggan, P M., and Israelachvili, N 1988 Adhesion of two solid surfaces in water: effect of rotational mismatch of surface lattices Chem Phys Lett 149, 469-472 McGuiggan, P M., and Pashley, R M 1988 Molecular layering in thin aqueous films J Phys Chem 92, 1235- 1239 McIntyre, D S 1958 Permeability measurements of soil crusts formed by raindrop impact SoilSci 85, 185-189 McIntyre, D S 1979 Exchangeable sodium, sub-plasticity and hydraulic conductivity of some Australian soils Ausr J Soil Res 17, 115-120 McNeal, B L., and Coleman, N T 1966 Effect of solution composition on soil hydraulic conductivity Soil Sci SOC Am Proc 30, 308-312 McQuarrie, D A 1976 “Statistical Mechanics.” Harper, New York Mering, J 1946 On the hydration of montmorillonite Trans Furaday Soc 42B, 205-219 Miller, S E., and Low, P F 1990 Characterization of the electrical double layer of montmorillonite Langmuir , 572-578 Millington, R J., and Quirk, J P 1961 Permeability of porous solids Trans Farady Soc 57, 1200-1207 Millington, R J., and Quirk, J P 1964 Formation factors and permeability equations Nature (London) 202, 143- 145 Mooney, R W Kennan, A G., and Wood, L A 1952 Adsorption of water vapour by montmorillonite 11 Effect of exchangeable ions on lattice swelling as measured by X-rays J Am Chem S O C 74, 1371-1374 INTERPARTICLE FORCES 181 Murray, R S and Quirk, J P 1980a Freeze-dried and critical-point dried clay-a comparison Soil Sci Soc Am J 44, 232-234 Murray, R S , and Quirk, J P 1980b Clay-water interactions and the mechanism of soil swelling Colloids Sut$ 1, 17-32 Murray, R S., and Quirk, J P 1990a Intrinsic failures and cracking of clay Soil Sci Soc Am J 54, 1179-1184 Murray, R S., and Quirk, J P 1990b Surface area of clays Langmuir 6, 122-124 Murray, R S., and Quirk, J P 1994 The nature and significance of soil microstructure Proc NATO Adv Res Workshop Clay Swelling Expansive Soils, Cornell Univ., I991 (P Baveye and M McBride, eds.) Kluwer, Dordrecht, Netherlands In press Murray, R S., Coughlan, K J., and Quirk, J P 1985 Nitrogen sorption isotherms and the microstructure of vertisols Ausr J Soil Res 23, 132-149 Norrish, K 1954 The swelling of montmorillonite Discuss Faraday SOC 18, 120-134 Nonish, K., and Quirk, J P 1954 Crystalline swelling of montmorillonite-use of electrolytes to control swelling Narure (London) 173, 255-256 Norrish, K , and Rausell-Colom, J A 1963 Low-angle X-ray diffraction studies of the swelling of montmorillonite and vermiculite Clays Clay Miner 10, 123- 149 Norrish, K., and Tiller, K G 1976 Sub-plasticity in Australian soils V factors involved and techniques of dispersion Ausr J Soil Res 14, 273-289 Olson, R E., and Mitronovas, F 1962 Shear strength and consolidation characteristics of calcium and magnesium illite Clays Clay Miner 9, 185-209 Oster, J D., Hoffman, G J., and Robinson, F E 1984 Management alternatives: crop, water and Agric., Spec Issue 38, 29-34 soil: In “Salinity in California.” &I$ Oster, J D., Shainberg, I., and Abrol, I P 1994 In “Drainage”(J van Schilfgaarde and W Skaggs, eds.), Am SOC Agron Monogr (in press) Pashley, R M 1981a Hydration forces between mica surfaces in aqueous electrolyte solutions J Colloid Interface Sci 80, 153-162 Pdshley, R M 1981b DLVO and hydration forces between mica surface Li+, Na+, K+ and Cs+ electrolyte solutions: a correlation of double layer and hydration forces with surface cation exchange properties J Colloid Interface Sci 83, 53 1-546 Pashley, R M 1982 Hydration forces between mica surfaces in electrolyte solutions Adv Colloid Inrerface Sci 16, 57-62 Pashley, R M 1985 The effect of hydrated cation adsorption on surface forces between mica crystals and its relevance to colloid systems Chemica Scripra 25, 22-27 Pashley, R M., and Israelachvili, J N 1983 Molecular layering of water in thin films between mica surfaces and its relation to hydration forces J Colloid Interface Sci 101, 511-523 Pashley, R M., and Quirk, J P 1989 Ion-exchange and interparticle forces between day surfaces Soil Sci Sor Am J 53, 1660-1667 Pinnavaia, T 1983 Intercalated clay catalysts Science 220, 365-371 Posner, A M., and Quirk, J P 1964a Changes in basal spacing of montmorillonite in electrolyte solutions J Colloid Sci 19, 798-812 Posner, A M.,and Quirk, J P 1964b The adsorption of water from concentrated electrolyte solutions Proc R SOC.London, Ser A 78, 35-56 Quirk, J P 1952 Deflocculation of soil colloids Ph.D Thesis, Univ of London, London Quirk, J P 1957 Effect of electrolyte concentration on soil permeability and water entry in immigrated soils In? Comm Imig Drainage Third Congress, California 8.115-8.123 Quirk, J P 1968 Particle interaction and soil swelling Isr J Chem 6, 213-234 Quirk, I P 1971 Chemistry of saline soils and their physical properties In “Salinity and Water Use” (T Talsma and J R Philip, eds.), pp 79-91 Australian Academy of Science, Canberra, Australia 182 J P QUIRK Quirk, J P 1978 Some physico-chemical aspects of soil structural stability In “Modification of Soil Structure” (W W Emerson, R D Bond, and A R Dexter, eds.), pp 3-16 Wiley (Interscience), Chichester, England Quirk, J P 1986 Soil permeability in relation to sodicity and salinity Phil Trans Ray Soc (London) 316(A), 197-317 Quirk, I P.,and Aylmore, L A G 1971 Domain and quasicrystallineregions in clay systems Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 35, 652-654 Quirk, J P., and Murray, R S 1991 Towards a model for soil structural behaviour Aust J Soil Res 29, 829-867 Quirk, J P., and Panabokke, C R 1962 Incipient failure of soil aggregates J Soil Sci 13,60-70 Quirk, J P., and Pashley, R M 1991a The nature of “contact” in measuring forces between muscovite surfaces J Phys Chem 95, 1660-1661 Quirk, J P.,and Pashley, R M 1991b Structural forces responsible for the swelling of calcium clays Aust J Soil Res 29, 209-214 Quirk, J P., and Schofield, R K 1955 The effect of electrolyte concentration on soil permeability J Soil Sci 6, 163-178 Quirk, J P., and Williams, B G 1974 The disposition of organic materials in relation to stable aggregation Inr Congr Soil Sci loth, Moscow 1, 165-171 Reeve, R C., and Bower, C A 1960 Use of high-salt waters as a flocculant and source of divalent cations for reclaiming sodic soils Soil Sci 90, 139-144 Rengasamy, P., Greene, R S B., Ford, G W., and Mehanni, A H 1984 Identification of dispersive behaviour and the management of red-brown earths Ausr J Soil Res 22,413-431 Rhoades, J D 1982 Reclamation and management of salt-affected soils after drainage Pmc Annu Prov Conf.,Isr, Ration Water Soil Res Manage pp 123-197 Richards, L A,, ed 1954 “Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline and Alkali Soils.” U.S.Dep Agric Agric Handb No 60 Rowell, D L., Payne, D., and Ahmad, N 1969 The effect of the concentration and movement of solutions on the swelling dispersion and movement of clay in saline and alkali soils J Soil Sci 20, 176-188 Schofield, R K 1947 Calculation of surface areas from the measurements of negative adsorption Nature (London) 160, 408-410 Schofield, R K., and Samson, H R 1954 Flocculation of kaolinite due to the attraction of oppositely charged crystal faces Discuss Faraday SOC 18, 135-145 Shainberg, I., and Kaiserman, A 1969 Kinetics of the formation and breakdown of Camontmorillonite tactoids Soil Sci SOC.Am Proc 33, 547-551 Shainberg, I , and Letey, J 1984 Response of soils to sodic and saline conditions Hilgardia 52, 157 Shainberg, I , and Otoh, H 1968 Size and shape of montmorillonite particles saturated with Na/Ca cons Isr J Chem 6, 251-259 Sills, D., Aylmore, L A G., and Quirk, J P 1973 An analysis of pore size in illite-kaolinite mixtures J Soil Sci 24, 480-490 Slade, P.G., and Quirk, I P 1991 The crystalline swelling of smectites in CaCI,, MgCI, and LaCI, solutions J Colloid Interface Sci 144, 18-26 Slade, P G., Quirk, J P., and Nomsh, K 1991 Crystalline swelling of smectite samples in concentrated NaCl solutions in relation to layer charge Clays Clay Miner 39, 234-238 Sposito, G 1981 “The Thermodynamics of Soil Solutions.” Oxford Univ Press (Clarendon), London Sposito, G , and LeVesque, C S 1985 Sodium-calcium-magnesium exchange on Silver Hill illite Soil Sci Soc Am J 49, 1153- 1159 INTERPARTICLE FORCES 183 Stirk, G B 1954 Some aspects of soil shrinkage and the effect of cracking upon water entry into the soil Aust J Agric Res , 279-290 Tama, K., and El-Swaify, S A 1978 Charge, colloidal and structural stability inter-relationships for oxidic soils In “Modification of Soil Structure” (W W Emerson, R D Bond, and A R Dexter, eds.), pp 41-49 Wiley (Interscience), Chichester, England Terzaghi, K 1956 Letter Georechnique , 191-192 Tessier, D 1990 Behaviour and microstructure of clay minerals In “Soils Colloids and Their Associations in Aggregates” (M F de Boodt, M H B Hayes, and A Herbillon, ed.), pp 387-416 Plenum, New York Tessier, D 1994 Electron microscopic studies of clay microstructure Pmc NATO Adv Res Workshop Cluy Swelling Expansive Soils, Cornell Univ 1991 (P Baveye and M McBride, eds.) Kluwer, Dordrecht, Netherlands In press van Olphen, H 1965 Thermodynamics of interlayer adsorption of water in clays I Sodium vermiculite J Colloid Sci 20, 822-837 van Olphen, H 1969 Thermodynamics of interlayer adsorption of water in clays 11 Magnesium vermiculite Int Cluy Conj 1, 649-657 Vaselow, F 1972 Thermodynamics of solutions of electrolytes In “Water and Aqueous Solutions: Structure, Thermodynamics and Transport Processes” (R A Home, ed.), pp 465-518 Wiley (Interscience), New York Verwey, E J W., and Overbeek, T G 1948 “Theory of the Stability of Lyophobic Colloids.” Elsevier, Amsterdam Viani, B E., Low, P F., and Roth, C B 1983 Direct measurement of the relation between interlayer force and interlayer distance on the swelling of montmorillonite J Colloid Interfuce Sci 96, 229-244 Williams, B G., Greenland, D J., and Quirk, J P 1967 The effect of polyvinyl alcohol on the nitrogen surface area and pore structure of soils Aust J Soil Res , 77-83 This Page Intentionally Left Blank Index A Abscisic acid, water stress effects, 91 Agricultural commodity programs, crop rotation, 34-36 Alfalfa, nitrogen scavenging, 14- 15 Allelopathy, in crop rotation, 21-22 Aluminum in acidic soils, 77-79 activity variation, 65-67 dissolution effects of space and time, 78 steady state assumptions, 78 dissolution modeling, 64 differential rate law, 76 equilibrium thermodynamic, 65-70 Gibbs free energy, 75 kinetic approaches, 72-77 Monte Carlo simulations, 77 nonequilibrium thermodynamic, 70-72 parabolic rate law, 75 rate law, 73 transition state theory, 76-77 effect on clay stability, 167 precipitation induction time, 74 kinetic approaches, 72-77 mineral phases, 72 modeling, 64-77 nonequilibrium thermodynamic, 71-72 nucleation rate, 74 sinks, 48 soil forms, 48 solubility inaccuracies in predicting, 68 models for predicting, 68, 69, 79 plant growth, 68 toxicity, 48, 68 Aluminum-containing material dissolution carbon dioxide effect, 59 components influencing, 50 factors affecting, 51-64 inclusion effect, 56, ion adsorption affect, 54 ionic strength effect, 56, 58 organic ligand effect, 58 particle size effect, 62 pH effects, 54, 56 polydispersity effect, 59 rate, factors affecting, 63 saturation state, 52-54, 61 solid properties, 61-64 structural changes affecting, 63-64 surface area affect, 61 theories, 48-49 water activity and, 59-60 leached layers, 63 precipitation, component adsorption effect, 62-63 components influencing, 50 factors affecting, 51-64 inclusion effect, 56 ionic strength effect, 56, 58 rate controlling step, 53-54 structural changes affecting, 63-64 saturation index, 68 solubility product constant, 52 solution properties, 1-60 surface morphology changes, 56 Aluminum hydrous oxide, precipitation, pH effects, 58 Aluminum hydroxide, precipitation, pH effects, 56 Ammonium, cytokinin transport, 88 Anorthite, aluminum dissolution, 54 Atrazine, degradation, 107, 108 B Bahiagrass, soil pores, 23 Barley allelopathic effects, 21 rotation, Bayerite, precipitation, 56, 72 Beans, crop rotation, Beidellites, swelling, 150 Bioenergy, crops for, 32 185 INDEX 186 Biological diversity alternative land uses, 32 crop rotation, 30-32 Biopores, cropping system effects, 22 Blast disease, 103 Boehmite dissolution, 56, 58 precipitation, 72 water activity influence, 60 Boron deficiency, rooting, 88 Bromegrass, soil structure, 23 C Cajon sandy loam, threshold concentration concept, 175 Calcium crop rotation effect, 16 deficiency, peanut pod rot, 102 effect on rooting, 88 hydration energy, interparticle forces, 142 Carbendazim, manure effect, 104 Carbon dioxide, aluminum-containing material dissolution, 59 Chemical kinetics, and nonchemical kinetics, defined, 72 Chemical thermodynamics, defined, 50 Chlordimeform, adsorption, 106 Chlorophyll meter, in tissue NO,-N monitoring, 96 Chlorosis, nutrient deficiency, I Chlorosulfuron, adsorption, 106 Clay aggregate mechanical strength, 168-169 stability, 167- 169 calcium domain, 152-157 electrolyte effect, 154, 160 ion-ion forces, 154, 160 nitrogen surface area, 155 pore size, 155 pore size distribution, 159- 160 quasicrystals, 152-157 stability, 156 surface potential, 132 swelling, 158-161 defined, 122 interparticle forces, see Interparticle forces intrinsic failure pores, 163- 164 packing, 164-165 particle alignment, 123 particle interaction, 134-138 pore size distribution, 161- 163 surface area and, 161-165 shrinkage and swelling, 143-146 sodium crystalline swelling, 147-151 swelling, 146-152 swelling pressure, 132- 133 stabilizing substances, 123, 166-167 structural porosity, 146 structural states, 144 surface area, pore size and, 161-165 surface potential, 130-132 swelling, 122-123 mechanisms, 157-161 pressures, 132- 133 water structural forces, 138-142 wetting, organic matter effect, 168 Clover, rotation, Coion exclusion measurement, surface potential, 130 Conservation tillage, phosphorus contamination, 97-98 Copper deficiency, crop yield, 88 Corn grain, crop rotation effect, 12 Corn rotation, 6, 7, 11, 17 alfalfa rotation with, 15 crop yield effects, 12 in disease prevention, 20 insect control, 19 nematodes, nutrient uptake, 15-16 phosphorus concentration, 16 strip intercropping, weed competitiveness, 18 Cover crops crop rotation, 6-7 effects on predatory insects, 105 Cowpea, crop rotation, , Crop residue management, crop rotation, 12 phosphorus contamination, 97-98 Crop rotation agricultural commodity program impact, 34-35 allelopathy, 21-22 INDEX benefits, 35 biological diversity, 30-32 cover crops, 6-7 crop residue management, 12 decline, factors, 10 disincentives, 36 economics, 32-33 effects on crop yield, 11-13 disease and pest interactions, 16-22 nutrient use efficiency, 14-16 organic matter, 28-30 soil aggregation, 24-25 soil bulk density, 25 soil erosion, 26-27 soil structure, 22-23 water use efficiency, 13-14 experiments, 5-6 incentives, 36 industrial nitrogen, 10 and irrigation, legumes, 3, 5, manure, monoculture cropping, 10 nematode control, 20-21 nonfarm policies, 35 Norfolk, origin, 2-5 policy impacts, 33-36 Roman, six year, soil quality effects, see Soil quality temporal and spatial diversity, 13 three year, tillage losses, 28-29 20th century pre-World War 11, 5-9 post-World War 11, 9-10 21st century outlook, 10-11 United States, early, 3, water infiltration and retention, 26 wildlife and, 31 crop sequencing, nitrogen movement, 14 Crop yield, see Yield Crystal dissolution, processes involved, 1-62 interaction, clay soil, 122 ripening, 61 Cultivated crop, defined, 187 Cutworms, crop rotation control, 19 Cytokinin ammonium effect, 88 phosphorus and potassium effects, 88 D 2.4-D [(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid], 17 Dakota vetch, rotation, Debye-Huckel theory, 126, 129 Dichloropropene, adsorption, 106 Disease, crop yield effects, 19-20 Disjoining pressure, interparticle forces, 138 Dispersion-flocculation transition, clay soil, 123 Diuron, adsorption, 106 DLVO theory colloidal suspension stability, 128 water structural forces, 138, 139 Drayton clay, swelling, 158 Durra,rotation, E Economics, crop rotation, 32-33 Electrokinetic potential, clay, 13I Emmer, crop rotation 2, Ethirirnol, adsorption, 106 Evapotranspiration water demand, 90-92 water supply, 88-90 water use efficiency, 88-92 Exchangeable sodium ratio, threshold concentration, 170, 174 F Farm policy, crop rotation impact, 33-36 Feldspar, dissolution, pH and, 58 Fertigation, nitrogen utilization, 95 Fertilizer effects on yield, 87-88 erodible land protection, 93-94 manure interaction, 30 plant diseases, 103- 104 water supply effect, 90 weed-root competition, 100-101 Fithian illite, surface potential, 131 Flower initiation, yield, 87-88 188 INDEX Foxtail, control of, 18 Fringes of equal chromatic order, I38 Fungicide efficacy, 104 nutrient management, 102- 105 Fusarium moniliforme, mycorrhizal competition, 104 G Gaeumannomyces graminis, crop rotation, 19 Gapon equation threshold concentration, 170171 Geocoris puncripes, insecticide, 105 Geometric mean diameter, soil aggregation, 24 Gibbsite, 52, 72 dissolution rate, 54 equilibrium thermodynamics, 65 precipitation, iron and, 58 solubility, theoretical, 67 supersaturation, 72 water activity influence, 60 Goethite, 60 solubility, 62 Gouy treatment, interparticle forces, 128-1 33 Gray leaf spot, crop rotation, 20 Gypsum dissolution, 73 threshold concentration concept, 175 H Hamaker constant, interparticle forces, 126 Hematite, 58, 60 solubility, 62 Herbicide crop rotation, 17-18 nutrient uptake, 102 Heteridera glycines, 20 Hoplolaimus Columbus, I Illite, 122 coion exclusion measurement, 130 dry porosity, 145 fithian, surface potential, 131 pore size, 145 residual shrinkage, 145 suction, 145 surface density charge, 159 surface potential, 131 water content, 145 willalooka see Willalooka illite Insecticides, nutrient management, 105- 106 Insects predatory, effects of cover crops, 105-106 susceptibility to crop rotation, 19 Intercropping, I Interparticle forces, see also Ion-ion correlation forces capillary condensation, 124-125 London-van der Waals, 126- 128 osmotic repulsive, 128- 133 suction factor, 124- I25 surface potential, 130-132 water structural forces, 138-142 oscillations, 140- 142 pressures, 140- 142 role of proton, 139- 140 Ion activity product, 52 Ion-ion correlation forces clay particle interaction, 134- 138 energy minima, 135- 136 ion attraction, 134 ionic radius, 133 pressure-distance relationship, 135 surface density of charge, 136 theory, 133-134 Iron aluminum-containing material precipitation, 58 deficiency, root hair formation, 89 Iron oxide, clay stability, 166-1 67 Irrigation, crop rotation, J Jefferson, Thomas, crop rotation, 3-4 Johngrass, control, 17 K Kaolinite, 122 dry porosity, 145 equilibrium thermodynamics, 65 nitrogen adsorption isotherms, 163- 164 nonequilibrium thermodynamics, 71 pore size, 145 precipitation, 52 INDEX residual shrinkage, 145 suction, 145 surface density charge, 159 swelling, 161 electrolyte effect, 152 water content, 145 Kelvin equation, interparticle forces, 124-125 Khaira disease, 105 nutrient and disease interaction, 102-103 Kjellander-Marcelja theory, 133 Krasnozem, iron oxide effect, 166-167 L Langmuir equation, interparticle forces, 130 Lateritic red earth, iron oxide effect, 166-167 Leaf area, effect on transpiration, 90 Leaf senescence, nutrient deficiency, 90 Legume, 3, nitrogen contribution from, 15 20th century popularity, Ley farming, Lifshitz's macroscopic theory, 126 London-van der Waals forces, interparticle, 126-128 M Magnesium crop rotation effect on, 16 leaf color, 91 Manganese toxicity, effect on leaf morphology, 91 Manure application time, 99 atrazine degradation, 107 effect on fungicides, 104 fertilizer interaction, 30 nitrogen availability from, 95 phosphorus water contamination, 98 plant disease association, 103-104 regulation, 98-99 Meloidogyne, crop rotation, 20 Metal oxide, proton-promoted dissolution of, 54.55 Methoxyethyl mercury chloride, manure effect, 104 Methyl bromide, adsorption, 106 Metolachlor, adsorption, 106 Metribuzin, leaching, 106 189 Mica force-distance relationship, 14 I water structural forces, 138-139 Microcline weathering, aluminum solubility during, 52-53 Millet crop rotation, 2, Mineralization, organic matter, 29 Molybdenum deficiency, crop yield, 88 Monoculture cropping crop rotation and, 10 negative consequences, 11 Monte Carlo simulations, aluminum dissolution modeling, 77 Montmorillonite, see also Clay, calcium; Clay, sodium aluminum dissolution, 54 coion exclusion measurement, 130 crystalline swelling, 147-151 electrolyte effect, 149 flocculation-dispersion transition, 150 solution content, 150 dissolution rate, 64 dry porosity, 145 nitrogen adsorption isotherms, 163- 164 particle interaction, 135, 136 permeability, electrolyte effect, 152- 153 pore size, 145 pressure-distance relationship, I37 suction, 145 surface density charge, 159 surface potential, 131 swelling, electrolyte effect, 153 water content, 145 X-ray spacings, 147, 149 electrolyte effect, 152-153 Muscovite equilibrium thermodynamics, 65 surface separations, 149 Mycorrhizae crop rotation, 16 plant disease, 104-105 N Nematode, control by crop rotation, 20-21 Newton-Raphson method, 65 Nitrate alfalfa removal, 14 rooting effects, 90 tissue monitoring, 95 INDEX 190 Nitrogen, see also spec$c forms availability from manure, 95 deficiency, effects on abscisic acid synthesis, 91 leaf growth, 90 effect on yield, 88 fertilizer replacement, 15 fixation, discovery, 4-5 legume contribution, 15 mineralization, 94-95 movement, effect of crop sequencing, 14 pea contribution, 15 rooting effects, 89, 90 soil testing, 95-96 soybean scavenging, 14 tissue monitoring, 96 use efficiency, crop rotation effects, 14- 15 water contamination, 94-96 No-till systems, organic matter loss, 29, 30 Nordstrandite, dissolution, 72 Norfolk rotation, Nutrient contamination nitrogen, 94-96 potassium, 100 Nutrient management and disease resistance, 102-105 and herbicide use, 100-102 mycorrhizal associations, 104 postharvest storage effect, 103 Oat cover crop, 93 rotation, Opportunistic cropping, 13 Organic matter content, soil structure, 23 crop rotation length effect, 28 commercial agriculture effect, 29 effects on water movement, 106 interactions with fertilizers and manure, 30 pesticides, 106- 108 mineralization effect, 29-30 soil wetting, 168 tillage loss effect, 28-29 water infiltration, 29 Osmotic repulsive force, interparticle forces, 128-133 Ostwald law of successive reactions, 71 free energy, 74 P Pea, nitrogen contribution, 15 Pest control, crop rotation, 16-22 Pesticide-organic matter interaction, effects on chemical adsorption, 106- 107 microbial degradation, 107- 108 Phosphorus crop rotation effects, 15-16 deficiency, effects on disease susceptibility, 102 leaf color and growth, 90-91 root hair growth, 89-90 water transport, 90 runoff, control by conservation tillage and crop residue management, 97-98 manure application, 98 sludge application, 97 soil retention, 99 Plant disease fungicide efficacy, 104 mycorrhizal competition, 104-105 nutrient management effects, 102-105 Potassium crop rotation effects, 16 deficiency, effects on crop yield, 88 rooting, 88 Verticillium wilt, 102 hydration energy, interparticle forces, 142 role in stomata1 function, 91 water contamination, 100 Potato rotation, Powdery mildew, silicon effect, 102, 103 Pressure deficiency, interparticle forces, 124 Primary potential minimum, clay soil, 123 F'yrazoxyfen, degradation, 106, 107- 108 F'ymphyllite, nonequilibrium thermodynamics, Pyrhium ulrimum, silicon suppression, 103 Q Queensland vertisols nitrogen adsorption isotherms, 163- 164 nitrogen sorption isotherm, 162 pore size, 155, 162 Quintozene, manure effect, 104 INDEX R Rape rotation, 15 Reflectometer, tissue nitrate, 96 Rhizocroniu soluni, manure effect, 104, 105 Rice, silicon application, 103 Ring-neck pheasant, biological diversity, 31 Roots depth and volume, nutritional effects, 88-90 weed competition, 101 Rust, and nutritional imbalances, 103 Rye allelopathic effects, 21 rotation, S Saline seeps, crop rotation, 13 Shattercane, control, 17 Silica, solubility, 62 Silicon aluminum bonding, 58 disease suppression, 102- 103 kaolinite activity, 53 water activity effect, 60 Sludge, application, phosphorus contamination of water, 97 Smectite crystalline swelling of calcium, 157- 158 packing, 165 spacings, 157-158 swelling, 150-151 Sodium-affected soil, threshold concentration, 170-171 Soil, see also specific types bulk density crop rotation, 25 soil impedance, 25 erosion crop residue effect, 93 crop rotation effects, 26-27 forage production, 93 legume effect, 92-93 nutrient management, 93-94 water quality, 92-94 interparticle distances, 123 interparticle forces, basics, 122-124 porosity, structural states, 143-146 quality, aggregation, 24-25 bulk density, 25 191 soil erodibility, 26-27 soil structure, 22-23 water infiltration and retention, 26 sodic, threshold concentration, 169-176 structure defined, 122 organic matter content, 23 photosynthate, 23 swelling, 122-123 Soil aggregates hierarchical order within, 176- 177 mechanical strength, 168-169 stability, crop rotation effects, 24 Solid, dissolution of, 51-52 Solubility, surface area affect, 61 Sorghum urundinaceum, allelopathy, 22 Sorghum rotation, 13 effect on nitrogen retention, 95 length effect, 28 Soybean nitrogen leaching, 95 transpiration, 90 Soybean rotation, 11, 13, 17 as intercrop, length effect, 28 in nematode control, 20, 21 nitrogen contribution, 15 nitrogen scavenging, 14- 15 phosphorus concentration, 16 strip intercropping, I weed competitiveness, I8 yield, factors affecting, 20 Spatial diversity, crop rotation, 30-31 Stern layer, interparticle forces, 128-129, 131 Stomata, nutrient effects, 91 Straw ash, pesticide persistence, 108 Strip intercropping, 31 Structural component of disjoining pressure, defined, 138 Summer fallow, crop rotation, 14 Supersaturation, nucleation, 63 Switchgrass, bioenergy crop, 32 T Temporal diversity, crop rotation, 30-3 Terra rossa, iron oxide effect, 166-167 Threshold concentration application, 175-176 concentration for dispersion, 172 Capon equation, 170 INDEX 192 Threshold concentration (conrinued) irrigation, 17 I - 172 organic material protection, 174 physical basis, 172-175 sodium adsorption ratio relationship, 17 I sodium saturation, 171 soil permeability, 173 Tillage loss, crop rotation, 28-29 Tissue monitoring, nitrogen, 96 Tobacco rotation, in nematode control, 20 Transpiration, crop residue effect, 93 Transpiration demand, see Water demand Tritium, interparticle forces, 128 Thmip crop rotation 2, U Urea, rooting effects, 89 Urrbrae B aggregates, nitrogen adsorption isotherms, 163-164 V van der Waal's interaction energy, micawater-mica, 127 Vermiculite crystalline swelling, 147-151 particle interaction, 135, 136 pressure-distance relationship, 137, 147148 surface density of charge, 142 swelling, 144-145 van der Waal's energy, 127 X-ray spacings 147 W Washington, George, crop rotation, Water activity, aluminum-containing material dissolution and, 59-60 Water demand nutritional status effects, 90-92 Water infiltration, effects of crop rotation, 26 organic matter, 29 Water quality fungicides, 102- 105 herbicides, 100- 102 nitrogen contamination, 94-96 nutrient contamination effect, 94 pesticides, 100-102 phosphorus contamination, 97-99 potassium contamination, 100 soil erosion effect, 92-94 Water retention, crop rotation, 26 Water structural forces, clay, 138- 142 Water supply conservation, water use efficiency, 86-92 crop residue effect, 93 nutrient alteration, 88-90 root system manipulation, 88 Water use efficiency crop rotation, 13-15 defined, 86 evapotranspiration 88-92 fertilizers, 86 nutrient effect, 89-90 rooting depth, 89 root-weed interaction, 100- 101 yield alteration, 87-88 Weeds allelochemical control, 21 crop competitiveness, 18 crop root competition, 101 crop rotation, 17-19 Wheat rotation, allelopathic effects, 21 weed competitiveness, I8 Wildlife, effects of crop rotation, 31 Willalooka illite nitrogen adsorption isotherms, 163- 164 nitrogen sorption isotherm, 161 nitrogen surface area, 156-157 pore size, 162-163 swelling, electrolyte effect, 151, 153 water structural forces, 142 Y Yield copper deficiency effect, 88 crop rotation effect, 11-13 soil structure and, 23 disease effect, 19-20 dry matter production and harvest, 87 flower initiation, 87-88 molybdenum deficiency effect, 88 nitrogen effect, 88 nutrient effect, 87 INDEX potassium deficiency effect, 88 water use efficiency and, 87-88 weed effect, 17-19 Young, Arthur, Young-Laplace equation, interparticle forces, 124 193 Z Zinc toxicity, leaf morp~ology,91 ... Grain Grain Grain Bromed Grain Year Year g-m-fb Grain g-m-f g-m-f g-m-f Brome Pea or vetch hay g-m-f Grain Grain Grain c-crop Grain csrop c-crop Grain Grain c-crop Millet or sudan grass Grain... Farming and Mixed Grain and Livestock Operations in the Western United States during the Early 20th Centuryn Farming system Grain only Option Year 1 Grain Grain Grain c-P c-crop c-crop Grain c-crop... Soils I11 Factors Affecting Dissolution and Precipitation of AluminumContaining Minerals Iv Modeling Soluble Aluminum V Aluminum in Acidic Soils: Principles and Practicalities
- Xem thêm -

Xem thêm: Advances in agronomy volume 53 , Advances in agronomy volume 53 , I. Origin of Crop Rotations, II. 20th Century Crop Rotations, III. Agronomic Impacts of Crop Rotation, VII. Policy Impacts on Crop Rotations, Chapter 2. Role of Dissolution and Precipitaion of Minerals in Controlling Soluble Aluminum in Acidic Soils, III. Factors Affecting Dissolution and Precipitation of Aluminum- Containing Minerals, V. Aluminum in Acidic Soils: Principles and Practicalities, II. Conserving Water Supply by Optimizing Water Use Efficiency, III. Conserving Water Quality through Nutrient Management, IV. Needs for Further Research, Chapter 4. Interparticle Forces: A Basis for the Interpretation of Soil Physical Behavior, III. Soil Water Relations: Swelling and Shrinkage, IV. Swelling of Sodium Clays, V. Swelling of Calcium Clays, VI. Surface Area and Pore Size, VII. Water Stability of Soil Aggregates, VIII. Sodic Soils and the Threshold Concentration Concept