Advances in agronomy volume 50

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VOLUME 50 d: Advisory Board Martin Alexander Eugene J Kamprath Cornell University North Carolina State University Kenneth J Frey Larry P Wilding Iowa State University Texas A&M University Prepared in cooperation with the American Society of Agronomy Monographs Committee M A Tabatabai, Chairman D M Kral S E Lingle R J Luxmoore W T Frankenberger, Jr S H Anderson P S Baenziger G A Peterson S R Yates D V A N C E S IN Agronomy VOLUME 50 Edited by Donald L Sparks Department of Plant and Soil Sciences University of Delaware Newark, Delaware ACADEMIC PRESS, INC A Division of Harcourt Brace & Company San Diego New York Boston London Sydney Tokyo Toronto This book is printed on acid-free paper @ Copyright 1993 by ACADEMIC PRESS, INC All Rights Reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher Academic Press, Inc 1250 Sixth Avenue, San Diego California 92101-431 United Kingdom Edition published by Academic Press Limited 24-28 Oval Road, London NW 7DX International Standard Serial Number: 0065-2 I3 International Standard Book Number: 0- 12-000750-9 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 93949596919X BB I Contents CONTRIBUTORS PREFACE vii ix AGRONOMIC IMPROVEMENT IN OILSEED BRASSICAS I1 I11 IV V R K Downey and S R Rirnmer Introduction Improving Yield Improving Resistance to Pests Future Prospects Summary and Conclusions References 10 24 39 49 so POPULATION DIVERSITY GROUPINGS OF SOYBEANBRADYRHIZOBIA Jeffry J Fuhrrnann Introduction I1 Genotypic Groupings Ill Phenotypic Groupings IV Summary of Phenotypic and Genotypic Relationships V Taxonomic Srarus of Bradyrhizobium japonirum VI Concluding Remarks References 67 68 69 93 93 95 96 CROPRESPONSESTO CHLORIDE Paul E Fixen I Introduction I1 Chloride in Plants Ill Yield and Quality Responses to Chloride IV Chloride Sources, Losses, and Application V Predicting Crop Response to Chloride VI Summary and Future Research Needs References V 107 108 12.5 133 135 141 143 CONTENTS vi REDOXCHEMISTRY OF SOILS Richmond J Bartlett and Bruce R James I Introduction I1 Nature of the Electron I11 Derivation of Thermodynamic Relationships for Electron Activity in Soils IV Kinetic Derivation of Thermodynamic Parameters for Redox V Uses of pe - pH Thermodynamic Information VI Uses of pe - pH Diagrams Reduction Status of Soils VII Measurement of Oxidation Free Radicals in Redox Processes VIII IX Manganeseandlron X Soil Chromium Cycle XI Photochemical Redox Transformations in Soil and Water XI1 Humic Substances XI11 Wetland and Paddy Properties and Processes XIV Empirical Methods for Characterizing Soil Redox References 152 153 155 158 160 165 172 176 178 187 188 190 195 198 205 PLANTNUTRIENT SULFURIN THE TROPICS AND SUBTROPICS N S Pasricha and R L Fox Introduction I1 Extent of Sulfur Deficiency Ill Forms of Sulfur in Soil IV Sulfur Cycling in the Tropics V Effects of Acid Rain VI Sulfur in Irrigation Waters VII Sulfate Retention in Soil VIII Diagnosis of Sulfur Needs IX Critical soil Solution Concentration X Crop Responses XI Sulfur Fertilization and Crop Quality XI1 Sulfur Interactions with Other Elements XI11 Summary and Conclusions References 210 211 215 217 223 226 227 237 241 246 252 256 257 260 INDEX 271 Contributors Numbers in parentheses indicare the pages on which the authors’ contriburions begin R I C H M O N D J B A R T L E T T (1 l ) , Department of Plant and Soil Science, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05405 R K D O W N E Y (l), Agriculture Canada Research Station, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S N OX2 P A U L E FIXEN (107), Potash Phosphate Institute, Brookings, South Dakota 57006 R L F O X (209), Department of Agronomy and Soil Science, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 JEFFRY J F U I I R M A N N (67), Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 1971 B R U C E R JAMES (1 l ) , Department OfAgronomy, Univerdy of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 N S PASRICHA (209), Department of Soils, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India S R RIMMER ( l ) , Department ofplant Science, University o f Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R 3T N vii This Page Intentionally Left Blank Preface Volume 50 includes state-of-the-art reviews written by recognized experts on several topics of interest to crop and soil scientists The first chapter discusses advances in agronomic improvement in oilseed brassicas These cruciferous crops are cultivated throughout the world as vegetable crops for human consumption, as condiments and spices for improved flavor of human diets, and as fodder crops for livestock feeding However, the largest cultivation of these crops is for edible vegetable oil production The first chapter also reviews the world socioeconomic importance of the oilseed brassicas, ways to improve yields and resistance to pests, and future improvement of oilseed brassicas through molecular genetics and other biotechnological means The second chapter presents a comprehensive overview of population groupings of soybean bradyrhizobia, including discussions on genotypic groupings; phenotypic groupings include serology, intrinsic antibiotic resistance, uptake hydrogenase, dissimilatory nitrate reduction, rhizobitoxine, surface polysaccharides, protein profiles, rhizobiophage typing, plant growth regulating substances, and other phenotypes; a summary of phenotypic and genotypic relationships, and the taxonomic status of Bradyrhizo- bium japonicum The third chapter is a comprehensive review of crop responses to chloride Topics covered are aspects of chloride in crops, including biochemical functions, osmoregulatory functions, disease suppression, crop development, and interaction with other nutrients, plus yield and quality responses of various crops to chloride, chloride sources, losses, and application, and ways to predict crop response to chloride The fourth chapter presents a thorough treatment of redox chemistry in soils, a topic of immense interest to soil and environmental scientists, and which Advances in Agronomy has not reviewed in many years Discussions on the nature of the electron, derivation of thermodynamic parameters for redox, use of pe- pH diagrams, measurement of oxidation - reduction status of soils, free radicals in redox processes, manganese and iron, the soil chromium cycle, photochemical redox transformations in soils and waters, humic substances, wetland and paddy properties and processes, and empirical methods for characterizing soil redox are included in this review The fifth chapter is concerned with plant nutrient sulfur in the tropics and subtropics Topics reviewed include the extent of sulfur deficiency in these areas, sulfur cycling in the tropics, effects of acid rain, sulfur in ix 264 N S PASRICHA AND R L FOX Queensland: Losses of applied -phosphorus and sulphur Aust J Exp Agric Anim HWb 13,418-422 Gobran, G R., and Nilsson, S (1988) Effects of forest floor leachate on sulfate retention in a spodosol soil J Environ Qual 17,235-239 Goh, K M., Greg& P E H., Brash, D W., and Walker, T W (1977) Isotopic studies on the uptake of sulphur by pasture plants: A method for the direct introduction of isotope into the soil profile under field conditions N Z J Agric Res 20,221 -227 Granados, M (1972) M i n e d i c i n del azufre in suelos bajo cultivo de Cacao (Theobroma cacao L ) Repr Turrialba (Costa Rica) 82 Greg& P E H., Goh, K M., and Brash, D W (1977) Isotopic studies on the uptake of sulphur by pasture plants: 11 Uptake from various soil depths at several field sites N.2 J Agric Res 20, 229-233 Grevenhrost, G (1978) Maritime sulfate over the North Atlantic Atmos Environ 12, 707 -71 Grill, E., Winnacker, E L., and Zenk, M H (1990).Phytochelatins: The heavy metal binding peptides of the plant kingdom In “Sulphur Nutrition and Sulphur Assimilation in Higher Plants” (H.Rennerberg, C Brunold, L J deKok, and I Stulcn, eds.),pp 89-96 SPB Acad Publ., The Hague, The Netherlands Haque, I., and Walmsley, D (1973).Adsorption and desorption of sulphate in some soils of the West Indies Geoderma9,269-279 Haque, I., and Walmsley, D., (1974) Sulfur investigations in some West Indian soils Trop Agric (Trinidad)51, 253-263 Hardy, F., and Bazan, (1966) Sulphur deficiency in Turrialba soils IICA-CTEI mimeo report Turrialba (Costa Rica) Hasan, S M., Fox, R L., and Boyd, C C (1970) Solubility and availability of sorbed sulfate in Hawaiian soils Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 34,897 - 90 Heggestad, H E., and Lesser, V M (1990) Effect of ozone, sulfur dioxide, soil water deficit, and cultivar on yields of soybean J Environ Qual 19,488-499 Hesse, P R (1957) Effect of colloidal organic matter on the precipitation of barrium sulfate and a modified method for determining soluble sulfate in soils Analysr (London) 82, 710-712 Hingston, F J., Posner, A M., and Quirk, J P (1972) Anion adsorption by geothite and gibbsite: The role of the proton in determining adsorption envelopes J Soil Sci 23, 177- 192 Hoque, M S., and Hobbs, P.R (1978) Response of rice to added sulphur at BRRI station and nearby project area Proc Workshop Sulphur Nutr Rice, Joydebpur, Gazipur, Bangladesh, I5 - 19 Horvath, L., Meszaros, E., and A n d , E (1981) On the sulfate, chloride, and sodium concentrations in maritime air around the Asian continent Tellus 33,382-386 Hoult, E., Andrew, A., and Keerati-Kasicorn, P (1983) Sulphur deficiencies in the agnculture of Thailand, Kampuchea, Laos,and Vietnam In “Sulphur in Southeast Asian and South Pacific Agriculture” (G J Blair and A R Tills, eds.), pp 115- 146 Indonesia, U.N.E Hue, N V., Fox, R.L., and Wolt, J D ( 1989) Sulfur status of volcanic soils in Hawaii West Phosphate Sul/ur Work Group, I - 10 Hue, N V.,Fox, R L., and Wolt, J D (1990) Sulfur status of volcanic ashderived soils in Hawaii Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 21,299-310 Huete, A R., and McColl, J G (1984) Soil cation leaching by acid rain with varying nitrate-sulfate ratios J Environ Quol 13, 366-371 Huettl, R F (1989) New types of forest damages in Central Europe In “Air Pollution’s Toll PLANT N U T R I E N l SULFUR 265 on Forests and Crops” (J M Mackenzie and M T El-Ashry, eds.),pp 22-74 Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut Hussain, S G (1990) Sulphur in Bangladesh agriculture Sulphur Agric 14.25-28 Inskeep, W P (1989) Adsorption of sulfate by kaolinite and amorphous iron oxide in the presence of organic ligands J Environ Qual 18 379-385 Irving, P M (1983) Acidic precipitation effects on crops: A review and analysis of research J Environ Qual 12,442-453 Ismunadji, M., and Zulkamaini, (1978) Sulfur deficiency of lowland rice in Indonesia Sulphur Agric 2, 17-22 Jackson, M L., Levett, T W M., Syers, J K., Rex, R W., Clayton, R N., Sherman, G D., and Uehara, G (1 97 1) Geomorphological relationships of tropospherically derived quartz in the soils of the Hawaiian Islands Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 35,5 15 - 525 Jacobson, J S., Troiano, J J., Heller, L I., and Osmeloski, J (1986) Influence of sulfate, nitrate, and chloride in simulated acidic rain on radish plants J Environ Qual 15, 30 I - 304 Janzen, H H., and Bettany, J R (1984) Sulfur nutrition of rapeseed: Influence of fertilizer nitrogen and sulfur rates Soil Sci SOC.Am J 48, 100- 107 Jimenez, F., and Cordero, A (1988) Respuesta de la coliflor a la fertilizacion fosforo, boro, y azufre en un typic hydran depts de Fraijanes, Costa Rica Resumenes 34 R a n PCCMCA Sanjose, Costa Rica, 110 Johnson, D W (1984) Sulfur cycling in forests Biogeochemistry 1, 29-43 Johnson, G M., and Nishita, H (1952) Micro estimation of sulfur in plant materials, soils, and irrigation waters Anal Chem 24,136-742 Jones, R.K., Probert, M E., and Crack, B J (1975) The occurrence of sulphur deficiency in the Australian tropics I n “Sulphur in Australian Agriculture” (K D McLachlan, ed.), pp I27 - 136 Sydney University Press, Sydney, Australia Junge, C (1970) Sulphur supplies of atmospheric origin Proc Int Syrnp Sulphur Agric Ins! Natl Rech Agron Publ No 72, 235-247 Kalbasi, M., and Tabatabai, M A (1985) Simultaneous determination of nitrate, chloride, sulfate, and phosphate in plant materials by ion chromatography Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 16, 871 -900 Xandler, ( 1985) Immissions-versus epidemie-hypothesen I n “WaldenschhadenTheorie und Praxis auf der Suche nach Antwortem,” (G Kortzrtleisch, ed.),pp 19-59 Mhunchen, Oldenbourg, Germany Kang, B T., and Osiname, A (1976) Sulfur response of maize in Western Nigeria Agron J 68,333-336 Kang, B T Okoro, E., Acquaye, D., and Osiname, A (1981) Sulfur status of some Nigerian soils from the savana and forest zones Soil Sci 132,220-227 Kanwar, J S (1963) Investigations on sulphur in soils: I Sulphur deficiency in the groundnut soils of Samarala (Ludhiana) Indian J Agric Sci 33, 196- 198 Kanwar, J S., and Mohan, S (1962) Distribution of forms of S in h n j a b soils Bull Natl Inst Sci India 26, I - 36 Kass, D C L., Reyes, J., and Arias, R (1984) Respuesta del maiz y sorgo cultivados en asocio, a la aplicacion de azufre, potasio, fosforo, y zinc en la region nor-oeste de Nicaragua Resumenes 30 Reun PCCMCA Managua, Nicaragua Kellog, W W., Cadle, R D., Allen, E R.,Lazrus, A L., and Martell, E A (1972) The sulfur cycle Science ( Washington D.C.) 175, 587-596 Khanna, P K., and Beese, F (1978) The behavior of sulfate salt input in podzolic brown earth SoilSci 125, 16-22 Laurence, R C N., Gibbons, R W., and Young, C T (1976) Changes in yield, protein, oil, 266 N S PASRICHA AND R L FOX and maturity of groundnut cultivars with the application of sulphur fertilizers and fungicides J Agric Sci 86,245-250 Lee, R., Blackmore, L C., Gibbson, E J., and Daly, B K (1981) Effect of extraction time and charcoal treatment on the adsorbed sulphate values of several New Zealand topsoils Commun SoilSci Plant Anal 12, 1195- 1206 Lodge, Jr., J P L., Machado, P A., Pate, J B., Sheesley, D C., and Wartburg, A F (1973) Atmospheric trace chemistry in the American humid tropics, Tellus 26,250-253 Logan, J A., McElroy, M B., Wofsy, S C., and Prather, M J (1979) Oxidation of CS2 and COS: Sources for atmospheric SO2.Science ( Washin@on, D.C.)281, 185- 188 Lund, Z F., and Murdock, L W (1978) Effect of sulfur on early growth of plants Sulphur Agric 2, - Luse, R A., Kang, B T., Fox, R L., and Nangju, D (1975) Protein quality in grain legumes grown in the lowland humid tropics, with special reference to West Africa Colloq Int Potash Inst 1th, Ronne, Denmark, I63 - I7 MassachusettsInstitute of Technology (MIT) (1970) "Man's Impact on the Global Environment" M.I.T Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts Mazid, S A (1986) The response of major crops in agricultural soil of Bangladesh: An overview Proc Int Symp Sulphur Agric Soils, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 18-45 McClung, A C., and de Freitas, L M (1959) Sulfur deficiency in soils from Brazil Compos Ecology 40,3 15 McClung, A C., de Freitas, L M., and Lott, W L (1959) Analyses of several Brazilian soils in relation to plant responses to sulfur Soil Sci SOC.Am Proc 23,22 I -224 McElroy, M B., Wofsy, S C., and Sze, N D ( 980) Photochemical sources for atmospheric H2S Atmos Env 14, 159- 163 McLaren, R G., and Swift, R S (1977) Changes in soil organic sulphur fractions due to the long term cultivation of soils J SoilSci 28,445-453 McLaren, R G.,Keer, J I., and Swift, R S (1985) Sulfur transformations in soils using 35-S labeling Soil Biol Biochem 17, 73-79 Mekaru, T., and Uehara, G.(1972) Anion adsorption in ferruginous tropical soils Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 36,296-300 Metson, A J (1973) Sulfur in forage crops.Sulphur Inst Tech Bull No 20 Muller, F B (1975) Sulphur received in rainfall and leached from a yellow brown loam N J Sci 18, 243-252 Muller, L E (1965) Deficiencia de azufre en algunos suelos de Centro America Turrialba 15,208-215 Murphy, M D (1990) Fifteen years of sulphur research in Ireland Sulphur Agric 14, 10- 12 Murray, G.A., and Auld, D L (1986) Establishment and fertilizer practices for winter rape in dryland areas of northern Idaho and eastern Washington Proc Pac Northwest Winter Rapeseed Prod Con/: I08 - I 16 Neptune, A M L., Tabatabai, M A., and Hanway, J J (1975) Sulfur fractions and carbon - nitrogen phosphorus-sulfur relationships in some Brazilian and Iowa soils Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 39, 51-55 Nguyue, B C., Bonsang, B., Pasquier, J L., and Lambert, G.(1974a) Composantes marine et africaine des aerosols de sulfates dans I'hemisphere sud J Rech Atmos 8,83 I - 844 Nguyue, B C., Bonsang, B.,and Lambert, G.(1974b) The atmospheric concentration of sulphur dioxide and sulfate aerosols over Antarctic, subantarctic areas of oceans Tellus 26,24 I - 249 Noor, S., and Islam, M S ( 1983) Response of groundnut to phosphatic fertilizer in presence and absence of added sulphur Bangladesh J Soil Sci 19, 13-20 PLANT NUTRIENT SULFUR 267 Nyborg, M., Bentley, C F., and Hoyt, P B (1974) Effect of sulfur deficiency on seed yield of turnip rape Sulphur Inst J 10, 14- 15 Parkpian, P., Cholitkul, W., and Chaiwanakupt, S (1991) Sulphur in the agriculture of Thailand Sulphur Agric 15, 28 - 33 Parks, G A (1965) The isoelectric points of solid oxides, solid hydroxides, and aqueous hydroxo complex systems Chem Rev 65, 177- 198 Pasricha, N S., and Aulakh, M S (1991) Twenty years of sulphur research and oilseed production in Punjab, India Sulphur Agric 15, 17-23 Pasricha, N S., and Randhawa, N S (1971) Available M o status of some reclaimed salinesodic soils and its effect on the concentration of Mo, Cu, S, and N in berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum) Intl Symp Soil Fertil Evol Proc 1, 1017- 1025 Pasricha, N S and Randhawa, N S (1972) Interaction effect of S and Mo on the uptake and utilization of these elements by raya (Brassica juncea L.) Plant Soil 37, 15 - 320 Pasricha, N S., and Randhawa, N S (1975) Effect of sulphur fertilization on the nitrogen metabolism of berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum) Indian J Agric Sci 45, 13 - 16 Pasricha, N S., Subbiah, B V., and Gupta, Y P (1970) Effect of sulphur fertilization on the chemical composition of groundnut and mustard Indian J Agron 15.24-28 Pasricha, N S., Randhawa, N S., Bahl, G S., and Dev, G (1977a) Changes in the sulfur uptake by maize (Zea mays L.) as affected by increase in dry matter with growth and applied sulfur Indian J Agric Sci 47, 336-340 Pasricha, N S., Nayyar, V K., Randhawa, N S., and Sinha, M K (1977b) Influence of sulphur fertilization on suppression of molybdenum uptake by berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum) grown on molybdenum toxic soil Plant Soil 46, 245-250 Pasricha, N S., Aulakh, M S., Bahl, G S., and Baddesha, H S (1987) Nutritional requirements of oilseed and pulse crops in Punjab (1975-1986) Res Bull (Punjab Agric Univ.), Ludhiana, No 15, 92 Pasricha, N S., Aulakh, M S., Bahl,G S., and Baddesha, H S ( 988) Fertilizer use research in oilseed crops Fert News 33, 15 - 22 Pasricha, N S., Bahl,G S., Aulakh, M S., and Dhillon, K S (1991) Fertilizer use research in oilseed and pulse crops in India Public In5 Div (ICAR), New Delhi, 99 Pierre, R., Robles, A,, Celado, R., Raun, W R., and Barreto, H J (1990) Maize yield response to sulphur and phosphorus applied under different tillage systems in the Dominican Republic Sulphur Agric 14, 16 - 19 Porter, W., Manner, J H., Axtell, J D., and G e m , W F (1974) Evaluation of the nutritive quality of grain legumes by an analysis for total sulfur Crop Sci 14,652-654 Poultney, R (1975) Rep Final Nuir Veg., Estacion Exp Santa Catalina INIAP, Quito, Ecuador Probert, M E., and Jones, R K ( 977) The use of soil analysis for predicting the response to sulphur of pasture legumes in Australian tropics Ausi J Soil Res 15, 137- 146 Pumphrey, F V., and Moore, D P (1965) Sulfur and nitrogen content of alfalfa herbage during growth Agron J 57,237-239 Rajan, S S S ( 979) Adsorption and desorption of sulfate and charge relationships in allophanic clays Soil Sci Soc Am J 43, 65-69 Raybould, C C., Unsworth, M H., and Gregory, P J (1977) Sources of sulphur in rain collected below a wheat canopy Nature (London)267, 146- 147 Robinson, E., and Robbins, R C (1968) Sources, abundance, and fate of gaseous atmospheric pollutants Final Rep ARI Proj PR 6755 Stanford Res Inst., Menlo Park, California Saggar, S., Bettany, J R., and Stewart, J W B (1981) Measurement of microbial sulfur in soil Soil Biol Biochem 13,493-498 N S PASRICHA AND R L FOX 268 Sanchez, P A (1976) “Properties and management of soils in the tropics,” p 281 Willey, New York Sandhu, S S., Keim, W F., Hodges, H F., and Nyquist, W E (1974) Inheritance of protein and sulfur contents in seeds of chickpea Crop Sci 14,652-654 Schnug, E (1990) Sulphur nutrition and quality of vegetables Sulphur Agric 14, 3-7 Schnug, E (1991) Sulphur nutritional status of European crops and consequences for agriculture Sulphur Agric 15, - 12 Schnug, E., and Haneklaus, S (1990) Molybdaenversorgung im intensive Rapsanbau Raps8 Schuphan, W (1976) Mensch und Nahrungspflanze Junk Publ Den Haag Scott, N M (1981) Evaluation of sulfate status of soils by plant and soil tests J Sci Food Agric 32, I93 - 199 Searle, P L (1979) Measurement of adsorbed sulphate in soils-effects of varying soil: Extractants ratios and methods of measurement N.Z J Agric Res 22,287-290 Sedl J M (197 I) Sulphur nutrition studies with sugarcane Tech Commun Bur Sugar Exp Stations, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, No 2, 20 Seip, H M (1980) Acidification of freshwater: Sources and mechanisms In “Proceedings of the International Conference on the Ecological Impact of Acid Precipitation” (D Drab10s and A Tollan, &.), pp 356- 365 SNSF-Project, Oslo, Norway Singh, B R., Abrahamsen, G., and Stuanes, A (1980) Effect of simulated acid rain on sulfate movement in acid forest soils Soil Sci Soc Am J 44,75-80 Singh, G (1968) Nutritional requirements of groundnut crop with special reference to sulphur and calcium M S Thesis Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India Singh, M V (1991) AU India coordinated scheme of micro and secondary nutrients and pollutant elements in soils and crops Proc Indian Inst Soil Sci Workshop Meet Results Prac Util 18th, Bhopal, India Slatt, B J., Natusch, D F S., Prospero, J M., and Savoie, D L (1978) Hydrogen sulfide in the atmosphere of the northern equatorial Atlantic Ocean and its relation to the global sulfur cycle Amos Environ 12, 98 1-991 Spencer, K (1975) Sulphur requirements of plants p 98-108 In “Sulfur in Australian Agriculture” (K D McLachlan, ed.) Sydney University Press, Sydney, Australia Stanford, G., and Jordan, H V (1966) Sulfur requirements of sugar, fibre, and oil crops Soil Sci 101, 258-266 Suarez, E L., and Jones, U S (1982) Atmospheric sulfur as related to acid precipitation and soil fertility Soil Sci Soc Am J 46, 976-980 Summerfield, R J., Hukley, P A., and Sleele, W (1974) Cowpea (Vigna unguiculutu L Walp) Field Crop Abstr 27, 30 I - 12 Sumner, M E (1981) Diagnosing the sulfur requirements of corn and wheat using foliar analysis Soil Sci Soc Am J 45, 87-90 Syers, J K., Jackson, M L., Berkheiser, V E., Clayton, R W., and Rex, R W (1969) Aeolian sediments’ influence on pedogenesis during the Quaternary Soil Sci 107, 421 -427 Tabatabai, M A ( I 974) Determination of sulfate in water samples Sulphur Inst J 10, 11-13 Tabatabai, M A (1982) Sulfur Agronomy 9,501 -583 Tabatabai, M.A., and Bremner, J M (1970) An alkaline oxidation method for determination of total sulfur in soils Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 34,62-65 Talukder, K H., Islam, M S., Sarkar, N K., and Mazumder, Z (1984) The yield response of chickpea to sulphur and zinc fertilization in calcareous brown floodplain soils of Jessore Bangladesh J Soil Sci 20, I - 36 Tandon, H L S (1991) “Sulphur Research and Agricultural Production in India,” 3rd Ed., p 140 Sulphur Institute, Washington, D.C PLANT NUTRIENT SULFUR 269 Tothill, J C (1971) A review of fire in the management of native pasture with particular attention to northeastern Australia Trop Grassl 5, 1-4 Ulrich, A., and Hylton, L (1968) Sulfur nutrition of Italian ryegrass measured by growth and mineral content Plant Soil 29,274-284 Van Breeman, N., Mulder, J., and Driscoll, C T (1983) Acidification and alkalinization of soils Plant Soil 75, 283-308 Vander Zaag, P., Yost, R S., Trangrnar, B B., Hayashi, K., and Fox, R L (1984) An assessment of chemical properties for soils of Rwanda with the use of geostatistical techniques Geoderma 34,293 - 14 Vetter, H (1988) Landwirtschaftliche produktion, Nahrungs qualitaet und umwelt VDLUFA-Schri/tenr.28, 19-37 Voldner, E C., Barrie, L A., and Sirois, A (1986) A literature review of dry deposition of oxides of sulphur and nitrogen with emphasis on long-range transport modeling in North America Atmos Environ 20,2101 -2123 Wainwright, M (1979) Microbial Soxidation in soil exposed to heavy atmospheric pollution Soil Biol Biochem 11,95-98 Wainwright, M (1980) Effectof exposure to atmospheric pollution on microbial activity in soil Plant Soil 55, 199 - 204 Wan& C H (1978) Sulfur fertilization of rice Sulphur Agric 2, 13- 16 Wang, C H., Liem, T H., and Mikkelsen, D S (1976) Sulphur requirements for rice production In! Rice Rex Inst Tech Bull No 48, 38 Wentzel, K F (1983) Maximally allowable SO, concentration for protection of forests International Union of Forest Research Organization (IUFRO) Aquilo Ser Botany 19, 167- 176 Wetselaar, R., and Hutton, J T (1963) The ionic composition of rainwater at Katherine, N T., and its part in the cycling of plant nutrients Aust J Agric Res 14,3 19-329 Williams, C H., and Andrew, C S (1970) Mineral nutrition of pastures I n “Australian Grasslands” (R M Moore, ed.), pp 321 -348 Australian National University Press, Canberra, Australia Williams, C H., and Lipsett, J (1961) Fertility changes in soils cultivated for wheat in southern New South Wales Aust J Agric Rex 12,612-629 Wolt, J D., and Adams, F (1979) The release of sulfate from soil-applied basaluminite and alunite Soil Sci Soc Am J 43, 118- 121 Wolt, J D., Hue, N V., and Fox, R L (1992) Solution sulfate chemistry in three sulfur-retentive Hydrandepts SoilSci Soc Am J 56.89-95 Yoshida, S., and Chaudhry, M R (1972) Sulphur nutrition of rice Int Rice Res Inst Saturday Semin., March I , Los Banos, Philippines Zhao, F., Syers, J K., Evans, E J., and Bilsborrow, P E (1991) Sulphur and oilseed rape production in the United Kingdom Sulphur Agric 15, 13- 16 This Page Intentionally Left Blank Index A Acidification, soil, 226 Acid rain, effects on crop plants, 223-225 forest vegetation, 225 soil acidification, 226 Adsorption SO,, mechanism, 234-236 sulfate by soils, 227-232 Adsorption curves, sulfate, 232-234 A horizons development, 191 - 192 oxidative polymerization by Mn oxides, 193 stabilization of organic matter in acid soils, I93 - 194 CO, from added organics, 195 in near-neutral soils, 194- 195 Albugu candida white rust, in Brassica spp., 28-32 Alfalfa, chloride deficiency, I10 Amphidiploids, among oilseed brassicas, a-Amylase, chloride activation, I I I Anther culture, oilseed brassicas, 41 -42 Antibiotic resistance, intrinsic, Bradyrhizugbum japonicum and DNA homology groupings, 74-75 methods, 72-73 phenotype diversity, 72 - 74 and symbiotic performance, 74 Asparagine synthetase, chloride activation, Ill Atmosphere, sulfur sources, 219-221 B Eacillits thicringiensis toxin, production by oilseed brassicas, 46 Barley, chloride deficiency, I10 Beans, chloride deficiency, I10 Blackleg, resistance in oilseed brassicas, 2428 27 Black spot, resistance in oilseed brassicas, 34 - 36 Boron, sulfur fertilization effects, 256 Bradyrhizogbum japonicurn dissimilatory nitrate reduction and DNA homology groupings, 80 methods, 78 phenotype diversity, 78 and symbiotic performance, 79 fatty acids, 93 genotypic groupings, 68-69 hemoproteins, 92 - 93 hydrogenase system and DNA homology groupings, 78 phenotype diversity, 75-71 and symbiotic performance, 77- 78 intrinsic antibiotic resistance and DNA homology groupings, 74-75 methods, 72-73 phenotype diversity, 72-74 and symbiotic performance, 74 nitrogenase activity ex planfa, 92 phenotype/genotype relationships, summary, 94 plant growth-regulating substances and DNA homology groupings, 91 - 92 phenotype diversity, 90-91 and symbiotic performance, I protein profiles and DNA homology groupings, 88 methods, 87 SDS-PAGE phenotype diversity, 8788 and symbiotic performance, 88 rhizobiophage typing and DNA homology groupings, 89-90 phenotype diversity, 89 and symbiotic performance, 89 rhizobitoxine and DNA homology groupings, 83-84 phenotype diversity, 80-82 and symbiotic performance, 82-83 serology and DNA homology groupings, 72 272 INDEX methods, 69 phenotype diversity, 69-70 and symbiotic performance, 70-72 surface polysaccharides and DNA homology groupings, 87 methods, 84-85 phenotype diversity, 81 -85 and symbiotic performance, 85-86 taxonomic status, 93-95 Brussicu spp., oilseed, see Oilseed brassicas Breeding programs, for Erussicu seed yield, 10-13 Bromoxynil tolerance, oilseed brassicas, 39 C Cabbage, chloride deficiency, 109- I10 Cadmium sequestration by transformed oilseed brassicas, 47 sulfur fertilization effects, 256 Canker, stem, in oilseed brassicas, 32-34 Carbon pe-pH diagrams, 170- 172 reduction half-reactions, 163 Cation transport, chloride role, I2 Chitinase, production by Erussicu spp 47 Chloride fertilizers, 134- I35 Chloride, in plants additions with no effects, 124 biochemical functions, 109- I I I enzyme activation, I I I photosynthesis, 110- I I crop development responses, 124- I25 deficiencies, 109- 10 disease interactions, I I7 - I24 enhanced host tolerance and, 112- 114 IOSS~S, I33 - I34 manganese interactions, 16- 17 nitrogen interactions, 114- I I5 osmoregulatory functions, I 12- 13 phosphorus interactions, I I5 - I I6 quality responses corn, 129-131 oats, 129 potatoes, 132 soybeans, I3 I - I32 research needs, I4 I - 143 sources, 133- I34 suppression common root rot, I 19 foliar diseases, 19- I22 take-all root rot, I 18- I I9 uptake, 113-114 yield responses, I25 - I26 barley, I26 - 128 wheat, 126- 128 Chlorsulfuron tolerance, oilseed brassicas, 38 Chromium cycle, soil, 187- 188 Chromium, net oxidation test interferences, 205 protocol, 202-203 Coconut palm, chloride deficiency, I10 Copper, sulfur fertilization effects, 256 Corn chloride deficiency, 10 chloride effects, 129- I Crop responses acid rain effects on plants, 223-225 to chloride developmental effects, I24 - I25 plant analyses, I35 - I38 soil testing, 138- 140 to sulfur, 246-252 Cultivars, oilseed brassicas, canolaquality, Cytoplasmic male sterile-nuclear restorer system, in Erussicu spp., I7 -20 D Deposition dry, 218 wet, I7 Desorption, sulfate by soils, 227 - 232 2,2’-Dipyridyl tests, for Fe oxides, 202 Disease resistance, in Brussicu spp blackleg, 24 - 28 black spot, 34-36 light leaf spot, 36 stem rot, 32-34 turnip mosaic virus, 36 Verticillium wilt, 36- 37 white rust, 28-32 Dismutation, of H,O,, 204 Dissimilatory nitrate reduction, Brudyrhizogbumjaponicum and DNA homology groupings, 80 methods, 78 phenotype diversity, 78 and symbiotic performance, 79 DNA homology groupings, Erudyrhizogburn japonicum phenotypes 27 INDEX dissimilatory nitrate reduction, 83 - 84 fatty acids, 93 hemoproteins, 92-93 hydrogenase system, 78 intrinsic antibiotic resistance, 74-75 nitrogenase activity ex plunfu,92 plant growth-regulating substances, - 92 protein profiles, 88 rhizobiophages, 89-90 serogroups, 72 surface polysaccharides 87 DNA markers, in oilseed brassica breeding random amplified polymorphic, 48 restriction fragment length polymorphisms, 48 Doubled-haploid technique, for oilseed brassicas, I - 42 E Electrons activity in soils, thermodynamic relationships, 155-158 characteristics, I53 - I55 Equilibrium constant, for redox equilibria, I59 Erucic acid, in extracted seed oils, 7- 10 F Fatty acids Brudyrhizogbum japonicum, 93 oilseed brassicas, -9 Fertilizers chloride-containing, 134- I35 sulfur-containing, 252- 256 Foliar diseases, chloride effects, I 19- I22 Free radicals behavior, I77 - I78 formation in soils, 176- I77 oxidizing, field tests for 20 I - 205 G Gametocides, for Erussiccl spp., I5 - I6 Gel electrophoresis SDS-polyacrylamide soybean bradyrhizobia phenotypes, 87 88 Genomic relationships, among oilseed brassicas Ghcosinolate, sulfur fertilization effects, 254 Glyphosate tolerance, oilseed brassicas, 38 Groundwater, sulfur in, 227 Gum guaiac, tests for Mn and Fe oxides and oxidizing free radicals, 202 H Heavy metals, sequestration by Brussica SPP., 47 Hemoproteins, Bradyrhizogbum juponicum, 92-93 Herbicide resistance, in oilseed brassicas, 37 - 39 Heterosis, Brussicu F, hydrids, I3 - I5 Horizons A see A horizons E, development, 191 Host tolerance, enhancement by chloride, 112-114 Humic substances A horizon development, 19 I - 195 E horizon development, I9 I manganese role, 190- I9 I Hybridization in identification of genetic groupings of Bradyrhizogbum juponicum, 68 interspecific, oilseed brassicas, , 40-4 I Hydrogenase system, Bradyrhizogbum j u p onicirm and DNA homology groupings, 78 phenotype diversity, 75-77 and symbiotic performance, 77 - 78 I lmidazolinone tolerance, oilseed brassicas, 38 Insect control, gene-based, in Brussica spp., 46 Iron catalytic oxidation of organics, 180- I8 I disproportionation, I8 I - I82 oxides, field tests for, 20 I -205 pe-pH diagrams, 170 proportionation, I8 - I82 redox system, I79 reduction half-reactions, 162- 163 Irrigation water, sulfur contents, 226-227 74 INDEX L Leaf diseases, chloride effects, I I9 - 122 Leaf movement, chloride role, I 13 Leaf rust, chloride effects, I2 1- I22 Lepfosphaeria maculans blackleg, resistance in oilseed brassicas, 24 - 28 Lettuce, chloride deficiency, 109 Light leaf spot, resistance in oilseed brassicas, 36 Linkage mapping, oilseed brassicas, 48-49 M Manganese chloride interactions in plants, I 16- 17 as electron acceptor, I8 I field tests, 20 I - 205 humus formation, 190- 191 Mn-nitrogen transformations, 186- I87 Mn(II1)-organic acid reductants, 182184 oxidation in soils mechanism, 185- 186 oxygen restriction effects, 184- I85 oxides dismutation of H,O,, 204 interferences, 205 pe- pH diagrams, I67 - I69 redox system, I79 reduction half-reactions, 162- 163 synthetic amorphous Mn(1V) preparation, 202 Manganese electron demand (MED) determination, 204 Metals, heavy, see Heavy metals Methionine, levels in oilseed brassicas, 46 Microspore culture, oilseed brassicas, 41 -42 Molybdenum, sulfur fertilization effects, 256 Mutagenesis,with haploid Brassica spp., 42 N Nitrate reduction, dissimilatory, see Dissimilatory nitrate reduction Nitrification, inhibition by chloride, 114 Nitrogen -chloride interactions in plants, 114- I15 -manganese transformations, 186- I87 pe-pH diagrams, 166- 167 reduction half-reactions, 162 sulfur fertilization effects on plant nitrate content, 255 - 256 Nitrogenase, activity in Bradyrhizogbumjaponicum, ex planta, 92 Oats, chloride effects, I29 Oil quality Brassica spp., Agrobacierium-mediated transformation techniques, 44 - 45 sulfur fertilization effects, 254 Oil quantity Brassica spp., Agrobacleriurn-mediated transformation techniques, 45 -46 oilseed brassicas, 22 - 23 sulfur fertilization effects, 254 Oilseed brassicas disease-resistant cultivars, 24- 37 DNA markers, 48 -49 fatty acid compositions, 8-9 genomic relationships among species, haploid production in viiro, I -42 herbicide-resistant cultivars, 37 - 39 heterosis and F, hybrids, 13- I5 interspecific hybridizations, 40-41 oil yield, 22-23 plant descriptions, 6-7 pollination control systems, I5 - 22 modes, production, 2-4 protein yield, 22 - 23 protoplast fusions, 43 -44 quality, improvements in, 7- 10 seeds, descriptions, 6- seed yield breeding methods, 10- 13 components, 10- I3 somaclonal variations, 42-43 transformation, 44-48 world socioeconomic importance, 2- Organic compounds, catalytic oxidation by iron, 180- 181 Osmoregulation, chloride role, I 12 Osmosis, adjustments, chloride role, I I2 Oxidation - reduction reactions, see Redox reactions INDEX Oxygen pe-pH diagrams, I65 - I66 reduction half-reactions, 162 P PP definition, I56 empirical, determination, 200 PP-PH diagrams carbon species, 170- I72 iron species, 170 manganese oxide species, 167- I69 nitrogen species, I66 - I67 oxygen species, I65 - I66 sulfur species, 170- I72 thermodynamic information from, 160165 PH definition, 156 pe-pH thermodynamic data, 160- 165 Phage typing, Bradyrhizogbum japonicum and DNA homology groupings, 89-90 phenotype diversity, 89 and symbiotic performance, 89 Phenotype, oilseed brassicas dissimilatory nitrate reduction, 78-80 fatty acids, 93 hemoproteins, 92-93 intrinsic antibiotic resistance, 72-75 nitrogenase activity ex planta, 92 plant growth-regulating substances, 90-92 protein profiles, 87-88 rhizobiophage typing, 88 -90 rhizobitoxine, 80- 84 serology, 69 - 72 summary of relationships, 94 surface polysaccharides, 84-87 uptake hydrogenase, 75-78 Phosphinotricin tolerance, oilseed brassicas, 39 Phosphorus, interactions with chloride in plants, I I5 - I I6 sulfur in plants, 256 Photosynthesis, chloride role, 110- I I I Plant analyses crop response to chloride, 135- 138 sulfur deficiency, 239- 24 I 275 Plant growth-regulating substances, Bradyrhizogbumjaponicum and DNA homology groupings, I - 92 phenotype diversity, 90-91 and symbiotic performance, Pollen control, in Brnssica spp cytoplasmic male sterile- nuclear restorer system, I7 - 20 gametocides, I - I6 genic male sterility, 20-21 self-incompatibilitysystems, I6 - I7 transgenics, -22 Pollination, oilseed brassicas control systems, 15 -22 modes, Pollutants, reduction half-reactions, 163 Polysaccharides, surface, Bradyrhizogbum japonicum and DNA homology groupings, 87 methods, 84-85 phenotype diversity, I - 85 and symbiotic performance, 85-86 Population diversity groupings, Bradyrhizogbum japonicum dissimilatory nitrate reduction, 78-80 fatty acids, 93 hemoproteins, 92-93 hydrogenase system, 75-78 intrinsic antibiotic resistance, 72- 75 nitrogenase activity explanta, 92 plant growth-regulatingsubstances, 90-92 protein profiles, 87-88 rhizobiophage typing, 88-90 rhizobitoxine, 80-84 serology, 69 - 72 summary of genotype/phenotype relationships, 94 surface polysaccharides, 81 -85 Potatoes chloride deficiency, I I0 chloride effects, I3 - 132 Precipitation, and soil sulfate, 22 I -223 Protein profiles, Bradyrhizogbumjaponicum and DNA homology groupings, 88 methods, 87 SDS-PAGE phenotype diversity, 87-88 and symbiotic performance, 88 Protein quality crop responses to sulfur, 253-254 oilseed brassicas, 46 INDEX 276 Protein yield, oilseed brassicas, 22-23 Protons, characteristics, 153- 155 Protoplast fusion, in oilseed brassicas, 43 -44 Q Quality response to chloride corn, 129-131 oat, 129 soybeans, 131 - I32 to sulfur, 252 - 256 R Redox reactions characterization, empirical methods empirical pe determination, 200 lab incubations, 199-200 soil handling, 198- 199 free radicals behavior, 177- 178 formation, 176- 177 iron, 178- I79 log K determination, 157 manganese, 178- 179 measurement in soils electrochemical relations in reverse, 174-175 empirical pe values, 175- I76 platinum electrodes, I72 - I74 pe, definition, 156 pH, definition, I56 photochemical transformations in soil and water, I88 - I90 reduction half-reactions, 155- 156 thermodynamic parameters for electron activity, I55 - I58 kinetic derivation, 158- 160 pe-pH information, 160- 165 wetlands interfaces, 197- 198 preservation, I96 Reducing capacity, soil, 203 - 204 Reducing intensity, soil, 203 Reduction half-reactions characterization, I55 - 156 for N, 0, Mn, Fe, S, C and pollutants, 162- I63 nitrate, dissimilatory, see Dissimilatory nitrate reduction -oxidation reactions, see Redox reactions Rhizobitoxine, Bradyrhizugbum japonicum - related and DNA homology groupings, 83 - 84 phenotype diversity, 80-82 and symbiotic performance, 82-83 Root rot common, chloride effects, 119 take-all, chloride effects, I I - I 19 Rot, see Root rot; Stem rot Rusts, see specific types ofrust S Sclerotinia sclerotiurum, stem rot, resistance in oilseed brassicas, 32 - 34 Seeds, oilseed brassicas, - 7, 10- I Selenium, sulfur fertilization effects, 256 Self-incompatibility systems, for Brassica spp pollination control, 16- 17 Serology, Bradyrhizugbum japonicum and DNA homology groupings, 72 methods, 69 phenotype diversity, 69 - 70 and symbiotic performance, 70-72 Somaclonal variations, in oilseed brassicas, 42-43 Soybean brad yrhizobia, see Bradyrhizugbum japonicum Soybeans, chloride effects, I3 I - I32 Spinach, chloride deficiency, 109 Stem canker, in oilseed brassicas, 24-28 Stem rot, Sclerutinia sclerutiorum, resistance in oilseed brassicas, 32- 34 Sterility, genic male, in Brassica spp., 2021 Stomata operation, chloride role, I2 - 13 Streams, sulfur in, 226-227 Stripe rust, chloride effects, 120- 12 I Subtropics, sulfur deficiency, I -2 15, 257-258 Sugar beets, chloride deficiency, 109 Sulfur critical soil solution concentration, 24 246 crop responses, 246-252 fertilization effects, 252-256 277 INDEX interactions with phosphorus, 256 with various elements, 256-257 in irrigation water, 226- 227 pe-pH diagrams, 170- I72 reduction half-reactions, 162 requirements of plants, 241 -246 SO, adsorption mechanisms, 234-236 sulfate form accession through precipitation, 22 I 223 adsorption by soils, 227-232 adsorption curves, 232-234 characterization, 16- I7 desorption by soils, 227-232 transformation products, 15 -2 16 Sulfur cycling accession through precipitation, 22 I -223 supplies of atmospheric origin, 219-22 I in tropics, I7 - I9 Sulfur deficiency plant analyses for, 239- 24 I soil tests for, 237-239 tropical/subtropical, 21 1-215, 257-258 Sulfur tetroxide, adsorption mechanism, 234-236 T Tanspot, chloride effects, I22 Tests, soil crop response to chloride, I38 - 140 sulfur deficiency, 239-24 I Tetramethylbenzidine, tests for Mn, Fe oxides, and oxidizing free radicals, 20 202 Thermodynamics, redox reactions electron activity, I55 - I58 kinetic derivation, I58 - I60 pe-pH information, 160- 165 Tomato, chloride deficiency, I09 Transformation ARrobactprium-mediated, in Brassicu spp., 44-48 disease resistance, 47 heavy metal sequestration, 47 insect control, 46-47 molecular farming, 47-48 oil quality modifications, 44-45 oil quantity modifications, 45 -46 protein quality, 46 redox, photochemical, 188- 190 Triazine tolerance, oilseed brassicas, 37- 38 Tropics sulfur cycling, 17- I9 sulfur deficiency, 21 1-215,257-258 Turnip mosaic virus, resistance in oilseed brassicas, 36 V Vegetation, forest, acid rain effects, 225 Verticillium dahliae wilt, in Brassica spp., 36-37 W Water irrigation, sulfur contents, 226 -227 ground-, sulfur in, 227 Wetlands characterization, 195- 196 preservation, redox-related reasons for, I96 redox interfaces, 19?- 198 White rust, resistance in oilseed brassicas in Brassica napus, - 32 race resistance, 29 - I race resistance, selection for, 32 Wilt, see Verticillium dahliae wilt Y Yellow rust, chloride effects, I 19- I20 Yield oilseed brassicas oil, 22-23 protein, 22-23 seeds, 10- 13 wheat and barley responses to chloride, 126- 128 Z Zinc, sulfur fertilization effects 256 ... in winter B napus visual selection in the F, for yield was superior to a random line selection, but the highest yielding lines were identified by measuring yields of single-row F, progenies in. .. their combining ability On the other hand, in three of the four experiments, sowing mixed seed of the parents in the same drill run also resulted in yield increases, which in some instances approached... Also, in spring rape Grant and Beversdorf ( 1985)found high-parent heterosis for seed yield of up to 72%, with specific combining ability being more important than general combining ability In winter
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Xem thêm: Advances in agronomy volume 50 , Advances in agronomy volume 50 , Chapter 1. Agronomic Improvement In Oilseed Brassicas, III. Improving Resistance to Pests, Chapter 2. Population Diversity Groupings of Soybean Bradyrhizobia, V. Taxonomic Status of Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Chapter 3. Crop Responses To Chloride, Ill. Yield and Quality Responses to Chloride, V. Predicting Crop Response to Chloride, VI. Summary and Future Research Needs, III. Derivation of Thermodynamic Relationships for Electron Activity in Soils, V. Uses of pe–pH Thermodynamic Information, VI. Uses of pe–pH Diagrams, VII. Measurement of Oxidation–Reduction Status of Soils, VIII. Free Radicals in Redox Processes, XI. Photochemical Redox Transformations in Soil and Water, XIII. Wetland and Paddy Properties and Processes, XIV. Empirical Methods for Characterizing Soil Redox, II. Extent of Sulfur Deficiency, IV. Sulfur Cycling in the Tropics, V. Effects of Acid Rain, VII. Sulfate Retention in Soil, VIII. Diagnosis of Sulfur Needs, IX. Critical Soil Solution Concentration, XI. Sulfur Fertilization and Crop Quality, XII. Sulfur Interactions with Other Elements

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