Advances in agronomy volume 44

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ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY VOLUME 44 This Page Intentionally Left Blank ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY Prepared in Cooperation wirh the AMERICAN SOCIETYOF AGRONOMY VOLUME 44 Edited by N C BRADY Science and Technology Agency for International Development Department of State Washington, D C ADVISORY BOARD N L TAYLORH G HODGES E L KLEPPERG L HORST R J KOHEL R H MILLER G E HAM S MICHELSON K H QUESENBERRY C W STUBER G H HEICHELD E KISSEL ACADEMIC PRESS, INC Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers San Diego New York Boston London Sydney Tokyo Toronto This book is printed on acid-free paper @ Copyright 1990 by Academic Press, Inc All Rights Reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher Academic Press, Inc San Diego, California 92 10 United Kingdom Edition published by Academic Press Limited 24-28 Oval Road, London NW I 7DX 50-5598 Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: ISBN 0-12-000744-4 (alk paper) Printed in the United States of America 9 9 CONTENTS CONTRIBUTORS PREPACE ix xi VARIATION IN TIME OF SEEDLING EMERGENCE WITHIN POPULATIONS: A FEATURE THAT DETERMINES INDIVIDUAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT L R Benjamin I 11 111 1V Introduction Factors That Influence Time of Seedling Emergence Importance of Variation in Time of Seedling Emergence to Crop Development Conclusions References 20 21 FORAGE TREE LEGUMES: THEIR MANAGEMENTAND CONTRIBUTIONTO THE NITROGEN ECONOMY OF WET AND HUMID TROPICAL ENVIRONMENTS Graeme Blair, David Catchpoole, and Peter Horne 11 111 1v V VI VII VIII Introduction Species of Useful Tree Legumes Agronomic Performance of Tree Legumes Tree Legume Leaf as Animal Feed Management of Tree Legumes Nitrogen Yields of Material Harvested from Tree Legumes Nitrogen Recycling via Leaf and Excreta Conclusion References 21 28 29 34 36 45 46 49 50 STATISTICAL ANALYSES OF MULTILOCATIONTRIALS Jose Crossa I 11 Introduction Conventional Analysis of Variance V 55 51 vi CONTENTS 111 Joint Linear Regression IV Crossover Interactions V Multivariate Analyses of Multilocation Trials VI AMMl Analysis VII Other Methods of Analysis VIII General Considerations and Conclusions References 61 68 70 76 80 81 82 EVALUATION AND DOCUMENTATION OF GENETIC RESOURCES IN CEREALS A B Damania I 11 111 IV V VI VII Introduction Evaluation of Cultivated Wheat Evaluation of Cultivated Barley Genetic Resources from Ethiopia Evaluation of Wild and Primitive Forms of Wheat and Barley Documentation of Genetic Resources Summary and Conclusions References 87 90 93 95 96 I02 I05 107 MODELING CROP ROOT GROWTH AND FUNCTION Betty Klepper and R W.Rickman 11 111 IV V VI Introduction Early Models Desirable Model Features Model Components Some Existing Root Growth and Function Models Limitations to Development of Root Growth Models I13 114 115 118 I28 130 131 GENETIC MANIPULATION OF THE COWPEA (Vigna unguiculafa [L.] Walp.) FOR ENHANCED RESISTANCE TO FUNGAL PATHOGENS AND INSECT PESTS A Latunde-Dada 11 111 IV Introduction Insect Pests Fungal Pathogens Tissue Culture Technology 133 139 141 142 vii CONTENTS V Conclusions and Epilogue References 149 I 50 NITROGEN FIXATION BY LEGUMES IN TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL AGRICULTURE Mark B Peoples and David F Herridge I 11 111 IV V VI Introduction Methods of Assessing N2 Fixation N2 Fixation in Legume Production Systems Contribution of Legume N to Plant and Animal Producti Strategies to Enhance N2 Fixation Concluding Remarks , References i56 158 177 190 202 216 216 DISTRIBUTION, COLLECTION, AND EVALUATION OF Gossypium A Edward Percival and Russell J Kohel 11 Introduction Distribution , Ill IV V Evaluation Concluding Remarks 225 228 235 245 253 253 BREEDING WHEAT FOR RESISTANCE TO Septoria nodorum AND Septoria tritici Lloyd R Nelson and David Marshall I 11 111 IV V VI Introduction Identification of Resistance Pathogen Variation Genetics of Resistance Sources of Resistance , Discussion and Conclusions INDEX 257 258 268 270 272 272 214 279 This Page Intentionally Left Blank CONTRIBUTORS Numbers in parentheses indicate the pages on which the authors' contributions begin L R BENJAMIN ( l ) , AFRC Institute of Horticultural Research, Wellesbourne, Wanvick CV35 9EF, England GRAEME BLAIR (27), Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Department of Agronomy and Soil Science, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales 2351, Australia DAVID CATCHPOOLE* (27), Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Department of Agronomy and Soil Science, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales 2351, Australia JOSE CROSSA (55), Biometrics and Statistics Unit, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT),06600 Mexico D F., Mexico A B DAMANIA (87), Genetic Resources Unit, International Centerfor Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA),Aleppo, Syria DAVID F HERRIDGE (155), Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (Project 8800),New South Wales Agriculture and Fisheries, Tamworth, New South Wales 2340, Australia PETER HORNE (27), Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Department of Agronomy and Soil Science, university of New England, Armidale, New South Wales 2351, Australia BETTY KLEPPER ( 13), United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Columbia Plateau Conservation Research Center, Pendleton, Oregon 97801 RUSSELL J KOHEL (229, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Southern Crops Research Laboratory, College Station, Texas 77840 A LATUNDE-DADA (133), Department of Crop Production, College of Agricultural Sciences, Ogun State university, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria DAVID MARSHALL (257), Texas A&M University Research and Extension Center at Dallas, Dallas, Texas 75252 LLOYD R NELSON (257), Texas A&M University Agricultural Research and Extension Center at Overton, Overton, Texas 75684 *Present address: Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Ayr Queensland 4807, Australia ix 280 INDEX time of seedling emergence and, I5 Biology cowpea and, 141, 145 forage tree legumes and, 47 multilocation trials and, 56,62-66, 81,82 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 156 root growth models and, 114 Blight cowpea and, 144, 146 Gossypium and, 252 Boll weevil, Gossypium and, 244,245 Bradyrhizobium japonicum, nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 202,204,212 Branching rate, root growth models and, 124, 125 Breeding cowpea and, 139, 141, 143, 150 genetic resources in cereals and, 87, 88, 90,93,96-107 Gossypium and, 244,251, 253 multilocation trials and, 5 , 56, 81 AMMI analysis, 77 joint linear regression, 61,64, 67,68 multivariate analyses, 74 variance, 60 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 205-207,209 wheat resistance to Septoria and, see Wheat resistance to Septoria Buckwheat, time of seedling emergence and, 17, 18,21 Bulk density, root growth models and, 124, I29 C Calcium cowpea and, 146 forage tree legumes and, 41 root growth models and, 123, 129 Calliandra, forage tree legumes and, 29 Calliandra calothyrsus, forage tree legumes and management, 38-40,42 nitrogen recycling, 47 nitrogen yields, 45 performance, 30 Callus, cowpea and, 142, 143 Calories, nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 177, 178 Canopy cowpea and, 138 forage tree legumes and, 32-34,43,44 Gossypium and, 252 root growth models and, 117 time of seedling emergence and, 17 Carbohydrate forage tree legumes and, 36 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 206 root growth models and, 113, 117, 122, 127-129 time of seedling emergence and, 18 Carbon forage tree legumes and, 47 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 162 root growth models and, 128 time of seedling emergence and, Carrot genetic manipulation and, 143 multilocation trials and, 72 time of seedling emergence and, 1, 5.6, 11, 14, 15 Cellular selection, cowpea and, 143, 145 Cereal genetic resources in, 87-89, 105-107 barley, 93-95 documentation, 102-105 Ethiopia, 95, 96 primitive forms, 96-102 wheat, 89-93 nitrogen fixation by legumes and assessment, 176 contribution to production, 191, 194, 196- I99 enhancement, 213, 215 production systems, 177, 178, 192-184 root growth models and, 118, 120, 130 Characterization, genetic resources in cereals and, 88,89, 100, 104 Chenopodium, time of seedling emergence and, 14, 15 Chimaeras, cowpea and, 147, 148 Chlorophyll genetic resources in cereals and, 91 time of seedling emergence and, 18 Chloroplasts cowpea and, 146, 147 Gossypium and, 234,235, 249, 250 28 INDEX Chromatography, nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 174 Chromosomes cowpea and, 145 genetic resources in cereals and, 93 Gossypium and, 231-235, 245-247 wheat resistance to Septoria and, 270-272 Climate forage tree legumes and, 39.49 genetic resources in cereals and, 94,95, 101 Gossypium and, 238 multilocation trials and, 80 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 182 time of seedling emergence and, 19 Clinal pattern, genetic resources in cereals and, 90,96 Cluster analysis, multilocation trials and, 71,74-76,81 Cocksfoot, time of seedling emergence and, 11, 15 Codariocalyx gyroides, forage tree legumes and, 38,39 Coevolution, genetic resources in cereals and, 89 Collection, Gossypiurn and, 235-245 Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Gossypium and, 238, 241 Compaction, root growth models and, 124 Compensation nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 156 wheat resistance to Seproria and, 266 Competition forage tree legumes and, 33,42,44 multilocation trials and, 57 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 174, 182,216 time of seedling emergence and, 2, 10, 1 14-21 Composite cross, genetic resources in cereals and, 105 Conservation, genetic resources in cereals and, 88, 105, 106 Core collections, genetic resources in cereals and, 104 Cotton, see Gossypium Cover crops, nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 200 Cowpea genetic manipulation of, 133-139, 149, 150 embryo culture, 145, 146 fungal pathogens, 141, 142 insects, 139-141 somaclonal variation, 144, 145 somatic hybridization, 146-148 tissue culture technology, 142-144 transformation, 148, 149 nitrogen fixation by legumes and contribution to production, 195-197 enhancement, 210, 215 production systems, 178, 181-183 Crop root growth models, see Root growth models Cross-pollination, cowpea and, 145 Crossover interactions, multilocation trials and, 68-10 Cutting, forage tree legumes and, 38-41, 43,44 Cytogenetics, Gossypium and, 231,236 Cytology, Gossypium and, 229, 233,247, 248 Cytoplasm cowpea and, 145-147 Gossypium and, 253 D Decay forage tree legumes and, 47,48 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 191 root growth models and, 113, 114, 117, 118 Decomposition, nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 191, 192, 197-199 Deforestation, genetic resources in cereals and, 96 Degree days, root growth models and, 128, I30 Denitrification, fixation by legumes and, 213 Density forage tree legumes and, 41-44,46 multilocation trials and, 55 time of seedling emergence and, 10-17, 19,20 282 INDEX Detrended correspondence analysis, multilocation trials and, 80 Dicotyledon cowpea and, 148 root growth models and, 120 time of seedling emergence and, Diffusion Gossypium and, 249 root growth models and, 114, 125, 126 Digitalis purpurea, time of seedling emergence and, 14, 16 Diploidy, Gossypium and, 226, 253 distribution, 229, 231-234 evaluation, 245,247, 250 Discriminant analysis, multilocation trials and, 71 Disease cowpea and, 137-142, 149 forage tree legumes and, 28 genetic resources in cereals and, 88.91, 94,95,97,99, 102-104 Cossypium and, 236,252 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 187, I97 wheat resistance to Septoria and, see Wheat resistance to Septoria Distribution, Gossypium and, 228-235 DNA genetic resources in cereals and, 93, 106 Gossypium and, 234,235,249,250 Documentation, genetic resources in cereals and, 102-106 Domestication genetic resources in cereals and, 96 Gossypium and, 226-228 Dominance multilocation trials and, 63, 64 time of seedling emergence and, 2, 17 wheat resistance to Seproria and, 265, 270,271 Dormancy, time of seedling emergence and, 2, 7, 14 Drought forage tree legumes and, 34 genetic resources in cereals and, 91,97, 100, 103 E Ecology cowpea and, 139 genetic resources in cereals and, 89, 104 Gossypium and, 241-243,253 multilocation trials and, 80 Economics cowpea and, 140 forage tree legumes and, 49 genetic resources in cereals and, 91,95, 100, 104, 107 Gossypium and, 244, 253 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 176, 178, 186, 187 time of seedling emergence and, Electrophoresis genetic resources in cereals and, 100, 101,106 Ethiopia, 96 wheat, 92,93 Gossypium and, 247-250 Embryo cowpea and, 143-146 Gossypium and, 228 time of seedling emergence and, , Endonuclease restriction, Gossypium and, 249,250 Environment cowpea and, 143, 149 forage tree legumes and, 36,49 genetic resources in cereals and, 88, 92-94,97,98, 100-102, 104-107 Gossypium and, 236, 245,247, 251, 253 multilocation trials and, 5 , 56, 80-82 AMMI analysis, 76-90 crossover interactions, 68-70 joint linear regression, 61-68 multivariate analyses, 70-76 variance, 57-60 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 156 assessment, 158, 172 contribution to production, 199 enhancement, 204,206,211,214 production systems, 182, 190 root growth models and, 124, 127, 130, 131 time of seedling emergence and, 6-8, 19 wheat resistance to Seproria and, 264, 270,272, 273 Enzymes genetic resources in cereals and, 94 Gossypium and, 235,248,250 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 174 283 INDEX Epidemics, wheat resistance to Septoriu and, 273,274 Erosion forage tree legumes and, 33 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 184, 187 Ethiopia, genetic resources in cereals and, 90,91,94-96 Evolution cowpea and, 145, 149 genetic resources in cereals and, 89,97, I02 Gossypium and, 231-235.248-250 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 174, 206 Expected mean squares, multilocation trials and, 60 F Factor analysis, multilocation trials and, 71.75 Fecundity cowpea and, 146 time of seedling emergence and, 2, 12, 13, 15 Feedback root growth models and, 127 time of seedling emergence and, 17 Fertility genetic resources in cereals and, 90 Gossypium and, 232, 253 mu1tilocation.trials and, 57 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 214 root growth models and, 116, 123, 124 Fertilization, cowpea and, 145, 146 Fertilizer forage tree legumes and management, 41 nitrogen recycling, 48, 49 nitrogen yields, 46 performance, 34,35 species, 28 multilocation trials and, 55 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 156, 157 assessment, 175, 176 contribution to production, 193, 196, 200,201 enhancement, 202,203,206,212, 213 production systems, 180, 181, 183 root growth models and, 117 time of seedling emergence and, Fitness, wheat resistance to Septoriu and, 268 Fixation, nitrogen, see Nitrogen fixation Flooding Gossypium and, 237 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 187 root growth models and, 130 Flowering cowpea and, 136, 137, 145 genetic resources in cereals and, 94 Gossypium and, 240,243 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 208 Fluorescence, wheat resistance to Septoriu and, 261 Food legumes, nitrogen fixation and, 177- 184 Forage, nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 156 assessment, 170, 171 contribution to production, 190, 200-202 production systems, 184, 185, 188, 189 Forage tree legumes, 27, 28,49, 50 animal feed, 34-36 management, 36-38 cutting, 38-41 density, 41-44 nitrogen recycling, 46-49 nitrogen yields, 45,46 performance, 29-34 species, 28, 29 Fungus cowpea and, 136, 138, 139, 141, 142, 145, 149 time of seedling emergence and, wheat resistance to Septoriu and, 257, 262-265,268 Fusion, cowpea and, 146, 147 G Gene pool, genetic resources in cereals and, 101, 103, 107 General combining activity, wheat resistance to Septoriu and, 264, 265, 27 Genetic diversity cowpea and, 138, 139 284 INDEX genetic resources in cereals and, 92-94, loo, 102,106 Gossypium and, 249 Genetic erosion, genetic resources in cereals and, 96, 105 Genetics cereals and, see Cereals, genetic resources in cowpea and, see Cowpea, genetic manipulation of Gossypium and collection, 236 distribution, 232, 233 evaluation, 245-247, 249,25 1,253 multilocation trials and, 60-62, 79 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 210 root growth models and, 131 time of seedling emergence and, , , wheat resistance to Septoria and, 269-273 Genomes cowpea and, 145, 147 genetic resources in cereals and, 92,98 Gossypium and distribution, 229-235 evaluation, 247-250,253 Genotype cowpea and, 142, 143, 145 genetic resources in cereals and, 91,92, 101,104 Gossypium and, 251 multilocation trials and, 55, 56,80-82 AMMI analysis, 76-80 crossover interactions, 68-70 joint linear regression, 61-68 multivariate analyses, 70-76 variance, 57-60 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 158, 190,205,206,208,216 stability, multilocation trials and, 61 wheat resistance to Septoria and, 258, 260,272-274 Geography genetic resources in cereals and, 89,90, 92,94,95, 102, 105 Gossypium and, 226 collection, 236, 242 distribution, 228, 229 evaluation, 248,249,251 multilocation trials and, 82 wheat resistance to Septoria and, 258, 269 Germination root growth models and, 123 time of seedling emergence and, 2-9 GermpIa sm cowpea and, 141 genetic resources in cereals and, 88-91, 93,95-98, 103-107 Gossypium and, 253 collection, 239-242, 245 distribution, 236 evaluation, 250-252 wheat resistance to Septoria and, 258-261,267,268,272-274 Gliadin, genetic resources in cereals and, 96,98 Gliricidia, forage tree legumes and, 30, 35,47 Gliricidia sepium, forage tree legumes and, 28-30, Glutamate synthase, nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 167, 169 Glutamine, nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 167, 168 Glutamine synthetase, nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 167, 169 Gluten, genetic resources in cereals and, 92 Glutenins, genetic resources in cereals and, 101 Gossypium, 225, 226, 253 collection, 235 plant explorations, 237-245 source, 235, 236 distribution evolution, 231-235 geography, 228,229 species, 229-231 taxonomy, 228 evaluation electrophoresis, 247-250 genetics, 245-247 improvement, 250-253 history of domestication, 226-228 root growth models and, 114, 115 Grass forage tree legumes and management, 42 nitrogen recycling, 47 285 INDEX nitrogen yields, 46 performance, 31,33,34 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 188, 189, 191,201,202 root growth models and, 128, 129 time of seedling emergence and, 15, 21 Grazing forage tree legumes and, 27,28 animal feed, 36 management, 36 nitrogen recycling, 47 nitrogen yields, 46 performance, 33,34 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 174, 177,200 Green grams nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 182, 195, 196 time of seedling emergence and, 17, 18,21 Green manure forage tree legumes and, 49 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 176, 177, 184, 186-200 H Habitat cowpea and, 149 genetic resources in cereals and, 92,96, 103, 104 Gossypium and, 234,238 Harvest cowpea and, 138, 140 forage tree legumes and, 29, 36, 37,40, 41,43,45-47 Gossypium and, 244,252 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 56 assessment, 172 contribution to production, 191 193, 197,200 time of seedling emergence and, I 114, 15, 17 Harvest index, nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 191, 193, 198 Hierarchy multilocation trials and, 75,76 time of seedling emergence and, 2, 14, 15 Homology genetic resources in cereals and, 98 Gossypium and, 23 I, 232, 247 Hordeum, time of seedling emergence and, 14, I5 Hordeum murinum, genetic resources in cereals and, 100 Hordeum spontaneum, genetic resources in cereals and, 93, 100, 101 Hordeum uulgare, genetic resources in cereals and, 92,96 Humidity cowpea and, 133, 135, 141 forage tree legumes and, 28 genetic resources in cereals and, 91 Gossypium and, 252 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 156, I86 time of seedling emergence and, 16 Hybrids cowpea and, 143-148, 150 genetic resources in cereals and, 90, 96,98 Gossypium and, 231-234,250-253 multilocation trials and, 77 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 206, 213 Hydrogen, nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 175, 206 Hysteresis, root growth models and, 130 I ICARDA, genetic resources in cereals and, 91,94, 102, 103 Immobilization, nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 191, 213 Immunity, wheat resistance to Septoria and, 259,260, 262 Impedance root growth models and, 129 time of seedling emergence and, , Incompatibility, Gossypium and, 247 Incubation, wheat resistance to Septoria and, 262-267,271 Inhibition forage tree legumes and, 42 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 174, 202,206 286 INDEX time of seedling emergence and, , , wheat resistance to Septoria and, 258 Inoculation Gossypium and, 252 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 202, 203,210-213,216 wheat resistance to Septoria and, 259, 260,263,265-268,274 Insects cowpea and, 136-143, 148-150 forage tree legumes and, 28, 50 Gossypium and, 236,241,244,252 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 197 International Board for Plant Genetic Resources genetic resources in cereals and, 88, 103 Gossypium and, 231, 239,241, 242 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, cowpea and, 137-142, 149 International Wheat and Maize Improvement Center, genetic resources in cereals and, 93, 94 Irradiance, forage tree legumes and, 32,44 Irrigation, nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 182,214 Isoenzymes, nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 207 Isolation, cowpea and, 146, 147 Isotopes, nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 158-165 Isozymes, genetic resources in cereals and, 88 J Joint linear regression, multilocation trials and, 61-68 L Landraces, genetic resources in cereals and, 89-94,98, 102, 106, 107 Latency, wheat resistance to Septoria and, 263,265-267,271,273 Leaf Area Index, forage tree legumes and, 43 Legumes forage tree, see Forage tree legumes nitrogen fixation by, see Nitrogen fixation by legumes Lesions, wheat resistance to Septoria and genetics, 271 identification, 259-266 pathogen variation, 269 Lettuce, time of seedling emergence and, 6,7,9 Leucaena leucocephala, forage tree legumes and, 49 animal feed, 34, 35 management, 38-40,42 nitrogen recycling, 47,48 nitrogen yields, 45 performance, 29,30 Light forage tree legumes and, 30,32,33, 42,44 time of seedling emergence and, 7, 16, 17, 19 Linear regression, multilocation trials and, 61-68,81 Linkage genetic resources in cereals and, 94 Gossypium and, 246 Livestock, nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 184,200-202 Longevity, time of seedling emergence and, 19,20 Lysine, genetic resources in cereals and, 92,99, 102 M Maize forage tree legumes and, 49 genetic manipulation and, 135, 144, 145 multilocation trials and, 73, 75, 79 nitrogen fixation by legumes and contribution to production, 196, 197, 199 enhancement, 216 production systems, 182, 184 Maruca testulalis, genetic manipulation and, 139-141, 149 Megalurothrips sjostedti, genetic manipulation and, 139, 140 Meiosis, Gossypium and, 231,232,246 Mildew cowpea and, 144 genetic resources in cereals and, 90,94, 96, 100 wheat resistance to Sepioria and, 273 287 INDEX Millet genetic manipulation and, 135 multilocation trials and, 67 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 182 Mimosine toxicity, forage tree legumes and, 35,36 Mineralization, nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 162, 191, 192, 197, 198 Mitochondria, cowpea and, 146, 147 Mitosis, cowpea and, 144, 145, 147 Models, root growth, see Root growth models Moisture cowpea and, 136 forage tree legumes and, 30,42 genetic resources in cereals and, 97 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 182, 197 root growth models and, 130 time of seedling emergence and, 3-6, 8,9 wheat resistance to Septoria and, 266 Moisture stress forage tree legumes and, 36 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 214 Monocotyledons cowpea and, 148 time of seedling emergence and, Monosomes Gossypium and, 246,247 wheat resistance to Septoria and, 271 Monotelodisomes, Gossypium and, 246, 247 Morphology cowpea and, 145 genetic resources in cereals and, 88.91, 92,94-96,98-100, 104 Gossypium and, 231,241-244,246-249 multilocation trials and, 75 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 166 root growth models and, 120, 130 time of seedling emergence and, 17-19 Mortality root growth models and, 128 time of seedling emergence and, 2, 20 Multilocation trials, 55, 56, 80-82 AMMI analysis, 76-80 crossover interactions, 68-70 genetic resources in cereals and, I joint linear regression limitation, 61-65 risk, 67,68 yield stability, 65, 66 multivariate analyses, 70, 71 cluster analysis, 75,76 factor analysis, 75 principal components, 71-74 principal coordinates, 74,75 variance, 57 components, 59-61 limitations, 58, 59 Multiple linear regression model, multilocation trials and, 80 Multivariate analysis genetic resources in cereals and, 91 multilocation trials and, 70-76 Mutagenesis, nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 206 Mutation cowpea and, 145 Gossypium and, 233,245, 246 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 207 wheat resistance to Septoria and, 272 N Natural selection, genetic resources in cereals and, 100 Necrosis, wheat resistance to Septoria and genetics, 271 identification, 260, 261, 263-265 pathogen variation, 269 New squares, multilocation trials and, 60 Nitrate, fixation by legumes and assessment, 168-171, 175, 176 enhancement, 202,204,212-215 Nitrate reductase, fixation by legumes and, 207 Nitrate reduction, fixation by legumes and, 168, 169 Nitrate tolerance, fixation by legumes and, 206-210 Nitrogen cowpea and, 134, 135 forage tree legumes and, 41,42,50 animal feed, 34, 35 management, 43 nitrogen recycling, 46-49 nitrogen yields, 45,46 species, 28, 29 multilocation trials and, 72, 73 288 INDEX root growth models and, 124, 128-130 time of seedling emergence and, 4, 18 Nitrogen fixation cowpea and, 133, 135 forage tree legumes and, 28,29,34,42, 46,48 by legumes, 156-158,216 acetylene reduction assay, 174, 175 balance, 174 crops, 191-200 direct transfer, 190, 191 enhancement, 202-2 16 fertilizer, 175, 176 isotopic techniques, 158-165 livestock, 200-202 N-difference method, 165, 166 nodules, 176, 177 production, 177-190 ureide method, 167-173 Nitrogenase, fixation by legumes and, 174, 175 Nodulation cowpea and, 134 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 156, 157 assessment, 165, 167-170, 173, 175-1 77 contribution to production, 191-193 enhancement, 202,204-208,211-214 Nopaline synthase promoter, cowpea and, 148 Nucleotides genetic resources in cereals and, 93 Gossypium and, 234 Nucleus cowpea and, 146, 147 Gossypium and, 253 Nutrient uptake, root growth models and, 113, 117, 126, 127 Nutrition forage tree legumes and, 28, 30.41 Gossypium and, 247 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 156, 172, 177, 184, 204 root growth models and, 128 Onion, time of seedling emergence and, , Ootheca mutabilis, genetic manipulation and, 139-141 Osmotic effects, time of seedling emergence and, , , Oxygen nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 175 root growth models and, 129 time of seedling emergence and, Oxygen diffusion rate root growth models and, 123 time of seedling emergence and, P Panicurn maximum, forage tree legumes and, 33, 35,42 Partitioning nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 173, 191,206 root growth models and, 122, 123, 128, 129 time of seedling emergence and, 16 Pathogens cowpea and, 141, 142, 149 root growth models and, 114 wheat resistance to Septoria and, 274 identification, 258,259,262, 263,267 variation, 268-270 Pennisetum, forage tree legumes and, 32, 33,42 Peroxide, time of seedling emergence and, PH cowpea and, 146 forage tree legumes and, 30 root growth models and, 123 Phaseolae, cowpea and, 134, 141 Phaseolastrae, cowpea and, 135, 144 Phaseolinae, cowpea and, 135, 144, 146 Phaseolus, genetic manipulation and, 148 Phaseolus vulgaris, genetic manipulation and, 146 Phenotype genetic resources in cereals and, 90,95, 96, 104 Gossypium and, 252 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 206 Phosphorus forage tree legumes and, 41 root growth models and, 124 289 INDEX time of seedling emergence and, Photosynthate, root growth models and, 127, 128 Photosynthesis root growth models and, 117, 125 time of seedling emergence and, 9, 16, 17,28 wheat resistance to Septoria and, 268 Physiology cowpea and, 142 genetic resources in cereals and, 91, 98, 100 multilocation trials and, 80, 82 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 172 root growth models and, 113, 114, 118, I19 time of seedling emergence and, 15 wheat resistance to Septoria and, 268, 269 Phytoalexins, cowpea and, 142 Planlago, time of seedling emergence and, 16, 19 Plasmogamy, cowpea and, 146, 147 Ploidy cowpea and, 145 genetic resources in cereals and, 92.93, 95,96,99, 100 Gossypium and, 253 Point mutation, cowpea and, 145 Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, genetic resources in cereals and, 92.98 Polymorphism, genetic resources in cereals and, 89,95 Population cowpea and, 142, 144, 145, 147 forage tree legumes and, 46 Gossypium and, 232,238,240,242, 243, 247-249,253 multilocation trials and, 65, 72 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 156, 202,209,210,213,216 time of seedling emergence and, see Seedling emergence, time of Potassium, root growth models and, 126 Potato genetic manipulation and, 144, 145, 149, 150 root growth models and, 128 Predictive criteria, multilocation trials and, 56,77-80,82 Primary evaluation, genetic resources in cereals and, 88.89 Principal components analysis, multilocation trials and, 71-74, 76, 80-82 Principal components axes, multilocation trials and, 73,77-80 Principal coordinates analysis, multilocation trials and, 71, 74, 75 Protein cowpea and, 135, 138 forage tree legumes and, 28,35,36, 41,46 genetic resources in cereals and, 88, 92, 93,96,97,99-102 Gossypium and, 226, 247 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 156, 177, 178, 184,202 Protoplast, cowpea and, 142-144, 146-148 Pycnidia, wheat resistance to Septoria and identification, 260, 262, 264-266 pathogen variation, 268-270 Q Qualitative interactions, multilocation trials and, 68 Quantitative interactions, multilocation trials and, 68 Quantitative traits, genetic resources in cereals and, 92 R Rain Forest Belt, cowpea and, 135, 138, 139, 141, 145, 149 Rainfall cowpea and, 135, 137 Gossypium and, 237,244 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 213 root growth models and, 114 Reciprocal average, multilocation trials and, 80 Reciprocal crosses, wheat resistance to Septoria and, 264 Recombination cowpea and, 145, 147 genetic resources in cereals and, 98 Gossypium and, 242, 247, 249,251 290 INDEX Recycling, forage tree legumes and, 46 Regrowth, forage tree legumes and, 40, 42-44 Relative efficiency, nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 206 Relative growth rate, time of seedling emergence and, 14, I5 Replicates genetic resources in cereals and, 89, 91,97 multilocation trials and, 56, 57, 76,77 Resistance cowpea and, 139, 141, 144, 148-150 genetic resources in cereals and, 88.94, 97-99 Gossypium and, 236,245,252 of wheat to Septoria, see Wheat resistance to Septoria Respiration root growth models and, 122, 123, 127- I29 time of seedling emergence and, 16, 18 Restricted maximum likelihood, multilocation trials and, 60, 61 Restriction fragment length polymorphism genetic resources in cereals and, I wheat resistance to Seproria and, 214 Rhizobia, nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 202-205,207,210,212, 213 Rhizobium cowpea and, 134 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 172, 175,206,210-213 Rhizosphere, root growth models and, 113, 126, 127 Rhizotron, root growth models and, 115, 116, 123 Rice genetic manipulation and, 144 genetic resources in cereals and, 87 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 163, 182, 187, 198, 199 Risk, multilocation trials and, 67 Root cowpea and, 142 elongation rate, root growth models and, 124, 125 forage tree legumes and, 36,47 genetic resources in cereals and, 107 length density, 114, 116-1 18, 122, 123 nitrogen fixation by legumes and assessment, 160, 166, 167, 175, 176 contribution to production, 191-193, 197 enhancement, 204,207 production systems, 187 sink, 114, 126 time of seedling emergence and, I Root growth models, 113, 114 components classification, 118-121 parameters, 120, 122, 123 soil, 123-125 uptake functions, 125-127 early models, 114, 115 existing models, 128-130 features, 115-1 18 limitations, 130, 131 Rotation forage tree legumes and, 34 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 193, 197,21I , 216 Rust genetic resources in cereals and, 94, 98,99 Gossypium and, 252 wheat resistance to Septoria and, 259, 272,213 Salinity, genetic resources in cereals and, 91.97 Sand, root growth models and, 129 SDS-PAGE, genetic resources in cereals and, 101 Seed cowpea and, 134, 138, 139 genetic resources in cereals and, 88,90 Gossypium and, 227,228 collection, 235, 237,239, 243 evaluation, 248, 250 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 156, 157 contribution to production, 191, 193-195, 197, 198 enhancement, 204,208,209,212,214, 215 wheat resistance to Septoria and, 261, 264 INDEX Seedling emergence, time of, , 2, 20, 21 factors, 2,3, 8, seed attributes, 6-8 sowing depth, temperature, , water, , importance of variation, 9, 10 longevity, 19, 20 organ composition, 17-19 partitioning, 16, 17 total plant growth, 10-15 Selection cowpea and, 143, 145 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 205, 206,209 wheat resistance to Septoria and, 268, 269, 272-274 Septoria nodorum, wheat resistance to, 257,268-270,272-274 Septoria nodorum blotch, wheat resistance to, 257,258,272 genetics, 271 identification, 259-264,267, 268 pathogen variation, 268, 269 Septoria tritici genetic resources in cereals and, 91 wheat resistance to, 258, 272-274 genetics, 270, 272 identification, 260, 263 pathogen variation, 269, 270 Septoria tritici blotch, wheat resistance to, 257,258,272 genetics, 270-272 identification, 259-262, 267, 268 pathogen variation, 269, 270 Sesbania, forage tree legumes and, 29 Sesbania cannabina, forage tree legumes and, 45 Sesbania formosa, forage tree legumes and, 30 Sesbania grandifiora, forage tree legumes and, 35, 38,40,45,47 Sesbania sesban, forage tree legumes and, 30, 38,41,45 Seteria, forage tree legumes and, 32, 35 Sexual incompatibility, cowpea and, 145, 146 Shading multilocation trials and, 57 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 184 29 Soil cowpea and, 134-136 forage tree legumes and, 47,49 animal feed, 36 management, 41-43 nitrogen yields, 46 performance, 30 genetic resources in cereals and, 91 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 156, 157,216 assessment, 158-166, 174-177 contribution to production, 191, 193, 197, 198,200,201 enhancement, 202,204,208-210, 212-21 production systems, 182, 187, 190 root growth models and, 113-1 15, 128-1 30 components, 118, 120, 122-127 features, 116, 117 time of seedling emergence and, 3.4, 6-9 Soil moisture forage tree legumes and, 30 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 213 Somaclonal variation, cowpea and, 143-145, 147 Somatic crossover, cowpea and, 145 Somatic hybridization, cowpea and, 143-148 Sorghum genetic manipulation and, 135, 144 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 182 Sowing cowpea and, 137 forage tree legumes and, 38 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 200, 204,209,210 time of seedling emergence and, 4,6,9, 10, 14, 17, 20 Soybean multilocation trials and, 72-74,77-79 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 156, 157 assessment, 163, 165, 170, 171, 173 contribution to production, 193, 194, 196, 197 enhancement, 202,204,207,208, 212-215 production systems, 176, 178-182, 184 292 INDEX root growth models and, 117 Specific combining ability, wheat resistance to Septoria and, 264, 265, 27 Spore production, wheat resistance to Septoria and, 258,259,262-268 Statistical analysis of multilocation trials, see Multilocation trials Sterility, Gossypium and, 247,253 Stress genetic resources in cereals and, 88,91, 96, 100, 106 Gossypium and, 236 multilocation trials and, 80 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 175 root growth models and, 128, 130 Subterranean clover, time of seedling emergence and, 9, 10 Subtropical agriculture, nitrogen fixation by legumes and, see Nitrogen fixation by legumes Sugar cane, genetic manipulation and, 144, 145, 150 Sum of squared difference, multilocation trials and, 77,78 Suppression, time of seedling emergence and, 17, 18 Survival Gossypium and, 247 time of seedling emergence and, 19, 20 Susceptibility, wheat resistance to Septoria and, 273 genetics, 270-272 identification, 258-262, 264,265 pathogen variation, 269,270 Symbiosis cowpea and, 134 forage tree legumes and, 46,48, 50 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 156, 157 assessment, 158, 161, 165, 169, 173, 175, 176 enhancement, 206-21 production systems, 179 Synchrony cowpea and, 138 time of seedling emergence and, , , Systematic evaluation, genetic resources in cereals and, 89 T Taxonomy cowpea and, 135, 136 genetic resources in cereals and, 97 Gossypium and, 229,236,239,242 Telocentrics, Gossypium and, 246, 247 Temperature forage tree legumes and, 48 genetic resources in cereals and, 97, 103 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 197, 213 root growth models and, 123-125, 128- 130 time of seedling emergence and, 3-6, 16 wheat resistance to Septoria and, 266 Thrips, cowpea and, 139, 140, 149 Tillage, nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 177,213-216 Tissue culture technology, cowpea and, 142-149 Tobacco cowpea and, 146, 147 time of seedling emergence and, Tolerance genetic resources in cereals and, 96 Gossypium and, 227 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 208 wheat resistance to Septoria and, 258, 259,261,267,272 Totipotency, cowpea and, 142, 143 Toxicity, cowpea and, 135, 145 Transformation cowpea and, 143-145, 148, 149 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 197 Transgression, wheat resistance to Septoria and, 271 Translocation, Gossypium and, 232,233, 246 Transpiration forage tree legumes and, 42 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 170 root growth models and, I18 Tree legumes, forage, see Forage tree legumes Triticum genetic resources in cereals and, 98-101 wheat resistance to Septoria and, 260, 261,263,269,270 293 INDEX Triticum aestivum genetic resources in cereals and, 91,92 wheat resistance to Septoria and, 257, 260 Triticum dicoccoides, genetic resources in cereals and, 97-99, 101 Tropical agriculture, nitrogen fixation by legumes and, see Nitrogen fixation by legumes Tropical environments forage tree legumes and, see Forage tree legumes Gossypium and, 244 multilocation trials and, 79 Turgor pressure, root growth models and, 123, 124, 129 U United States Department of Agriculture genetic resources in cereals and, 90, 92-94, 105 Gossypium and, 235,237-241,243,244 Ureide method, nitrogen fixation by legumes and assessment, 167-173, 177 enhancement, 202,209,210,215 V Variability cowpea and, 144, 147 genetic resources in cereals and, 88,89, 91-101, 104-106 Vigna unguiculata, see Cowpea Virulence Gossypium and, 252 wheat resistance to Septoria and, 268-270 Virus, cowpea and, 136, 138, 148 W Water forage Cree legumes and, 46 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 165, 182.204 root growth models and, 113-115, 128-130 classification, 118, 119 soil, 124, 125 time of seedling emergence and, 2-4, 7-9 Weeds cowpea and, 136 genetic resources in cereals and, 96 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 184, 186, 187 time of seedling emergence and, 14, 15 Weighted average, multilocation trials and, 80 Wheat genetic manipulation and, 144, 149 genetic resources in cereals and, 87, 89-93,95-101, 103 multilocation trials and, 75 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 182 resistance to Septoria and, 257,258, 272-274 assessment, 259-261 components, 262-266 genetics, 270-272 identification, 258,259 pathogen variation, 268-270 sources, 272 yield reduction, 267,268 root growth models and, 120, 121, 125, 128 time of seedling emergence and, X Xylem nitrogen fixation by legumes and assessment, 167-173 enhancement, 202,208-210 root growth models and, 130 Y Yield cowpea and, 138, 140, 141, 143, 149 forage tree legumes and, 31,33,34, 37-50 294 genetic resources in cereals and, 87, 90,97 multilocation trials and, 55, 56, 81 AMMI analysis, 76, 77 joint linear regression, 61,63-68 multivariate analyses, 75 INDEX variance, 58,60 nitrogen fixation by legumes and, 166, 176, 182, 198,200,208,213-215 time of seedling emergence and, 14 wheat resistance to Septoria and, 261, 267,268,270 .. .ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY VOLUME 44 This Page Intentionally Left Blank ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY Prepared in Cooperation wirh the AMERICAN SOCIETYOF AGRONOMY VOLUME 44 Edited by N C ... reviews contained herein I express my special gratitude N C BRADY xi This Page Intentionally Left Blank ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY, VOL 44 VARIATION IN TIME OF SEEDLING EMERGENCE WITHIN POPULATIONS:... example, in carrots, germination was faster in seeds containing large embryos (from primary umbels) than in those containing small embryos (from secondary umbels) (Gray, 1979) Also the SEEDLING EMERGENCE
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Xem thêm: Advances in agronomy volume 44 , Advances in agronomy volume 44 , II. Factors That Influence Time of Seedling Emergence, III. Importance of Variation in Time of Seedling Emergence to Crop Development, III. Agronomic Performance of Tree Legumes, V. Management of Tree Legumes, VII. Nitrogen Recycling via Leaf and Excreta, II. Conventional Analysis of Variance, V. Multivariate Analyses of Multilocation Trials, VIII. General Considerations and Conclusions, CHAPTER 4. EVALUATION AND DOCUMENTATION OF GENETIC RESOURCES IN CEREALS, II. Evaluation of Cultivated Wheat, V. Evaluation of Wild and Primitive Forms of Wheat and Barley, VI. Documentation of Genetic Resources, CHAPTER 5. MODELING CROP ROOT GROWTH AND FUNCTION, VI. Limitations to Development of Root Growth Models, CHAPTER 7. NITROGEN FIXATION BY LEGUMES IN TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL AGRICULTURE, II. Methods of Assessing N2 Fixation, III. N2 Fixation in Legume Production Systems, IV. Contribution of Legume N to Plant and Animal Production, V. Strategies to Enhance N2 Fixation, CHAPTER 8. DISTRIBUTION, COLLECTION, AND EVALUATION OF Gossypium, CHAPTER 9. BREEDING WHEAT FOR RESISTANCE TO Septoria nodorum AND Septoria tritici

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