Advances in agronomy volume 41

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ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY VOLUME 41 This Page Intentionally Left Blank ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY Prepared in Cooperation with the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF AGRONOMY VOLUME 41 Edited by N C BRADY Science and Technology Agency for International Development Deportment of State Washington, DC ADVISORY BOARD T M STARLING G H HEICHEL H J GORZE J KAMPRATH R J KOHEL G E HAM E L KLEPPER R H FOLLETT D R BUXTONE S HORNER J J MORTVEM ACADEMIC PRESS, INC Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers San Diego New York Berkeley Boston London Sydney Tokyo Toronto COPYRIGHT 1987 BY ACADEMIC PRESS, INC ALL RIGHTS RESERVED NO PART OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE REPRODUCED OR TRANSMI'ITED IN ANY FORM OR BY ANY MEANS, ELECTRONIC OR MECHANICAL, INCLUDING PHOTOCOPY RECORDING OR ANY INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM, WITHOUT PERMISSION IN WRITING FROM THE PUBLISHER ACADEMIC PRESS, INC 1250 Sixth Avenue San Diego, California 92101 United Kingdom Edition published by ACADEMIC PRESS INC (LONDON) LTD 24-28 Oval Road, London NW1 7DX LIBRARY OF CONGRESSCATALOGCARDNUMBER:50-5598 ISBN 0-12-OOO741-X (alk paper) PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 87 88 89 90 I CONTENTS PREFACE ix SPECIATION CYTOGENETICS AND UTILIZATION OF Arachis SPECIES H T Stalker and J P Moss I Introduction I1 Botany and Taxonomy 111 Plant Collection and Maintenance I v Centers of Origin V Cytogenetics of Aruchis Species v1 Interspecific Hybridization in Arachis VII Germplasm Evaluation VIII Utilization of Wild Aruchis Species IX Successes and Potentials for Utilizing Arachis Germplasm X Conclusions References 10 14 22 32 34 35 CEREAL-LEGUME INTERCROPPING SYSTEMS Francis Ofori and W R Stern I Introduction I1 Background to Intercropping Systems 111 Competitive Relationships between Component Crops I v Some Agronomic Factors Influencing Productivity and Efficiency V Nitrogen Economy of the System VI Summary and Conclusions References 41 42 52 61 72 83 85 GENOTYPIC VARIATION IN CROP PLANT ROOT SYSTEMS J C O’Toole and W L Bland Introduction 11 Significance of Genotypic Variation in Root Systems V 91 92 vi CONTENTS Evidence of Genotypic Variation IV Utilization in Research and Crop Improvement V Phenotypic Plasticity V1 Conclusions and Research Needs References 111 94 120 133 139 140 APPLICATION OF CELL AND TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES FOR THE GENETIC IMPROVEMENT OF SORGHUM, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench: PROGRESS AND POTENTIAL S Kresovich, R E McGee, L Panella, A A Reilley, and F R Miller Introduction Background Goals in Breeding 1V Progress in Cell and Tissue Culture Research V Potential Applications VI Summary References I 11 111 147 148 150 153 162 166 168 UPTAKE OF MINERAL NUTRIENTS AND CROP GROWTH: THE USE OF FLOWING NUTRIENT SOLUTIONS A Wild, L H P Jones, and J H Macduff Introduction Systems Employing Flowing Nutrient Solutions Nutrient Uptake I v Partitioning of Photosynthate between Shoots and Roots V Conclusions and Summary References 11 111 171 172 177 21 214 216 MINERAL NUTRITION OF LINSEED AND FIBER FLAX Peter J Hocking, Peter J Randall, and Andrew Pinkerton I Introduction Production, Crop Growth, and Agronomy Effects of Mineral Nutrition on Yield I v Nutrient Disorders V Salinity VI Soil Acidity VII Interactions between Genotype and Mineral Nutrition VIII General Conclusions and Challenges References 11 111 22 223 225 25 27 28 283 285 287 CONTENTS vii THE IMPACT OF SOIL AND FERTILIZER PHOSPHORUS ON THE ENVIRONMENT A N Sharpley and R G Menzel I Introduction 11 Impact of Phosphorus on the Terrestrial Environment 111 'Ransport of Phosphorus from the Terrestrial to Aquatic Environments IV Impact of Phosphorus on the Aquatic Environment V Conclusions References 297 298 301 311 317 319 BIOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS IN WEED MANAGEMENT: NOW AND IN THE FUTURE Kriton K Hatzios Introduction Production and Use of Biological Weed Control Agents Naturally Occurring Herbicides Genetic Improvement of Crop Tolerance to Herbicides Additional Uses of Genetically Engineered Microorganisms in Weed Management VI Conclusions and Future Prospects References I 11 111 IV V 325 326 332 337 357 364 367 RECLAMATION OF ACIDIC MINED LANDS IN HUMID AREAS P Sutton and W A Dick I Introduction 11 Properties of Spoil on Acidic Mine Lands 111 Application of Various Amendments to Ameliorate Acidic Mine Spoil IV Seeding and Management of Amendment-Treated Spoil V Changes in Soil Properties as Affected by Addition of Amendments VI Summary of Long-Term Results References 371 379 383 389 394 40 40 viii CONTENTS WATER AND QUALITY LOSS DURING FIELD DRYING OF HAY Andy D Macdonald and E Ann Clark Introduction I1 Patterns of Water Loss I11 Factors Influencing Water Loss during Field Drying of Hay IV Losses during Forage Conservation Storage, and Handling V Preservation of Wet Hay VI Conclusions References INDEX 407 407 409 417 430 432 435 439 PREFACE The international status of Advances in Agronomy continues to prevail as illustrated by this volume Authors from five countries have participated in preparing ten review articles This participation confirms the wide-ranging interest in crop and soil science There is a variety of topics covered this year, ranging from reviews of research to improve the yield and quality of two crops of worldwide importance, sorghum and groundnuts, to the reclamation of land around abandoned mines The two crop improvement reviews show evidence of the use of modern biotechnology to alter genetically and to improve these important food crops They are examples of what will likely become more and more common as new and improved methods of genetic improvement are applied to crop plants Two articles are concerned with mineral nutrition The first deals with one specific crop (flax) and focuses on the effects of nutrient stress on vegetative development, yield components, and yield quality The second summarizes the advances made in understanding the requirement for nutrients through the use of flowing nutrient solutions which the authors have researched in depth The effects of environmental factors on the genetic variation in root systems are also reviewed, with the literature covering a number of important field crop species There appears to be considerable variation that could be used in crop improvement programs Intraplant and whole-plant factors influencing water and quality loss of hay during drying are also considered An excellent review is that covering the positive and negative effects of soil and fertilizer phosphorus on the terrestrial environment Attention is given to potentially toxic heavy metals, which are commonly added with phosphate fertilizers, and to means of reducing phosphate levels in lakes Cereal-legume intercropping systems that have become increasingly more common in the tropics are well reviewed by scientists who have had considerable experience in this research area Such systems will likely receive more attention in the future, especially where low-input agriculture is being practiced The management of weeds using biotechnological methods is the focus of another article Increasing crop tolerance to herbicides promises to be one of the more exciting aspects of applied biotechnology We will likely read more on this topic in the future My thanks to the 24 contributors who prepared these articles Their efforts should be appreciated by their fellow agronomists around the world N C BRADY ix 442 INDEX Cattle, hay drying and, 430,43 Cauliflower mosaic virus, weed management, biotechnology and, 355, 356 Caulorhizae, 14, 15, 17, 20 Cell culture, sorghum and, see Sorghum, culture techniques and Cellulose hay drying, loss during, 430 linseed and fiber flax and, 251, 252, 254 Cercospora rodmonii, weed management, biotechnology and, 331 Cereal linseed and fiber flax and, 224, 225 nutrient disorders, 256 uptake, 235 yield responses, 229 root systems and, 92 weed management, biotechnology and, 352, 357, 363 Cereal-legume intercropping systems, see Intercropping systems Chickpea intercropping systems and, 43 root systems and, 115 Chlamydospores, weed management, biotechnology and, 330 Chlorine, linseed and fiber flax and, 226, 239, 280 Chloroacetanilide, weed management, biotechnology and, 361, 366 Chloroanilines, weed management, biotechnology and, 341 Chloroplasts, weed management, biotechnology and, 342, 343, 351 Chlorosis linseed and fiber flax and, 262-264, 266, 270, 286 weed management, biotechnology and, 335 Chlorsulfuron, weed management, biotechnology and, 348, 349, 357, 365 Chromium, phosphorus and, 299 Chromosomes Arachis and, 8-13 germplasm, 15, 22 potential, 32, 33 utilization, 23, 25-27, 29-31 root systems and, 118 sorghum, culture techniques and, 148, 165 weed management, biotechnology and, 347, 353, 355 Citrate-dithionite-bicarbonate,phosphorus and, 314 Climate acidic mined lands and, 391 hay drying, loss during, 409, 410, 432 intercropping systems and, 41 root systems and, 123, 129, 130 Cloned genes, weed management, biotechnology and, 352-357 Clones hay drying, loss during, 412 weed management, biotechnology and, 335 genetic manipulation, 346 tolerance, 341-343 Clover hay drying, loss during, 412, 417 harvesting losses, 421, 424, 428 respiratory losses, 419 window resistance, 414 linseed and fiber flax and, 224, 270, 281 mineral nutrient uptake and, 198, 204, 206, 207, 209, 211, 212, 215 root systems and, 116, 117 Colchicine Arachis and, 23, 25 root systems and, 104 Colletotrichum coccodes, weed management, biotechnology and, 331 Colletotrichum gloesporoides, weed management, biotechnology and, 330, 331 Colletotrichum malvarum, weed management, biotechnology and, 331 Compartmentation sorghum, culture techniques and, 163 weed management, biotechnology and, 338, 346 Copper acidic mined lands and, 399 linseed and fiber flax and, 226 diagnostic criteria, 274 nutrient disorders, 261 yield quality, 255 yield responses, 234 mineral nutrient uptake and, 202, 203, 215 Corn acidic mined lands and, 399 linseed and fiber flax and, 231, 232, 269 phosphorus and, 308 443 INDEX root systems and, 99, 100, 106, 118 weed management, biotechnology and, 366 biodegradation, 358 genetic manipulation, 349, 350, 355 herbicides, naturally occurring, 335 safeners, 362 tolerance, 339-341, 345 Cotton phosphorus and, 308 root systems and, 112, 119 weed management, biotechnology and, 337 Cowpea intercropping systems and, 51, 53, 60,84 combinations, 42-44 nitrogen, 70, 71, 73, 14, 76-79, 82, 83 productivity, 62, 63, 67 water, 57, 58 root systems and, 112, I13 Crazy cattle syndrome, hay drying and, 43 Crude protein, hay drying, loss during, 417, 430 Cucumber, weed management, biotechnology and, 338, 339 Cuticular resistance, hay drying and, 411-413 Cutin, hay drying, loss during, 41 Cyanobacteria, weed management, biotechnology and, 342, 350 Cylindrocladium black rot, Arachis and, 21, 33 Cytology, Arachis and, 9, 1 , 12 D Dehalogenase, weed management, biotechnology and, 360 Deionization, phosphorus and, 308 Dentrification, intercropping systems and, 79-81, 83 Desorption, phosphorus and, 318 impact on aquatic environment, 313 transport to aquatic environment, 303, 306, 307, 309, 310 Dessication, sorghum, culture techniques and, 165 Detoxification, weed management, biotechnology and, 339-341, 346 Dicotyledons, root systems and, 94, 107-1 10 Dieback, linseed and fiber flax and, 269, 270 Dietholate, weed management, biotechnology and, 361 Diffusion, mineral nutrient uptake and, 193-196 Dinitroaniline, weed management, biotechnology and, 344 Diphenamid, weed management, biotechnology and, 348 Diploids Arachis and, , , 9, 12, 13, 35 hybridization, 25-30 potential, 32 root systems and, 104 sorghum, culture techniques and, 148 Disease, linseed and fiber flax and, 224, 235, 240 Disease resistance Arachis and, 2, 14-21, 34 35 root systems and, 128 sorghum, culture techniques and, 152 DNA linseed and fiber flax and, 283 weed management, biotechnology and, 325, 365 genetic manipulation, 351, 353-356 Drought resistance Arachis and, root systems and, 103, 105, 106, 112 genetics, 119, 120 phenotypic plasticity, 136 utilization, 122, 125, 127, 129, 132 sorghum, culture techniques and, 164, 165 Drought resistance index, root systems and, 129, 130 Dry matter, hay drying, loss during, 407, 417, 418, 432-435 harvesting losses, 420-422, 425-427 preservation, 431 respiratory losses, 418, 419 storage losses, 428, 430 water Loss, 408 E Earthworms, acidic mined lands and, 399, 400 Edaphic niches, root systems and, 92-94, 123, 130, 139 444 INDEX Endotoxin, weed management, biotechnology and, 362 Enzymes mineral nutrient uptake and, 196 phosphorus and, 298 weed management, biotechnology and, 325, 366 genetic manipulation, 346 herbicides, naturally occurring, 335 microorganisms, 360-362, 365 tolerance, 338-341, 343-345 EPSP synthase, weed management, biotechnology and, 344, 350, 356, 357 Equilibrium P concentration, phosphorus and, 309, 310, 313 Erectoides 4, 7, 9-12 germplasm, 17, 20 utilization, 30 Erosion acidic mined lands and, 377 amendments, 384, 388 seeding, 390, 391 soil properties, 394 spoil properties, 382 phosphorus and, 297, 298, 318 transport to aquatic environment, 301-303, 308 Escherichia coli, weed management, biotechnology and, 343-345 Ethyl methane sulfonate, weed management, biotechnology and, 348 Eukaryotes, weed management, biotechnology and, 354 Eutrophication, phosphorus and, 297 artificial removal from lakes, 317 bioavailability, 316 impact on aquatic environment, 312 transport to aquatic environment, 303 Extracellular resistance, hay drying, loss during, 413 Ewtranervosae, 7, germplasm, hybridization, 1 , 12 F Fatty acids, hay drying, loss during, 41 Fermentation, weed management, biotechnology and, 332, 364 herbicides, naturally occurring, 333, 335 Ferric hydroxide, acidic mined lands and, 381 Fertilizer, acidic mined lands and, 389, 391 Fertilizer phosphorus, impact on environment, see Phosphorus, impact on environment Fiber flax, mineral nutrition of, see Linseed and fiber flax, mineral nutrition of Fish phosphorus and, 298, 311 weed management, biotechnology and, 328 Flax rust, linseed and fiber flax and, 256, 284 Flowing nutrient solutions, mineral nutrient uptake and, see Mineral nutrient uptake Flufosinate, weed management, biotechnology and, 341 Flurazole, weed management, biotechnology and, 340, 346 Fly ash, acidic mined lands and, 385, 387 388 seeding, 389 soil properties, 394-396 Fresh weight, hay drying, loss during, 407-409 Fungi acidic mined lands and, 400 Arachis and, 15 hay drying, loss during, 408, 41 1, 429 mineral nutrient uptake and, 189 weed management, biotechnology and, 326, 332 commercial prospects, 329-33 herbicides, naturally occurring, 333, 337 microbes, 328, 329 Fusaric acid, weed management, biotechnology and, 337 Fusarium, weed management, biotechnology and, 337 Fusarium wilt, linseed and fiber flax and, 232, 239, 256 Fusicoccin, hay drying, loss during, 41 Fusicoccum arnyqdali, hay drying, loss during, 41 Fusion, weed management, biotechnology and, 325 INDEX 445 weed management, biotechnology and, 335 Genetics, root systems and, 117 control system, 118-120 heritability, 117, 118 Genotrophs, nutrient induced, linseed and fiber flax and, 282, 283 Genotype Arachis and, 15, 20, 22, 28, 31, 32 intercropping systems and, 74 linseed and fiber flax and, 280 differences, 283, 284 nutrient induced genotrophs, 282, 283 mineral nutrient uptake and, 171, 184, 215 sorghum, culture techniques and, 153, 154, 157, 159, 160, 163, 164 Genotypic variation, root systems and, see Root systems, genotypic variation in Germplasm Arachis and, 1-3, 14, 22, 34, 35 disease resistance, 14, 15, 20, 21 hybridization, 13 insect resistance, 16-19, 21, 22 plant collection, 6, potential, 33, 34 utilization, 22, 30 root systems and, 111, 116, 125, 129, 132 sorghum, culture techniques and, 152, 154, 158 Gibberellic acid, Arachis and, 23, 24, 31, 32 Glucose, hay drying, loss during, 413 Glutamine synthetase, weed management, biotechnology and, 335, 344, 345 Glutathione, weed management, biotechnology and, 339, 340 Glyphosate, weed management, biotechnology and, 343, 344, 365 genetic manipulation, 349, 350, 356, 357 safeners, 362 Grass acidic mined lands and seeding, 391, 392 soil properties, 399 spoil properties, 382 hay drying, loss during, 409,41 1, 414, 416 harvesting losses, 420, 422, 425 respiratory losses, 419 phosphorusand,298 sorghum, culture techniques and, 153 Groundnut, intercropping systems and, 56, 57, 63 combinations, 43, 44 nitrogen, 68-71, 73, 74, 78, 79 Groundnut rosette virus, Arachis and, 15 GSH-S-transferase (GST), weed management, biotechnology and, 339, 340, 346,366 H Haploids Arachis and, 32 sorghum, culture techniques and, 154, 166 weed management, biotechnology and, 349 Harvesting losses, hay drying and, 419 baling, 426-428 chemical conditions, 422-424 mechanical conditions, 421, 422 mowing, 419-421 raking, 424-426 Hay drying, 407,432-435 handling losses, 430 harvesting losses, 419 baling, 426-428 chemical conditioning, 422-424 mechanical conditioning, 421, 422 mowing, 419-421 raking, 424426 preservation of wet hay, 430-432 respiratory losses, 418, 419 storage losses, 417, 418, 428-430 water loss agronomic factors, 414 climate, 409,410 drying, 408, 409 grasses, 414-416 legumes, 416, 417 plant factors, 410-413 storage moisture, 407, 408 windrow resistance, 413, 414 Herbicide, weed management, biotechnology and, see Weed management, biotechnology and Heterosis, root systems and, 105, 120 446 INDEX Heterozygosity root systems and, 134 sorghum, culture techniques and, 157 Hexaploids, Arachis and, 12, 25, 26 Homology Arachis and, 12, 13 weed management, biotechnology and, 340, 344, 350, 353 Homozygosity, sorghum, culture techniques and, 151, 152, 154, 166 Hormones Arachis and, mineral nutrient uptake and, 193 Horseweed, weed management, biotechnology and, 338, 339 Humidity hay drying, loss during, 410, 429 intercropping systems and, 58, 81 Humidity, acidic mined lands and, see Acidic mined lands Hurley system, mineral nutrient uptake and, 173-176, 198, 204 Hybridization Arachis and, 1, 34, 35 cytogenetics, 8, diploids, 25-28 germplasm, 15, 22 intersectional, 28-30 interspecific, 10-13 potential, 32, 34 utilization, 23, 24 in vitro techniques, 30-32 hay drying, loss during, 416 root systems and, 99, 100, 105 utilization, 121, 128, 132 sorghum, culture techniques and, 148 applications, 166 callus, 154 protoplast culture, 162 somaclonal variation, 165 somatic embryogenesis, 157, 158 weed management, biotechnology and, 339, 340 Hydrolysis, phosphorus and, 298, 312 Hydrophobicity, hay drying, loss during, 411, 412 Hydroponics, root systems and, 105, 136 Hypolimnion, phosphorus and, 313, 317 I Imazaquin, weed management, biotechnology and, 349 Imidazolinone, weed management, biotechnology and, 343, 349 I n vitro dry matter digestibility, hay drying, loss during, 419, 431 Inflorescence linseed and fiber flax and, 248 sorghum, culture techniques and, 150, 153, 158, 159 Insect resistance Arachis and, 16-19, 21, 22, 33, 34 sorghum, culture techniques and, 152 Insects, weed management, biotechnology and, 328 Intercropping systems, 41, 42, 85 competitive relationships, 52-54 light, 53, 55-57 nitrogen, 58, 59 phosphorus, 59, 60 potassium, 60, 61 water, 57, 58 crop combinations, 42-46 density, 61-63 LER, 50-52 nitrogen, 68, 69, 72, 84 budgeting, 82, 83 fuation, 72-76 losses, 79-82 maize, 68-72 transfer, 76-79 plant arrangement, 63-65 productivity evaluation, 43, 47-50 sowing, 65-68 International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, 55, 72, 83 Interpational Rice Research Institute, root systems and, 103, 104, 125, 127 Intracellular resistance, hay drying, loss during, 413 Iodine, linseed and fiber flax and, 222 246 yield quality, 251, 253, 254 Iron acidic mined lands and, 381, 382, 399 linseed and fiber flax and, 226, 286 acidity, 281 diagnostic criteria, 274 genotype, 284 447 INDEX nutrient disorders, 260, 262-266 uptake, 241, 242 mineral nutrient uptake and, 203, 206 phosphorus and, 307, 313 Iron disulfide, acidic mined lands and, 377 Irradiance, hay drying, loss during, 409, 412-414 Irradiation, weed management, biotechnology and, 352 Irrigation linseed and fiber flax and, 225 nutrient disorders, 256, 257 salinity, 277 yield components, 242, 245, 251 yield responses, 227, 228 231 root systems and, 93, 128, 132, 136, 138 intercropping systems and, see Intercropping systems weed management, biotechnology and, 357 Lignin linseed and fiber flax and, 251, 260 sorghum, culture techniques and, 151 Lime acidic mined lands and, 379, 385, 389, 395 linseed and fiber flax and, 260, 280, 282 root systems and, 107 Limestone, acidic mined lands and, 383, 389, 391 Linoleic acid, linseed and fiber flax and, 222, 253 Linolenic acid, linseed and fiber flax and, K 222, 253 Linseed and fiber flax, mineral nutrition of, Karyotype, Arachis and, 9, 10 L Land Equivalent Ratio, intercropping systems and, 47-51, 83, 84 advantages, 51, 52 disadvantages, 52 nitrogen, 68-72 productivity, 62, 66-68 Large round bales, hay drying, loss during, 426-432 Leaching acidic mined lands and, 379 amendments, 384, 385 soil properties, 3% hay drying, loss during, 418, 422 intercropping systems and, 81-83 phosphorus and, 307, 308 Lead mineral nutrient uptake and, 202, 215 phosphorus and, 299 Leaf area index, intercropping systems and, 55 Leafspots, Arachis and, 20, 33, 34 Legume acidic mined lands and seeding, 391, 392 spoil properties, 382, 383 hay drying, loss during, 414, 416, 417 harvesting losses, 422-424 respiratory losses, 419 221-223, 284-286 acidity, 280-282 agronomy, 224 225 crop growth, 223, 224 genotype differences, 283, 284 nutrient induced genotrophs, 282, 283 nutrient disorders boron, 255-258 calcium, 258-261 copper, 261 diagnostic criteria, 271-276 iron, 262-264 magnesium, 264 manganese, 264, 265 molybdenum, 265, 266 nitrogen, 266, 267 phosphorus, 267 potassium, 267, 268 sulfur, 268, 269 zinc, 269-271 production, 223 salinity, 277-280 uptake major nutrients, 234-241 micronutrients, 241, 242 yield components, 242 major nutrients, 242-251 micronutrients, 251 yield quality, 255 nitrogen, 25 1-253 phosphorus, 253, 254 potassium, 254 448 INDEX yield responses, 225, 226 major nutrients, 226-234 micronutrients, 234 Loam, acidic mined lands and, 394 Lodging linseed and fiber flax and, 227, 229 root systems and, 116 Lower leaf scorch, linseed and fiber flax and, 265, 266 M Macrophytes, phosphorus and, 310, 318 Magnesium acidic mined lands and, 382, 383, 399 linseed and fiber flax and, 226 acidity, 281 diagnostic criteria, 275 nutrient disorders, 260, 264 salinity, 278, 280 yield quality, 255 yield responses, 233, 239, 241 mineral nutrient uptake and, 203 Maize intercropping systems and, 50, 51, 83, 84 combinations, 42-44 light, 55-57 nitrogen, 68-74, 76-78, 81-83 phosphorus, 60 potassium, 61 productivity, 48-50, 62-68 water, 58 linseed and fiber flax and, 273 mineral nutrient uptake and, 189, 205, 212 root systems and, 138 sorghum, culture techniques and applications, 164, 166 callus, 153 protoplast culture, 160 somatic embryogenesis, 158, 160 Manganese acidic mined lands and, 382, 396, 399 linseed and fiber flax and, 226, 285, 286 acidity, 281 diagnostic criteria, 275 genotype, 284 nutrient disorders, 260-265 uptake, 241, 242 yield components, 251 yield quality, 255 yield responses, 234 Mascasite acidic mined lands and, 381 Meiosis, Aruchb and, 8, 9, 11, 13 utilization, 23, 26 Meristematic activity, sorghum, culture techniques and, 160, 166 Meristems, linseed and fiber flax and, 256 Methoxyphenone, weed management, biotechnology and, 336, 337 Metribuzin, weed management, biotechnology and, 338, 339 Microarthropods, acidic mined lands and, 399,400 Microbes, weed management, biotechnology and, 326, 328, 329 Microbial herbicide safeners, weed management, biotechnology and, 361, 362, 365, 366 Millet, intercropping systems and combinations, 42, 43, 46 light, 56 productivity, 68 water, 57 Mineral nutrient uptake, 171-173, 214, 215 external concentration, 184-186 composition, effects of, 204-21 diffusive pathway into roots, 193-196 nonsteady state, 189-193 plant composition, 202-204 steady state, 185, 187-189 Hurley system 173-176 photosynthate partitioning, 211, 212 plant growth, 177-180 plant requirements, 180-184 temperature, 1%-202, 213 Mineral nutrition of linseed and fiber flax, see Linseed and fiber flax, mineral nutrition of Mineralization acidic mined lands and, 389 intercropping systems and, 77 phosphorus and, 298 weed management, biotechnology and, 358 Minirhizotron, root systems and, 105, 114 Mitochondria, weed management, biotechnology and, 351 Moisture acidic mined lands and, 377, 379 449 INDEX genetic manipulation, 346, 347 herbicides, naturally occurring, 335 somatic hybridization, 351, 352 tolerance, 342-345 in vitro selection, 348-351 Mycoherbicides, weed management, biotechnology and, 332, 364 commercial prospects, 329-33 microbes, 328 Mycorrhiza mineral nutrient uptake and, 171, 184, seeding, 390 spoil properties, 380 hay drying, loss during climate, 410 drying, 409 grass, 415, 416 harvesting losses, 422, 425, 427 legume, 416, 417 respiratory losses, 418 storage, 407, 408, 415 storage losses, 428, 430 windrow resistance, 414 linseed and fiber flax and, 225, 226 nutrient disorders, 255, 260 yield responses, 229, 234 root systems and, 107, 118, 122 weed management, biotechnology and, 189, 215 root systems and, 91 N Narrow sense heritability, root systems and, 117-120 328 Necrosis, linseed and fiber flax and, 259, Molybdenum, linseed and fiber flax and, 265, 266, 269 226 acidity, 281 diagnostic criteria, 275 nutrient disorders, 261, 264-266 Monoclonal antibodies, weed management, biotechnology and, 366 Monocotyledons, root systems and, 94-99 Morphology Arachis and, 4, 9, 27 hay drying, loss during, 416 intercropping systems and, 41, 42, SO, 72 linseed and fiber flax and, 282 mineral nutrient uptake and, 199 root systems and, 91, 93, 94 dicotyledons, 107, 111-115 genetics, 118 monocotyledons, 95, 99, 100, 105 phenotypic plasticity, 137, 138 utilization, 127, 128, 132 sorghum, culture techniques and, 148, 164, 165 Mowing, hay drying, loss during, 419-421 Mulches, acidic mined lands and, 390, 391 Mutation root systems and, 115, 120, 130 sorghum, culture techniques and, 164, 165 weed management, biotechnology and, 332 366 biodegradation, 360, 361 breeding, 347, 348 cloned genes 355-357 * Nematodes, weed management, biotechnology and, 328 Nitrate linseed and fiber flax and, 238, 265, 281 root systems and, 100 Nitrogen acidic mined lands and, 401 amendments, 385, 386 soil properties, 399 spoil properties, 382 hay drying, loss during grass, 414-416 legume, 416 preservation, 43 1, 432 respiratory losses, 419 intercropping systems and, 41, 42, 58, 59, 83-85 budgeting, 82, 83 competitive relationships, 58, 59 fixation, 72-76 losses, 79-82 productivity, 68-72 transfer, 76-79 linseed and fiber flax and, 284 diagnostic criteria, 273, 275, 276 genotype, 282 283 nutrient disorders, 264-270 salinity, 278 uptake, 235-240 yield components, 242-251 yield quality, 251-254 yield responses, 226-234 450 INDEX mineral nutrient uptake and, 180, 196, 202-204, 206-209, 211, 215 phosphorus and, 297 root systems and, 91 weed management, biotechnology and, 344 Nitrogenase, mineral nutrient uptake and, 209, 210, 215 Norghum, sorghum, culture techniques and, acidic mined lands and, 395 root systems and, 123 Pest resistance, sorghum, culture techniques and, 151 Petunia, weed management, biotechnology and, 350, 356, 357, 365 Phenmediphan, weed management, biotechnology and, 349 Phenol, sorghum, culture techniques and, 151, 153, 158, 164 154, 157 Nutrient solutions, mineral nutrient uptake and, see Mineral nutrient uptake Oats intercropping systems and, 42, 43 linseed and fiber flax and acidity, 281 diagnostic criteria, 273 nutrient disorders, 261 uptake, 235 root systems and, 101, 102, 129, 130 Oilseed rape, mineral nutrient uptake and, 196, 199, 204, 205, 207, 212, 214, 215 Oxygen, phosphorus and, 298, 31 P Phenotype root systems and, 92, 140 dicotyledons, 115 genetics, 117 monocotyledons, 100 plasticity, 133-1 39 utilization, 121, 132 sorghum, culture techniques and, 149, 151 Phenotypic plasticity root systems, genotypic variation in, 133 characteristics, 134-136 description, 133, 134 experimental evidence, 136-139 sorghum, culture techniques and, 157 Phenoxyacetic acid, weed management, biotechnology and, 349, 360 Phloem, linseed and fiber flax and, 241, 251, 278 Papermill sludge, acidic mined lands and, 385, 387, 388 seeding, 390 soil properties, 399 Paraquat hay drying, loss during, 422 weed management, biotechnology and, 338, 339, 349 Pea linseed and fiber flax and, 256 root systems and, 113, 117, 120, 137 weed management, biotechnology and, 343 Peanut, see also Arachis root systems and, 113, 114 Peanut mottle virus, Arachis and, 20 Peanut rust, Arachis and, 33 Peanut stunt virus, Arachis and, 20 Peg, Arachis and, 3, 7, 23, 24, 31 Pentaploids, Arachis and, 23 Pepper, root systems and, 116 Percola tion Phosphate linseed and fiber flax and, 236 mineral nutrient uptake and, 171, 175, 182, 187-190, 195 photosynthate partitioning, 212 solution, 206, 208, 211 temperature, 199 phosphorus and, 297, 312 Phosphinothricin, 335, 337, 341, 346 L-Phosphinothricin, 344, 345, 350, 364 Phosphoric acid, phosphorus and, 299 Phosphorus acidic mined lands and, 385, 396, 399 intercropping systems and, 58-60, 74 linseed and fiber flax and, 284, 285 diagnostic criteria, 273, 275, 276 genotype, 282-284 nutrient disorders, 261, 266, 267, 270, 273 salinity, 278 uptake, 235-241 yield components, 242, 243, 246-251 INDEX yield quality, 252-254 yield responses, 226-234 mineral nutrient uptake and, 202, 203, 206, 211 root systems and, 99, 100, 103, 105, 106 Phosphorus, impact on environment, 297, 298, 317-319 artificial removal from lakes, 316, 317 beneficial effects, 298 detrimental effects, 299-301 impact on aquatic environment, 311, 312 bioavailability, 313-316 particulate, 312, 313 soluble, 312 transport to aquatic environment, 301, 302 amounts, 302-305 desorption, 303, 306, 307 leaching, 307, 308 particulate, 308, 309 transformation, 310, 31 Photic zone, phosphorus and, 313, 314 Photophosphorylation, weed management, biotechnology and, 335 Photosynthate partitioning, mineral nutrient uptake and, 211, 212, 214, 215 Photosynthesis, mineral nutrient uptake and, 178 Phytopathogenic agents, weed management, biotechnology and, 33 1, 332, 364 Phytophthroa palrnivora, weed management, biotechnology and, 330 Phytotoxins, weed management, biotechnology and, 333-336, 339 biocatalysts, 363 biodegradation, 360 tolerance, 343 Picloram, weed management, biotechnology and, 337, 349 Pigeonpea intercropping systems and combinations, 42, 43 competitive relationships, 53 LER, 51 light, 55-57 nitrogen, 72 phosphorus, 60 potassium, 61 productivity, 48-50, 63, 65 water, 81 45 Plasmid, weed management, biotechnology and, 353-355, 366 biodegradation, 357-361 Plastid, weed management, biotechnology and, 339, 341-343 Plastoquinone, weed management, biotechnology and, 341 Pollen mother cells, Arachis and, 9, 28 Pollen stainability, Arachis and, 11, 28, 29 Pollen tubes, Arachis and, 24 Pollination Arachis and, 3, 12, 23, 26, 27, 32 linseed and fiber flax and 224 sorghum, culture techniques and, 150, 152, 157, 166 Polyploids, Arachis and, 9, 23, 31 Porosity acidic mined lands and, 380, 401 root systems and, 138 Potassium acidic mined lands and, 385, 399 hay drying, loss during, 418, 424 intercropping systems and, 60, 61 linseed and fiber flax and acidity, 281 diagnostic criteria, 273, 276, 278 genotype, 282, 283 nutrient disorders, 267, 268 salinity, 280 uptake, 235, 238-241 yield components, 246, 248-251 yield quality, 253, 254 yield responses, 226, 227, 231, 233, 234 mineral nutrient uptake and, 175, 178, 182, 187-192, 194, 195, 215 concentration, 202, 203 photosynthate partitioning, 21 temperature, 198 root systems and, 99, 131 Potassium carbonate, hay drying, loss during, 412, 423, 424 Potato, weed management, biotechnology and, 341, 351 Potential evapotranspiration, hay drying, loss during, 409 Pozzolanic acid, acidic mined lands and, 395 Prexul, weed management, biotechnology and, 337 Propionic acid, hay drying, loss during, 430, 43 452 INDEX Protein, see also Crude protein Arachis and, 22 hay drying, loss during, 427, 429, 432 intercropping systems and, 43, 84 linseed and fiber flax and, 222, 223, 285 nutrient disorders, 261, 266, 267 yield quality, 253, 254 weed management, biotechnology and 341, 343-345, 365 Protoplast culture, sorghum, culture techniques and, 160, 162 p b A gene, weed management, biotechnology and, 342, 343, 350, 354 Pyrite, acidic mined lands and amendments, 384, 386, 388 seeding, 389 spoil properties, 381 Q Qe protein, weed management, biotechnology and, 341, 342 R yield components, 248 yield responses, 229 232 Regeneration, sorghum, culture techniques and, 155-162, 165, 166 Relative growth rate, mineral nutrient uptake and, 182, 183, 185, 186, 189, 194, 195, 202, 214 Relative humidity, hay drying, loss during, 410.413 Relative Yield Total, intercropping systems and, 43, 47-50, 52 Respiratory losses, hay drying and, 418, 419 Rhizobium, mineral nutrient uptake and, 184 Rhizomatosae, 7, germplasm, 20 hybridization, 11, 12 utilization, 30 Rhizosphere linseed and fiber flax and, 263, 270, 280 mineral nutrient uptake and, 171, 172, 184, 208 Rice intercropping systems and, combinations, 43,46 Radiation, mineral nutrient uptake and, 177, 178 Radioactivity, phosphorus and, 299 Radionuclides, phosphorus and, 301, 318 Radish, mineral nutrient uptake and, 182, 187, 202, 212 Radium, phosphorus and, 297 Rain, root systems and, 93, 94, 105, 125, 130 Rainfall hay drying, loss during, 409 agronomic factors, 414 harvesting losses, 422,424 respiratory losses, 418, 419 windrow resistance, 414 intercropping systems and, 57, 81 linseed and fiber flax and, 225, 228, 233 phosphorus and, 301 transport to aquatic environment, 302, 307-309 Raking, hay drying, loss during, 424-426 Rapeseed hay drying, loss during, 420 linseed and fiber flax and, 222, 224 salinity, 277 uptake, 235, 236 mineral nutrient uptake and, 189 root systems and, 93, 102, 103 genetics, 118, 120 utilization, 124-127 weed management, biotechnology and, 330, 331, 337 RNA, linseed and fiber flax and 283 Root systems, genotypic variation in, 91, 92, 139, 140 dicotyledons, 94, 95, 107-110, 115-117 alfalfa, 107, 111 bean, 111, 112 cotton, 112 cowpea, 112, 113 pea, 113 peanut, 113, 114 soybean, 114, 115 tomato, 115 edaphic niches, 92-94 genetics, 117-120 monocotyledons, 94-97 barley, 95, 99 corn, 99 100 forage grasses, 100, 101 oat, 101 102 rice, 102-104 453 INDEX rye, 104 sorghum, 104-106 wheat, 106, 107 phenotypic plasticity, 133 characteristics, 134-136 description, 133, 134 experimental evidence, 136-139 utilization, 120, 121 alfalfa, 121 crop improvement, 130-132 oats, 129, 130 rice, 124-127 soybean, 122-124 wheat, 121, 122, 127, 128 water flow, 95 Rootworm, root systems and, 100 Runoff acidic mined lands and, 384 phosphorus and, 298, 318, 319 amounts, 303-305 desorption, 306, 307 leaching, 307, 308 particulate, 309 transformation, 310, 311 transport to aquatic environment, 301, 302 Rye, root systems and, 104 Ryegrass hay drying, loss during, 412, 415, 416 harvesting losses, 421 windrow resistance, 414 mineral nutrient uptake and, 175, 177, 178, 180, 182, 187-192, 194-196, 214, 215 concentration, 202 photosynthate partitioning, 21 1, 212 solution, 205-207 temperature, 198 root systems and, 117 S Safflower, root systems and, 116, 137 Salinity linseed and fiber flax and, 226, 257, 277-280, 284 mineral nutrient uptake and, 215 sorghum, culture techniques and, 162, 163 Salmonella, weed management, biotechnology and, 343 Salt, acidic mined lands and, 379, 399 Saturation deficit hour, hay drying, loss during, 422 Sedimentation, phosphorus and, 298 artificial removal from lakes, 317 bioavailability, 314, 315 transport to aquatic environment, 308-310 Sewage sludge, acidic mined lands and, 385-388, 395, 397, 399 Sheep, hay drying and, 431 Sodium linseed and fiber flax and, 226 diagnostic criteria, 273 salinity, 278, 280 yield quality, 254, 255 mineral nutrient uptake and, 175 Sodium chloride linseed and fiber flax and, 277, 278, 280 sorghum, culture techniques and, 163 Sodium lauryl sulfate, acidic mined lands and, 386 Soil phosphorus, impact on environment, see Phosphorus, impact on environment Somaclonal variation, sorghum, culture techniques and, 164, 165 Somatic embryogenesis, sorghum, culture techniques and, 155-161, 164 Sorghum intercropping systems and combinations, 43, 45, 46 competitive relationships, 53 LER, 51 light, 55 nitrogen, 72, 73, 78 potassium, 61 productivity, 62, 65 water, 57 phosphorus and, 308 root systems and, 104-106, 131, 136 Sorghum, culture techniques and, 147-150, 166, 167 anther, 154, 155 breeding goals, 150-152 callus, 153, 154 potential applications 162 adjunct, 165, 166 model system, 162 163 screening, 163, 164 somaclonal variation, 164 165 454 INDEX protoplast culture, 160, 162 somatic embryogenesis, 155-161 Sorghum bicolor 6.) Moench, 148, 149 Sorption acidic mined lands and, 386 phosphorus and artificial removal from lakes, 317 impact on aquatic environment, 313 transport to aquatic environment, 301, 309-31 Sowing linseed and fiber flax and, 225 diagnostic criteria, 239 yield responses, 230, 231 mineral nutrient uptake and, 180 root systems and, 100 Soybean intercropping systems and, 53 83 combinations, 42-45 LER, 51 light, 55, 56 nitrogen, 68-70, 73, 75, 76, 78, 79 productivity, 48, 49, 63, 65 linseed and fiber flax and, 232, 236, 286 mineral nutrient uptake and, 199, 205 phosphorus and, 308 root systems and, 114, 115, 122-124 weed management, biotechnology and, acidic mined lands and, 389, 399 linseed and fiber flax and, 226, 285 nutrient disorders, 267-269 yield components, 244 yield responses, 233, 234 mineral nutrient uptake and, 203 Sulfuric acid, acidic mined lands and 381 Sunflower linseed and fiber flax and, 223 acidity, 281 nutrient disorders, 269 yield components, 248 yield quality, 252 mineral nutrient uptake and, 206, 212 root systems and, 116 Sunflower oil, linseed and fiber flax and, 222 Superphosphate linseed and fiber flax and, 233, 261, 282, 285 phosphorus and, 301, 311 Symbiosis intercropping systems and, 74 mineral nutrient uptake and, 171, 196, 206, 207, 209, 215 root systems and, 91 Symplasm, mineral nutrient uptake and, 194- 196 330, 331 biocatalysts, 363 genetic manipulation, 350 herbicides, naturally occurring, 335 tolerance, 338, 339, 341-343 Spinach, weed management, biotechnology and, 342 Staple Land Equivalent Ratio, intercropping systems and, 48-50 Stomata1 resistance, hay drying, loss during, 41 Streptomyces, weed management, biotechnology and, 341, 346 Streptomyces hygroscopicus, weed management, biotechnology and, 335 Sucrose, linseed and fiber flax and, 261, 267-269 Sugar cane intercropping systems and, 42 sorghum, culture techniques and, 162 Sulfonylurea, weed management, biotechnology and, 343-345, 349, 362 Sulfur T Tedding, hay drying, loss during, 424-426 Temperature acidic mined lands and, 381 hay drying, loss during, 409,413, 429, 43 intercropping systems and, 79 linseed and fiber flax and, 225 nutrient disorders, 263, 270 uptake, 239 yield responses, 229 mineral nutrient uptake and, 171, 172, 175, 196-202, 204, 212, 213, 215 phosphorus and, 313 root systems and, 100, 101, 104, 138, 139 weed management, biotechnology and, 328 Tentoxin, weed management, biotechnology and, 335 Terbutryne, weed management, biotechnology and, 348 455 INDEX Tetraploids Arachis and, 1, 8, 13, 24-26, 32 root systems and, 104 Thiobacillusferrooxidans, acidic mined lands and, 381, 386 Thiocarbamate, weed management, biotechnology and, 358, 361 Tillage, phosphorus and, 303 Timothy, hay drying, loss during, 414, 416 Tissue culture, sorghum and, see Sorghum, culture techniques and Tobacco, weed management, biotechnology and, 365 genetic manipulation, 348, 349, 355-357 tolerance, 341-345 Tomato mineral nutrient uptake and, 205 root systems and, 92, 115, 120, 137 weed management, biotechnology and, hay drying and, 431 linseed and fiber flax and, 229-231 uptake, 237 yield quality, 252 Ureide, intercropping systems and, 74 V Vanadium, phosphorus and, 299 Vapor pressure deficit, hay drying, loss during, 408, 409,414 Vigna subterranea, Virus Arachis and, 15, 21 weed management, biotechnology and, 326 commercial prospects, 329 genetic manipulation, 355 microbes, 328 Volatilization, intercropping systems and, 79-8 1, 83 337, 341 genetic manipulation, 348, 352, 355 Tomato spotted wilt virus, Arachis and, 20 Topsoil, acidic mined lands and, 383-385 394, 395, 399 Toxins, weed management, biotechnology and, 332, 333, 335, 356, 364 Translocation, weed management, biotechnology and, 337, 338, 346 Transposable elements, weed management, biotechnology and, 355 Triazine, weed management, biotechnology and.341-343, 366 genetic manipulation, 347, 352 Tridiphane, weed management, biotechnology and, 366 Trifluralin, weed management, biotechnology and, 344 Trifofiumsubterraneum, Trihalomethane, acidic mined lands and, 388 Triploids, Aruchis and, 12, 15, 25, 26, 33 Tubulin, weed management, biotechnology and, 344 Tumor, weed management, biotechnology and, 355 U W Washoff, phosphorus and, 307 Water acidic mined lands and, 394 intercropping systems and, 57, 58, 79 linseed and fiber flax and, 251 mineral nutrient uptake and, 199 phosphorus and, 297 bioavailability, 316 impact on aquatic environment, 311-313 transport to aquatic environment, 302, 306, 308, 309 root systems and, 91, 95 dicotyledons, 111, 112, 114-116 monocotyledons, 101-103, 105-107 phenotypic plasticity, 138 utilization, 123, 127, 128 weed management, biotechnology and, 33 Water loss, hay drying and, see Hay drying Water use efficiency, intercropping systems and, 58 Waterlogging, linseed and fiber flax and, 258-260, 262 Watersheds, phosphorus and, 307, 308, Uranium, phosphorus and, 297 Urea 311, 315 Weathering losses, hay drying and, 418, 419 456 INDEX Weed management biotechnology and, 325-327, 364-366 biocatalysts, 363, 364 biodegradation, 357-36 bioherbicide production, 331, 332 commercial prospects, 329-331 genetic manipulation, 345-347 cloned genes, 352-357 mutant selection, in vitro, 348-351 mutation breeding, 347, 348 somatic hybridization, 351, 352 herbicides, naturally occurring, 323, 333 phytotoxins, 333-336 synthetic derivatives, 336, 337 microbes 326, 328, 329 microbial herbicide safeners, 361-363 tolerance, 337 338 detoxification, 339-341 substrates, 345 target enzyme, 344, 345 target sites, 341-344 translocation, 338, 339 Weeds, linseed and fiber flax and, 223-225 uptake, 235 yield responses, 232 Wheat intercropping systems and combinations, 43, 46 nitrogen, 77, 78 nutrients, 58 linseed and fiber flax and, 223, 224, 286 acidity, 281 nutrient disorders, 256, 261 uptake, 235-237 mineral nutrient uptake and, 173, 205 phosphorus and, 308 root systems and, 106, 107 genetics, 117 118 phenotypic plasticity, 138 utilization, 121, 127, 128, 131 132 weed management, biotechnology and, 341, 347 Windrow, hay drying and climate, 409 grass, 415 harvesting losses, 419,420, 422, 425 427 Windrow block, hay drying and, 411 Windrow resistance, hay drying and, 410, 413, 414 Withertop, linseed and fiber flax and, 258 259 280, 284 X Xylem intercropping systems and, 57 linseed and fiber flax and, 251 mineral nutrient uptake and, 178 root systems and, 95, 107, 111, 115 utilization, 125, 127-129 weed management, biotechnology and, 362 z Zinc acidic mined lands and, 385, 399 linseed and fiber flax and, 226, 286 nutrient disorders, 262-264, 269-273 uptake, 235, 239 yield quality, 255 .. .ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY VOLUME 41 This Page Intentionally Left Blank ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY Prepared in Cooperation with the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF AGRONOMY VOLUME 41 Edited by N C BRADY... Handling V Preservation of Wet Hay VI Conclusions References INDEX 407 407 409 417 430 432 435 439 PREFACE The international status of Advances in Agronomy continues... breeding program Peanut stunt virus was reported in Virginia during 1964 (Miller and Troutman, 1966), and epidemics occurred in the following years Since then, stunt virus has been found in other
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Xem thêm: Advances in agronomy volume 41 , Advances in agronomy volume 41 , CHAPTER 1. SPECIATION, CYTOGENETICS, AND UTILIZATION OF Arachis SPECIES, III. Plant Collection and Maintenance, VI. Interspecific Hybridization in Arachis, VIII. Utilization of Wild Arachis Species, IX. Successes and Potentials for Utilizing Arachis Germplasm, II. Background to Intercropping Systems, III. Competitive Relationships between Component Crops, IV. Some Agronomic Factors Influencing Productivity and Efficiency, V. Nitrogen Economy of the System, III. Evidence of Genotypic Variation, IV. Utilization in Research and Crop Improvement, VI. Conclusions and Research Needs, IV. Progress in Cell and Tissue Culture Research, II. Systems Employing Flowing Nutrient Solutions, IV. Partitioning of Photosynthate between Shoots and Roots, III. Effects of Mineral Nutrition on Yield, VIII. General Conclusions and Challenges, II. Impact of Phosphorus on the Terrestrial Environment, III. Transport of Phosphorus from the Terrestrial to Aquatic Environments, IV. Impact of Phosphorus on the Aquatic Environment, II. Production and Use of Biological Weed Control Agents, IV. Genetic Improvement of Crop Tolerance to Herbicides, V. Additional Uses of Genetically Engineered Microorganisms in Weed Management, VI. Conclusions and Future Prospects, II. Properties of Spoil on Acidic Mine Lands, III. Application of Various Amendments to Ameliorate Acidic Mine Spoil, IV. Seeding and Management of Amendment-Treated Spoil, V. Changes in Soil Properties as Affected by Addition of Amendments, VI. Summary of Long-Term Results, III. Factors Influencing Water Loss during Field Drying of Hay, IV. Losses during Forage Conservation, Storage, and Handling, V. Preservation of Wet Hay

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