Advances in agronomy volume 38

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ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY VOLUME 38 CONTRIBUTORS TO THIS VOLUME MARTINALEXANDER ANN P HAMBLIN N J BARROW S SANKARAN MARIONF BAUMCARDNER LEROYF SILVA LARRYL BIEHL DONALD L SPARKS S K DE DATTA ERICR STONER A S EL-SEBAAY B B TRANCMAR FEI HUAILIN G UEHARA Guo XIANYI VAN CLEEMPUT R s YosT ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY Prepared in Cooperation with the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF AGRONOMY VOLUME 38 Edited by N C BRADY Science and Technology Agency for International Development Department of State Washington, D C ADVISORY BOARD H J GORZ,CHAIRMAN E J KAMPRATHT M STARLING J B POWELL J W BIGGAR M A TABATABAI R A BRIGGS,Ex OFFICIO, ASA Headquarters 1985 ACADEMIC PRESS, INC Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers Orlando San Diego New York Austin London Montreal Sydney Tokyo Toronto COPYRIGHT @ 1985 BY ACADEMIC PRESS INC ALL RIGHTS RESERVED NO PART OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE REPRODUCED OR TRANSMI?TED IN ANY FORM OR BY ANY MEANS, ELECTRONIC OR MECHANICAL, INCLUDING PHOTOCOPY, RECORDING, OR ANY INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM, WITHOUT PERMISSION IN WRITING FROM THE PUBLISHER ACADEMIC PRESS, INC Orlando, Florida 32887 United Kingdom Edition published by ACADEMIC PRESS INC (LONDON) LTD 24-28 Oval Road, London NWI 7DX LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER 50-5598 ISBN 0-12-000738-X PRINT20 IN THE UNITED STATFS OF AMERICA 85868788 CONTENTS CONTRIBUTORS PREFACE ix xi REFLECTANCE PROPERTIES OF SOILS Marion F Baumgardner, LeRoy F Silva, Larry L Biehl, and Eric R Stoner I Soil Color in Perspective 13 28 33 39 IV Reflectance Properties of Soils in Their Environment V Applications of Soil Reflectance Measurements References 11 Instrumentation for Reflectance Measurements 111 Effects of Soil Constituents on Soil Reflectance APPLICATION OF GEOSTATISTICS TO SPATIAL STUDIES OF SOIL PROPERTIES B B Trangmar, R S Yost, and G Uehara I Introduction II Nature of Soil Variability 111 IV V VI VII 45 47 49 53 56 70 89 91 Traditional Methods of Describing Soil Variability Regionalized Variable Theory and Geostatistics Analysis of Spatial Dependence Interpolation by Kriging Perspectives: Future Use of Geosta n Soil Research References THE INFLUENCE OF SOIL STRUCTURE ON WATER MOVEMENT, CROP ROOT GROWTH, AND WATER UPTAKE Ann P Hamblin I Introduction 11 Soil Structure: Components of the Soil-Pore System 111 Stability of the Pore System IV Water Flow in Agricultural Soils V Patterns of Root Growth VI Water Uptake by Roots V 95 96 107 114 127 144 vi CONTENTS VII Speculation: Are We Measuring and Averaging at Consistent Scales? VIII summary References 149 151 152 GASEOUS HYDROCARBONS IN SOIL Van Cleemput and A S El-Sebaay I Introduction 11 Formation Transformation and Importance of Gaseous Hydrocarbons 111 Environmental Factors Affecting the Evolution of the Gaseous Hydrocarbons in Soil IV Sampling and Analysis of the Gaseous Hydrocarbons V Some Physical and Chemical Properties of the Gaseous Hydrocarbons VI Conclusions References 159 160 167 176 178 178 178 REACTION OF ANIONS AND CATIONS WITH VARIABLE-CHARGE SOILS N J Barrow I Introduction 11 The Development of Charge on Variable-Charge Surfaces Ill Adsorption on Variable-Charge Surfaces 1v Rates of Adsorption and Desorption V Transferring the Variable-Charge Models to Soils VI Conclusions References 183 185 186 207 211 227 228 KINETICS OF IONIC REACTIONS IN CLAY MINERALS AND SOILS Donald L Sparks I Introduction I1 Methodologies Used in Kinetic Studies nI Application of Chemical Kinetics to Soil Solutions IV Rate-Determining Steps V Kinetics Models Kinetics of Ionic Exchange VI " in Clav , Minerals 231 233 238 251 256 258 CONTENTS VII Kinetics of Ionic Reactions in Heterogeneous Soil Systems References vii 261 264 ENHANCING NITROGEN FIXATION BY USE OF PESTICIDES: A REVIEW Martin Alexander I Introduction I n Free-Living Heterotrophs IV Blue-Green Algae in Flooded Soils V Resistant Isolates VI Choice of Pesticides and Inocula VII Limitations VIII Summary and Conclusions References II Rhizobium 267 269 273 274 276 277 278 280 281 WEEDS AND WEED MANAGEMENT IN UPLAND RICE S Sankaran and S K De Datta I I1 III IV V VI Introduction Weed Flora of Upland Rice Ecology of Upland Rice Weeds Weed Competition Land Preparation and Crop Establishment Techniques Fertilizer Application and Weed Management VII Soil Moisture-Herbicide Relationships in Upland Rice VIII Weed Control Methods in Upland Rice IX Yield Response of Rice to Herbicides and Herbicide Combinations X Phytotoxicity of XI Economics of W XI1 Critical Research Needs Appendix: Common Names and Chemical Formulas of Herbicides References 284 285 294 295 303 306 310 313 323 323 327 328 330 330 RICE-BASED CROPPING SYSTEMS AND THEIR DEVELOPMENT IN CHINA Guo Xian Yi and Fei Huai Lin I Introduction II Environmental Factors 340 340 Vlll CONTENTS 111 Division of Rice Belts IV Reformation and Achievements V Problems in Multiple-Cropping Systems VI Approaches to Solving the Problem References INDEX 345 350 353 358 368 369 CONTRIBUTORS Numbers in parentheses indicate the pages on which the authors' contributions begin MARTIN ALEXANDER (267), Department of Agronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850 N J BARROW (183), CSIRO Division of Animal Production, Wembley, Western Australia 6014, Australia MARION F BAUMGARDNER ( l ) , Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 LARRY L BIEHL (l), Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 S K DE DATTA (283), Department of Agronomy, International Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines A S EL-SEBAAY (159), Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ghent, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium FEI HUAI LIN (339), China National Rice Research Institute, Hang Zhou, Zhe Jiang, People's Republic of China GUO XIAN YI (339), Crop Breeding and Cultivation Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China ANN P HAMBLIN* (959, Western Australian Department of Agriculture, South Perth, Western Australia 6151, Australia S SANKARAN (283), Department of Agronomy, International Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines LEROY F SILVA ( I ) , Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 DONALD L SPARKS (231), Department of Plant Science, College of Agricultural Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 1971 ERIC R STONER' ( I ) , Cornell University, Department of Agronomy, Ithaca, New York 14850 B B TRANGMAR (45), Soil Bureau, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Christchurch, New Zealand G UEHARA ( , Department of Agronomy and Soil Science, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, Universizy of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 'Present address: CSIRO, Dryland Crops and Soils Research Program, Wembley P O ,Western Australia 6014 Australia 'Present address: Cornell UniversityiTropSoils, EMBRAPAKPAC Caixa Postal 70.0023, 73.300 Planaltina, D.F., Brazil ix GUO YI XIAN AND FEI HUAI LIN 362 Table VIII Annual Grain Yield in New Experimental Cropping Systems" System Soybean-rice Soybean + maize-rice Maize-rice Green manure-rice-rice Rapeseed - rice- rice First crop Second crop 1687 1231 4400 6413 1189 Third crop Total 8100 1855 6153 6160 5739 5354 5339 5636 9239 10,560 11,075 10,986 a From Hunan Soil and Fertilizer Institute (1983) Data are measured in kilograms per hectare lowering of the peak labor demands at field turnaround times and would also improve soil properties and the quality of the agricultural products Results of new cropping system experiments conducted from 1980 to 1982 by the Soil and Fertilizer Institute of the Hunan Academy of Agricultural Sciences (1983) showed that green manure-rice-rice and rapeseed-rice-rice systems had the highest grain productivity, followed by maize-rice and soybean + maize-rice The soybean-rice system gave the lowest productivity (Table VIII) However, the soybean-rice system performed best in terms of protein yield, while the green manure-rice-rice system was the worst In spite of the fact that rapeseed-rice-rice and green manure-rice-rice systems provided the highest gross and net return, their labor benefit was lowest due to their high labor requirement (Table IX) The soil properties were obviously improved in the soybean-rice system (Table X) As the proportion of air in the soil was increased, the content of Table IX Economic Benefits of Different Systems in New Cropping Systems Experiment" System Soybean-rice Soybean + maize-rice Maize-rice Green manure-rice-rice Rapeseed-rice-rice Gross Material Net return cost return Labor (U.S.%/ha) (U.S.%/ha) (U.S.%/ha) (man-day/ha) 708 746 733 798 1024 198 225 24 253 314 ' From Hunan Soil and Fertilizer Institute (1983) 510 521 492 545 710 165 315 330 338 525 Net return per man-day (U.S.$) 3.09 1.65 1.49 1.62 1.35 363 RICE-BASED CROPPING SYSTEMS Table X The Properties of Soil Under Different Systems in New Cropping Systems Experiment" Phase proportion (%) Redox potential Eh(mV) Total reducing matter (MEQPWg) 11.2 4.5 363.2 113.3 2.69 4.92 Solid Liquid Gas System (%I (%) Soybean-rice Green manure-rice-rice 44.7 47.7 43.1 47.7 From Hunan Soil and Fertilizer Institute (1983) reducing matter decreased and the redox potential of the paddy soil was raised These advantages promoted the release of some soil nutrients and made the fertilizer utilization more efficient (Tables XI and XII) The output/ input ratio of nitrogen and phosphorus was higher in the systems involving soybean and maize The return of nitrogen and phosphorus in the residues was higher in the rapeseed-rice-rice and green manure-rice-rice systems than in the maizerice system The new systems of soybean-rice and soybean + maize-rice have been recommended in Hunan Province, where the acreage had increased to 13,200 by 1982 The yield from these systems, according to the typical survey, averaged 7541 kg/ha for soybean-rice (of which soybean contributed 1643 kg, rice 5898 kg) and 7792 kg/ha for soybean + maize-rice (soybean 1575 kg, maize 749 kg, rice 5470 kg) Table XI Output/Input Ratio of Nitrogen of Different Systems In New Experimental Cropping Systems" System Output (kg/ha) Input (kg/ha) Output/ Input Residue returned (kg/ha) Soybean-rice Soybean + maize-rice Maize-rice Green manure-rice-rice Rapeseed-rice-rice 275.5 290.4 209.7 314.7 345.2 153.5 223.5 301.7 280.2 402.5 1.80 1.30 0.70 1.12 0.86 29.3 29.0 3.9 99.1 78.1 a From Hunan Soil and Fertilizer Institute (1983) 364 GUO YI XIAN A N D FEI HUAI LIN Month FIG.12 Monthly rainfall distribution in Beijing, Changsha, and Hangzhou Table XI1 Output and Input of Phosphorus of Dilferent Systems In New Experimental Cropping Systems" ~ System Output Wha) Input @/ha) Output/ Input Residue returned (kg/ha) Soybean-rice Soybean + maize-rice Maize-rice Green manure-rice-rice Rapeseed-rice-rice 96.6 107.8 126.7 121.4 158.5 83.9 85.2 107.0 125.4 199.4 1.15 1.26 1.18 0.97 0.79 6.78 7.28 4.95 17.03 29.00 a From Hunan Soil and Fertilizer Institute (1983) RICE-BASED CROPPING SYSTEMS 365 Developing Rice-Based Cropping Systems Involving Dry-Seeded Rice in the North Because of the low and unstable rainfall, inadequate water is the main restraint on rice production in the northern parts of China The rainfall patterns of Beijing (North China), Hangzhou (East China), and Changsha (Central China) (Fig 12) show that the annual rainfall in Beijing is the lowest However, the monthly rainfall in July and August is somewhat higher in Beijing than in Hangzhou and Changsha This is very favorable for dryland rice production The technology of dry-seeded (DS) rice avoids serious spring droughts and reduces the need for irrigation water by two-thirds to threefourths as compared with transplanted rice The yields of dry-seeded rice in Beijing Municipality are about ton/ha for commercial varieties and 7.5 ton/ for the hybrid rice cultivators New cropping systems such as fallow-rice (DS), wheat-rice (DS), and rapeseed-rice (DS) are being generated and recommended The acreage of dry-seeded rice in North China had extended to 90,000 in 1984 and will likely extend further in coming years c USING THE VARIETIES WITH PROPER MATURITY Using the varieties with proper maturity is a key feature for getting high and stable yields in the high-cropping-intensity areas Early varieties ensure that the crop ripens early and avoids the low-temperature damage of late autumn However, late varieties make full use of the growing season and get higher yields Farmers used to prefer late varieties rather than early ones As a result, a considerable area of second-crop rice was transplanted after early August (the critical date in Suzhou District), so that yields of these fields were low in years with normal weather and even suffered a greater loss in years with cold weather It was reported that 6.6% of the first crop of rice and 8% of the second crop of rice were transplanted after the critical date in 1976 in Zhejiang Province Which maturity class of varieties would be suitable in multiple-cropping systems? The answers vary within different localities In the southern part of Jiangsu Province, the border region of double cropping of rice, early maturing varieties were recommended for all the three crops in double-rice three-crop systems In Zhejiang Province, south of Jiangsu, early maturing varieties were recommended only for the first (winter) crop, and late varieties were recommended for the second and third crops Actually, varieties with different maturities were always used in a proper combination Investigations in high-yielding areas (annual grain yield more than 12 ton/ ha) in Zhejiang indicated that early varieties occupied 62.1% of the fields 366 GUO YI XIAN AND FEI HUAI LIN under the first crop, and late varieties occupied 51.5 and 55.0% of the fields under the second and third crops, respectively Recently, in order to advance the ripening date of the medium and late varieties, heat preservation nurseries for the first crop of rice were widely used and the rice benefited from timely transplanting It was reported that the rice area transplanted after the critical date in Zhejiang was reduced to only 0.3-0.5%of the total rice fields in 1981 D IMPROVING THE COMPONENT TECHNIQUES Yields of certain cropping systems are high or low depending not only on the system itself but also on the agronomic techniques used Improving the component techniques related to the multiple-cropping systems plays an important role in solving the problems in high-cropping-intensity areas Raising properly aged and strong seedlings is among the major improved component techniques According to local environmental conditions, various techniques have been developed for different systems, and different maturing classes of crop varieties have been used Examples of improved means of handling rice seedlings are (1) thick sowing of early maturing varieties to save land and costs and to obtain young and vigorous seedlings; (2) thinner sowing for late varieties to get big and strong seedlings; and (3) “deposite seedling techniques,” which utilize double transplanting The latter involves sowing in the primary nursery, and after about 30 days the rice seedlings are transplanted into a “deposite (interval) nursery.” After another half-month, the seedlings are retransplanted into paddy fields This system is used for hybrid rice to get seedlings which are not only strong but which bear many tillers and have high-yielding potential In the southeast region of Sichuan Province, the high summer temperature region, deposite nursery techniques have been adopted to sow rice earlier and to ensure earlier heading of hybrid rice, thereby avoiding high-temperature damage which occurs in late July and early August In addition to these systems, techniques of undersowing, intercropping, relay cropping, and zero tillage are widely used in order to fully utilize the growing season Close spacing of crops is commonly practiced in high-cropping-intensity areas with relatively short growing seasons An example is that of the second crop of rice in Shanghai Muncipality and the southern part of Jiangsu Province, where the rice plant density may be as high as 60 hills per square meter We not consider this density to be rational, but we recognize that high plant density is one of the characteristics of some multiple-cropping systems Applying large amounts of pig manure and composts plays an important role in maintaining soil fertility and high yields in multiple-cropping systems 367 RICE-BASED CROPPING SYSTEMS Table XI11 Relation Between Annual Amount of Pig Manure Applied and Nutrient Contents in Soil" Treatment 45 tonha 22.5 tonlha Organic matter Total nitrogen Available phosphorus ( %) ( %) ( %) 1974 1979 3.25 3.84 0.222 0.263 120 165 Increase 0.61 0.041 45 1974 1979 Increase 3.24 3.62 0.38 0.228 0.250 0.022 113 106 Year -7 Zhejiang, 1974-1979 Research of the Soil and Fertilizer Institute of the Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences showed that high manure applications in wheat-ricerice system plots (Table XIII) resulted in higher organic matter, total nitrogen, and available phosphorus contents in soil during the experimental period of 1974 to 1979 Heavy top-dressing of nitrogen chemical fertilizers is recommended to promote vigorous growth in very short vegetative growing stages of crops E DEVELOPING LIVESTOCK TOGETHER WITH CROPPRODUCTION Although high cropping intensity lowers the economic efficiency of material and labor inputs, the inclusion of livestock in the system not only meets market demands but also improves the economic returns from crop production, since by-products and crop residues can be used as feed for livestock Reports from the Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences Institute of the Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences indicate that feeding swine with mixtures of wheat, soybean, and rice shortened the feeding duration by 17.6-26.0 days It also provided an increase of 9.4-15.0 kg of body weight over cases in which the animal feeds contained only rice or wheat Also, the development of agricultural mechanization is an important approach to relieving the labor stress in areas of high crop intensity It is expected that, as national economic development progresses, agricultural mechanization will be further extended Finally, there still remain many problems in high-cropping-intensity areas, such as the shortage of early maturing and disease resistant varieties of wheat, soybeans, and maize suitable for lowland conditions The yield of soybeans 368 GUO YI XIAN AND FEI HUAI LIN after or before rice is still low and unstable The cropping systems in low- and medium-yieldingareas are far from satisfactory,especially in view of the fact that the grain problem has been at least temporarily solved in China Ricebased cropping systems are deserving of further research and improvement REFERENCES Bureau of Agriculture, Zhejiang Province 1982 Suggestion on re-adjustment of cropping systems in Zhejiang Province “Material of Provincial Workshop on Techniques of Grain Production,” pp 23-28 (in Chinese) Chinese Association of Agricultural Sciences Societies and Jiangsu Association of Agricultural Sciences Societies 198 Investigation on development of double rice 3-crop systems in Suzhou Prefecture Lett News Crop Syst Res 5, 22-28 (in Chinese) Ding Ying 1963 “Rice in China,” pp 167-180 Agricultural Publ House (in Chinese) Ding Xian-Zhe, and Fang Xian-Zhang 1981 Reformation and tendency of rice-based cropping systems in Zhejiang Province “ A Collection of Cropping Systems Research Reports,” pp 149-162 (in Chinese) Fei Huai Lin 1984 The achievements and problems of rice-based cropping systems in China Rep Crop Syst Work Group Meet., 14th, IRRI pp 83-104 Guo Yi-Xian 1982 The rice-based cropping systems and their developments in China Rep Workshop Crop Syst Res Asia, IRRI pp, 331-344 Guo Yi Xian 1984 Problems in rice-based multiple cropping systems and the solving approaches Proc Int Crop Sci Symp., Japan Oct 17-20, pp 55-68 Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences 1982 Report of collaborative research on double rice 3-crop systems experiment in Hubei Hunan and Jiangxi Provinces A Certification of Achievements of Rice-based Triple Cropping Systems Research (in Chinese) Hunan Soil and Fertilizer Institute 1983 A summary report of long-term rice-based cropping systems research (in Chinese) Jiangsu Agricultural Modernization Institute 1982 Report of pre-production experiment on wheat + maize-rice system in Taihu Lake District “Selections of the Research Reports of Taihu Lake Site,” pp 73-76 (in Chinese) Tu Zheng Wen 1984 Rice insect pest control in high cropping intensity areas Rep Crop Sysr Work Group Meet., 14th, IRRI pp 105-117 Wang Chu Yun, Liang Dun Fu, and Xian Min Yue 1980 A review and prospect of cropping systems reformation in Sichuan Province Nut Crop Syst Workshop (in Chinese) Zhu Bin Hai 1962 “Climate in China.” Beijing Science Press (in Chinese) Index A Cations exchangeable, and clay and aggregate bonding, 108-110 reaction with variable-charge soils, 183-228 four-layer model, 195-207 quantitative modeling of, 221-226 single-layer model, 191-193 three-layer model, 193-195 Charge, development on variable-charge surfaces, 185-186 China, rice-based cropping systems, 339-368 belts of, 345-350 component techniques, improvement of, 366-367 day length and, 342-343 development of new systems, 361-363 growing season stress, 354 labor utilization for, 356 and livestock development, 367-368 multiple-cropping systems, problems with, 353-358 net income of fanners, 356-357 pest problems, 355 population and, 344-345 precipitation effects, 341-342 reformation and achievements, 350-353 soil variability and, 343-344 solutions to problems of, 358-368 temperature effects, 340-341 use of varieties with proper maturity, 365366 Clay minerals application of first-order kinetics to, 240- Adsorption, on variable-charge surfaces, 186207 description of, 186- 190 four-layer model, 195-202 rates, 207-21 single-layer model, 191-193 three-layer model, 193- 195 Aeration, and root growth impedance, 136140 Africa, weed composition in upland rice, 288 Agricultural soils clay and aggregate bonding in, 108-112 exchangeable cations and electrolyte effects, 108-110 temporary dispersion effects, field expression, 110- 112 water flow in, 114-127 infiltration, 114-122 redistribution within root zone, 112- 127 Algae, blue-green (cyanobacteria), nitrogen fixation, 274-276 Anions, reaction with variable-charge soils, 183-228 four-layer model, 195-207 quantitative modeling of, 221-226 single-layer model, 191-193 three-layer model, 193-195 Asia, weed flora in upland rice, 285-286 Autocorrelation, and spatial dependence analysis, 56-57 B Bonding aggregate, in agricultural soils, 108-1 12 clay, in agricultural soils, 108- I12 organic matter, in agricultural topsoils, 113114 C Carbon dioxide, atmospheric, effect on gaseous hydrocarbons in soil, 174 245 ionic exchange in, kinetics, 258-260 ionic reactions kinetics, 231-263 rate-limiting steps, 250-255 Clays, micaceous, ionic exchange rate on, 259-260 Cropping systems, rice-based, in China component techniques, improvement of, 366-367 day length and, 342 development of new systems, 361-363 369 370 INDEX Cropping systems, rice-based, in China (conr ) effect on varied livestock feeds, 357-358 growing season stress, 354 labor utilization for, 356 and livestock development, 367-368 multiple-cropping systems, 353-358 net income of farmers, 356-357 pest problems, 355-356 population and, 344-345 precipitation effects, 341-342 problems with, 358-368 soil deterioration, 354-355 soil variability, 343-344 solutions for, 358-368 temperature effects, 340-341 use of varieties with proper maturity, 365366 Crop yield scales for measurement and averaging, 149151 upland rice, losses due to weeds, 303 D Desorption rates on variable-charge surfaces, 207-21 in variable-charge soils, 220-221 Dispersion, temporary, effects of, 110-1 12 E Electrolyte effects, on clay and aggregate bonding, 108-110 Elovich equation, kinetics of ionic reactions, 245-250 Ethane formation, 166- 167 importance of, 167 transformation, 167 Ethylene formation, 164-165 importance of, 166 transformation, 165- 166 F Fertilizer application, and weed management, 306-310 Functions, random, and regionalized variables, 54 G Geostatistics application to spatial studies of soil properties, 45-91 development of, 53-54 future use in soil research, 89-91 kriging procedures, see Kriging H Herbicides phytotoxicity to upland rice, 323-327 sampling and analysis, 176 in soil, effects of atmospheric HZ, Oz and c o * , 174 -soil moisture relationships in upland rice, 10-3 12 yield response of upland rice to, 323 Hydrocarbons, gaseous chemical and physical properties of, 177178 evolution adsorption phenomena, 175 effect of environmental factors, 167-176 effect of plants, 175 effects of chemical additions, 171-174 moisture content effect, 167 redox potential, 170 temperature effect, 168-169 in soil, 159-178 formation of, 160-162 importance of, 163-164 transformation of, 162- 163 Hydrogen, atmospheric, effect on gaseous hydrocarbons in soil, 174 I Illite, ionic exchange rate on, 258-269 Infiltration, in agricultural soils, 114- 116 field, effect of unstable structures, 116-119 redistribution within root zone, 122-127 with surface-connected pores, 119-122 Inocula, choice of, for enhanced nitrogen fixation Ionic exchange in clay minerals, kinetics, 258-260 rates on kaolite, montmorillonite, and illite, 258259 INDEX vermiculite and micaceous clays, 259260 Ionic reactions in clay minerals and soils, kinetics, 231263 basic equations for, 239-250 batch technique for, 233-235 Elovich equation, 245-250 first-order equations, 239-245 flow or miscible displacement techniques, 235-237 rate-determining steps, 250-255 Roginsky-Zeldovich equation, 245-250 theory, 237-239 in heterogeneous soil systems, kinetics, 260-262 heavy metals, 262-263 nitrogen, 261-262 phosphorus, 261 potassium, 260-261 sulfur, 262 trace elements, 262-263 K Kaolinite, ionic exchange rate on, 258-259 Kinetics, chemical application to soil solutions, 237-250 basic equations, 239-250 Elovich equation, 245-249 first-order equations, 239-240 Roginsky-Zeldovich equation, 245249 second-order equation, 250 theory, 237-239 zero-order equation, 250 batch techniques, 233-235 data, use for thermodynamic parameter calculation, 255-256 fnst-order, application to clay mineral and soil kinetics, 240-245 flow techniques, 235-237 in heterogeneous soil systems heavy metals, 262-263 nitrogen, 261-262 phosphorus, 261 potassium, 260-261 sulfur, 262 trace elements, 262-263 ionic exchange in clay minerals, 258-260 371 rates on kaolinite, montmorillonite, and illite, 258-259 on vermiculite and micaceous clays, 259-260 ionic reactions in clay minerals and soils, 231-263 in heterogeneous soil systems, 260-263 miscible displacement technique, 235-237 rate-determining steps, 250-255 ion exchange, processes in, 251 in soil solutions, identification, 25 1-255 Kriging, 70-89 block, 75-80 applications, 76-78 concepts of, 75-76 sampling, 78-80 co-kriging application, 81-84 concepts of, 80-81 disjunctive, 89 of lognormally distributed data, 88 punctual, 71-74 application, 73-75 concepts of, 71-73 sampling, 78-80 universal application, 86-88 concepts of, 85-86 L Latin America, weed composition of upland rice, 288 Leaf, upland rice, water potential, 312 M Metals, heavy, ion exchange kinetics in heterogeneous soil systems, 261-262 Methane formation, 160- 162 importance of, 163-164 transformation, 162-163 Minerals clay, see Clay minerals trace, ion exchange kinetics in heterogeneous soil systems, 261-262 Moisture content, and gaseous hydrocarbon evolution, 168 372 INDEX Moisture (cont.) soil, and herbicide relationship in upland rice, 310-312 Montmorillonite, ionic exchange rate on, 258259 Propane formation, I66 importance of, 167 transformation, 167 R Nitrogen, ion exchange kinetics in heterogeneous soil systems, 261-262 Nitrogen fixation by blue-green algae in flooded soils, 274276 enhancement with pesticides, 267-281 limitations, 278-280 by free-living heterotrophs, 273-274 inocula choice, 277-278 pesticide choice, 277-278 Rhizobium and, 269-273 Oryza sativa L., see Rice, upland Oxygen, atmospheric, effect on gaseous hydrocarbons in soil, 174 P Pesticides, use for enhanced nitrogen fixation, 267-281 choice of, 277-278 limitations, 278-280 resistant isolates, 276-277 pH, effect on variable-charge soils, 217220 Phosphorus ion, exchange kinetics in heterogeneous soil systems, 261 Phytotoxicity, of herbicides to upland rice, 323-327 Pore continuity, 102- 107 hydraulic conductivity, 102- 107 size distribution, and moisture characteristic, 97- 102 system, stability of, 107-1 14 Porosity, total, 97 Potassium ion, exchange kinetics in heterogeneous soil systems, 260-261 Precipitation effects, on rice-based cropping systems in China, 341-342 Redox potential, and gaseous hydrocarbon evolution, 170 Regionalized variables interpolation by kriging, 70-89 and random functions, 54 stationarity, 54-55 theory of, 53-55 Rhizobiurn, and nitrogen fixation, 269-273 Rice-based cropping systems (in China), 339368 belts of, 345-350 component techniques, improvement of, 366-367 day length and, 342-343 development of new systems, 361-363 effect on varied livestock feeds, 357-358 growing season stress, 354 labor utilization for, 356 and livestock development, 367-368 net income of fanners, 356-357 pest problems, 355 population and, 344-345 precipitation effects, 341-342 problems in multiple cropping systems, 353-358 rational use of varied systems, 358-361 reformation and achievements, 350-353 soil deterioration, 354-355 soil variability, 343-344 temperature effects, 340-341 use of varieties with proper maturity, 365366 Rice, upland crop preparation techniques, 303-306 ecosystem, weed competition in, 295-303 critical period of, 297-299 factors influencing, 300-303 nature and effect of, 299-300 herbicide phytotoxicity, 323-327 land management before and after planting, 303-304 techniques, 303-306 leaf water potential, 312 INDEX seedbed preparation, 304 soil moisture-herbicide relationships in, 310-312 weed(s) composition in Africa, 286-288 in Asia, 285-286 in Latin America, 288 control economics of, 328 biological, 321 cultural, 13-315 integrated, 321-322 mechanical, 15-3 19 distribution pattern, 288 ecology, factors affecting, 294 emergence, effect of time and land preparation, 305-306 flora in adaptation and growth of, 295 effect of control methods, 294-295 factors affecting, 294 growth, reduced tillage and, 304-305 management, critical research areas, 328 yield losses due to weeds, 303 response to herbicides, 323 Roginsky-Zeldovich equation, ionic reaction kinetics, 245-250 Root growth distribution, predictions of, 140-144 genotypic variation, 129- 13 interactions with water status and aeration, 136- 140 mechanical impedance, 132-144 patterns of, 127-144 Roots growth, see Root growth water uptake by, 144-149 Root zone, water redistribution in, 112-127 areal heterogeneity, 125-127 effect of vertical heterogeneity, 123- 125 S Semi-variograms assumptions, 57-58 definitions, 57-58 interpretation of, 64-70 313 parameters, 58-64 sampling, 64 Soil agricultural, see Agricultural soils application of first-order kinetics to, 240245 color, see Soil reflectance effect of environmental factors, 167- 176 flooded, nitrogen fixation by blue-green algae, 274-276 gaseous hydrocarbons in, 159-178 heterogeneous systems, ionic reaction kinetics, 260-263 ion reactions, rate-limiting steps, 250-255 moisture-herbicide relationship in upland rice, 310-312 reflectance, see Soil reflectance solutions, application of chemical kinetics, 237-250 topsoils, see Topsoils variability, and rice-based cropping systems in China, 343-344 variable-charge, see Variable charge soils Soil classification, for soil variation description, 49-51 Soil properties reflectance, see Soil reflectance variability, see Soil variability Soil reflectance atmospheric effects, 28-29 effects of soil constituents, 13-28 iron oxides, 23-25 mineral composition, 25-26 moisture, 14-20 organic matter, 20-21 parent material, 27 particle size, 21-23 soluble salts, 26-27 measurements application of, 33-39 classes of instruments, 11-13 geometrical considerations, 8- 1 instrumentation for, 5- 13 nomenclature, 5-8 quantitative, 4-5 soil degradation assessment, 38 soil information systems, 38-39 soil survey, 33-38 nonvisible, physical surface conditions, 29-30 374 INDEX Soil reflectance (cont.) sensor data dimensionality, 32-33 subsoil characteristics, surface expression of, 31-32 visible, 2-3 Soil structure, soil-pore system components, 96- I07 capacity, 97 pore-size distribution, 97-102 total porosity, 97 Soil survey, for soil variation description, 4951 Soil variability description methods, traditional, 49-53 soil classification and soil survey, 49-51 statistical analysis, 1-53 nature of, 47-49 nested effects, 47-49 systematic and random effects, 47 Spatial dependence analysis of, 56-70 autocorrelation, 56-57 semi-variograms, 57-70 anisotropic and isotropic variation, 64-67 nested variation, 68-70 periodic phenomena, 67-68 trends, 67 Stability clay and aggregate bonding in agricultural soils, 108-1 12 organic matter bonding in agricultural topsoils, 113-1 14 of pore system, 107- I14 Stationarity, and regionalized variables, 5455 Statistical analysis, for soil variation description, 51-53 Sulfur ion, exchange kinetics in heterogeneous soil systems, 261-262 Surfaces, variable-charge adsorption on, 186-207 development of charge on, 185-186 T Temperature effects on gaseous hydrocarbon evolution, 168- 169 on rice-based cropping systems in China, 340-341 on variable-charge soils, 16-2 17 Thermodynamics kinetic and equilibria1 models, comparison, 257-258 transition-state theory for absolute reaction rates, 256-257 use of kinetic data for, 255-256 Tillage, reduced, and weed growth, 304-305 Topsoils, agricultural, organic matter bonding in 113-114 V Variable-charge soils anion and cation reactions with, 183-228 quantitative modeling of, 221-226 desorption in, 220-221 pH effects, 217-220 reaction period, 212-216 specificity and concentration, 21 1-212 temperature effects, 216-217 Vermiculite, ionic exchange rate on, 259-260 W Water flow in agricultural soils, 114- 127 areal heterogeneity, 125-127 effect of vertical heterogeneity, 123-125 infiltration, 114- I16 status, and root growth impedance, 136- 140 uptake by roots, 144-149 Water potential, of upland rice leaves, 312 Weeds competition in upland rice ecosystem critical period of, 297-299 factors influencing, 300-303 nature and effect of, 299-300 composition in upland rice in Africa, 286-288 in Asia, 285-286 in Latin America, 288 control methods in upland rice biological, 321 chemical, 316-3 19 cropping systems, 19-320 cultural, 313-315 integrated, 321-322 mechanical, 315 crop loss due to, 303 INDEX distribution pattern in upland rice, 288 emergence, effect of time and land preparation, 305-306 flora in upland rice adaptation and growth, 295 factors affecting, 294 shifts due to control methods, 294-295 315 management, see Weed management Weed management, in upland rice critical research areas, 328 economics of, 327-328 fertilizer application and, 306-3 10 land management before and after planting, 303-304 This Page Intentionally Left Blank ... cropping systems in the People’s Republic of China It gives a description of certain extremely intensive farming systems used in China, some of which have been modified in recent years in response... 96822 PREFACE This volume continues the international focus of Advances in Agronomy Scientists from six countries are among the authors of the nine papers included They remind us of the universality... increasing availability and continuing improvement of these spectroradiometers during recent years, there has been an expanding interest among soil scientists in developing techniques to obtain more
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Xem thêm: Advances in agronomy volume 38 , Advances in agronomy volume 38 , I. Soil Color in Perspective, II. Instrumentation for Reflectance Measurements, III. Effects of Soil Constituents on Soil Reflectance, IV. Reflectance Properties of Soils in Their Environment, V. Applications of Soil Reflectance Measurements, III. Traditional Methods of Describing Soil Variability, IV. Regionalized Variable Theory and Geostatistics, V. Analysis of Spatial Dependence, VII. Perspectives: Future Use of Geostatistics in Soil Research, II. Soil Structure: Components of the Soil–Pore System, III. Stability of the Pore System, IV. Water Flow in Agricultural Soils, V. Patterns of Root Growth, VI. Water Uptake by Roots, VII. Speculation: Are We Measuring and Averaging at Consistent Scales?, II. Formation, Transformation, and Importance of Gaseous Hydrocarbons, III. Environmental Factors Affecting the Evolution of the Gaseous Hydrocarbons in Soil, V. Some Physical and Chemical Properties of the Gaseous Hydrocarbons, III. Adsorption on Variable-Charge Surfaces, IV. Rates of Adsorption and Desorption, V. Transferring the Variable-Charge Models to Soils, II. Methodologies Used in Kinetic Studies, III. Application of Chemical Kinetics to Soil Solutions, VI. Kinetics of Ionic Exchange in Clay Minerals, VII. Kinetics of Ionic Reactions in Heterogeneous Soil Systems, CHAPTER 7. ENHANCING NITROGEN FIXATION BY USE OF PESTICIDES: A REVIEW, IV. Blue–Green Algae in Flooded Soils, VI. Choice of Pesticides and Inocula, II. Weed Flora of Upland Rice, III. Ecology of Upland Rice Weeds, V. Land Preparation and Crop Establishment Techniques, VI. Fertilizer Application and Weed Management, VII. Soil Moisture–Herbicide Relationships in Upland Rice, VIII. Weed Control Methods in Upland Rice, X. Phytotoxicity of Herbicides and Residues, XI. Economics of Weed Control in Upland Rice, CHAPTER 9. RICE-BASED CROPPING SYSTEMS AND THEIR DEVELOPMENT IN CHINA, III. Division of Rice Belts, V. Problems in Multiple-Cropping Systems, VI. Approaches to Solving the Problem

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