Advances in agronomy volume 35

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ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY VOLUME 35 CONTRIBUTORS TO THIS VOLUME C R ADAIR PHILLIP BARAK T T CHANG YONACHEN S K DEDATTA D L FR~ESNER C HAGEDORN R J HANKS G HUCK MORRIS T H JOHNSTON M B KIRKHAM W E KNIGHT F? MIEDEMA V P RASMUSSEN N K SAVANT HOWARD M TAYLOR V H WATSON ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY Prepared in cooperation with the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF AGRONOMY VOLUME 35 Edited by N C BRADY Science and Technology Bureau Agency for International Development Department of State Washington, D C ADVISORY BOARD H J GORZ,CHAIRMAN E J KAMPRATHT M STARLING J B POWELL J W.BIGGAR M A TABATABAI M STELLY, EX OFFICIO, ASA Headquarters 1982 ACADEMIC PRESS A Subsidiary of Harcourl Brace Jovanovich, Publishers New York London Paris San Diego San Francisco SBo Paulo Sydney Tokyo Toronto COPYRIGHT @ 1982, BY ACADEMIC PRESS, INC ALL RIGHTS RESERVED NO PART OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE REPRODUCED OR TRANSMITTED IN ANY FORM OR BY ANY MEANS, ELECTRONIC OR MECHANICAL, INCLUDING PHOTOCOPY, RECORDING, OR ANY INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM, WITHOUT PERMISSION IN WRITING FROM THE PUBLISHER ACADEMIC PRESS, INC 111 Fifth Avenue, New York New York 10003 United Kitigdotii Editiori published by ACADEMIC PRESS, INC ( L O N D O N ) LTD 24/28 Oval Road, London NWI 7DX LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER: 50-5598 ISBN 0-12-000735-5 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 82 83 84 85 98 76 CONTENTS CONTRIBUTORS PREFACE ix xi THE RHIZOTRON AS A TOOL FOR ROOT RESEARCH Morns G Huck and Howard M Taylor I Introduction I1 Physical Designs: General Types 111 Construction Details and Design Features IV Some Techniques for Observing and Recording Root System Parameters V Experimental Design: Data Acquisition and Analysis VI Summary: Advantages and Disadvantages of Rhizotrons for Use in Root Investigations References 10 20 27 32 33 THE CONSERVATION AND USE OF RICE GENETIC RESOURCES T T Chang C R Adair and T H Johnston I I1 Ill IV V VI VII 38 Introduction 42 Diversity in Rice Genetic Resources 45 Recent Efforts in Genetic Conservation Dissemination and Evaluation of Germ Plasm 58 68 Preservation of Germ Plasm 71 Use of Germ Plasm 80 Endeavors for the Future 85 References THE EFFECTS OF LOW TEMPERATURE ON Zea mays I? Miedema Introduction 11 Freezing Injury V 93 94 vi CONTENTS Ill IV V VI Damage by Low Nonfreezing Temperatures Growth and Development at Suboptimal Temperatures Breeding for Low-Temperature Adaptation Summary References 95 103 119 124 124 AGRICULTURAL USE OF PHOSPHORUS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE M B Kirkham I I1 I11 IV Introduction Concentration of Phosphorus in Sludges Agricultural Use of Phosphorus in Sludges Summary and Conclusions References 129 131 144 154 156 SUBTERRANEAN CLOVER IN THE UNITED STATES W E Knight C Hagedorn V H Watson and D L Friesner I Introduction 11 Potential Use of Subclover Ill Breeding Subclover 1v Seed Characteristics V Nitrogen Fixation 166 167 171 v1 Fertilization and N VII VIII IX X Climatic Variations Establishment and Management Morphological Char Summary References 183 188 1x9 PREDICTING CROP PRODUCTION AS RELATED TO PLANT WATER STRESS R J Hanks a n d V I? Rasmussen I I1 Ill IV V VI Introduction Review of the Literature Measuring ET Estimating ET Estimating Yield Growth Stage Effects 193 194 199 201 203 205 CONTENTS VII Rasmussen and Hanks Spring Wheat Model VIII Rasmussen and Kanemasu Winter Wheat Model IX Hill Johnson and Ryan Model Morgan Biere and Kanemasu Model for Corn XI Other Models with Moisture Stress Included XI1 Summary References x vii 205 207 209 211 212 213 214 IRON NUTRITION OF PLANTS IN CALCAREOUS SOILS Yona Chen a n d Phillip Barak I Introduction 217 XI Soil Iron Compounds and Methods for Their Extraction 218 111 Iron Nutrition of Plants Iv Correction of Iron Deficiency References 222 230 238 NITROGEN TRANSFORMATIONS IN WETLAND RICE SOILS N K Savant a n d S K De Datta I Introduction I1 Chemical Nature of Soil Nitrogen 111 Physical and Physicochemical Processes Relevant to Nitrogen Transformations I v Biochemical Nitrogen Transformations V Fate of Fertilizer Nitrogen VI Regulating Nitrogen Transformation Processes VII Unresolved Challenges References INDEX 241 244 249 261 286 291 293 294 303 This Page Intentionally Left Blank CONTRIBUTORS Numbers in parentheses indicate the pages on which the authors’ contnbutions begin C R ADAIR* (37), Agricultural Research Service, U S Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 PHILLIP BARAK (217), The Seagram Centre f o r Soil and Water Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel T T CHANG (37), Department of Plant Breeding, International Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines YONA CHEN (217), The Seagram Centre f o r Soil and Water Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel S K D E DATTA (241), Department of Agronomy, International Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines D L FRIESNER (165), Department of Agronomy, Mississippi State University, and Mississippi Agricultiml and Forest Experiment Station, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762 C HAGEDORN (163, Department of Agronomy, Mississippi State University, and Mississippi Agricultural and Forest Experiment Station, Mississippi State, MissisJippi 39762 R J HANKS (193), Department of Soil Science and Biometeorology Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322 MORRIS G HUCK (l), Agricultural Research Service, U S Department of Agriculture, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 T H JOHNSTONt (37), Agricultural Research Service, U S Department of Agriculture, University of Arkansas Rice Research and Extension Center, Stuttgart, Arkansas 72160 M B KIRKHAM (1291, Evapotranspiration Laboratory, Kansas State University Waters Annex, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 W E KNIGHT (163, Crop Science Research Laboratory, USDA-ARS, MissiJAippi State, Mississippi 39762 I? MIEDEMA (93), Foundation f o r Agricultural Plant Breeding, 6700 A C Wageningen, The Netherlands V I? RASMUSSEN (193), Department of Soil Science and Biometeorology, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322 *Present address: Bedwell Lane, Concordia, Bella Vista, Arkansas 72712 ?Present address: 13 C & H Circle, Stuttgart Arkansas 72160 ix 292 N K SAVANT AND S K DE DATTA tion > incorporation > deep placement (Rajaratnam and Purushothaman, 1973; Wetselaar, 1975; IRRI, 1976, 1977, 1978; Wetselaar et al., 1977; Ventura and Yoshida, 1977; Mikkelsen and De Datta, 1979; Vlek and Craswell, 1979) Topdressing at the later stages, such as panicle initiation stage can also help reduce ammonia volatilization because of a well developed root system (sink') in the surface soil and a larger plant canopy, which has a moderating effect on floodwater pH and the microclimate near the floodwater-air interface (IRRI, 1975; Bouldin and Alimagno, 1976; Wetselaar et al., 1977) Use of modified forms of urea such as sulfur-coated urea (SCU) and isobutylidene diurea (IBDU), show promise in minimizing ammonia volatilization loss (IRRI, 1978; Mikkelsen and De Datta, 1979; Vlek and Craswell, 1979) Addition of an algicide, such as diuron, to the floodwater, and thorough incorporation of basal-applied phosphatic fertilizer into the soil may help checking algal bloom and concomitant rise in daytime pH of floodwater (IRRI, 1976) Such practices, which check rise in floodwater pH, would certainly aid in reducing ammonia loss from the wetland rice soil Denitrification at site I, i.e., occurring in the oxidized and reduced surface soil layers, can be effectively controlled by deep placement of fertilizer nitrogen However, the magnitude and importance of denitrification at site I1 must be critically evaluated before any corrective measures are formulated Attempts are made to check or retard nitrification in order to limit substrate concentration for denitrification The patented synthetic compounds, for example, Nitrapyrin [2-chloro-6-(trichloromethy1)pyridine],AM (2-amino-4-chloro6-methylpyrimidine), ST (2-sulfanilamidothiazole), and some synthetic and natural products such as extract of neem (Azadirachta indica Juss) kernels and karanjin (the major furanoflavonoid from Pongamia glabra seeds) have been tried as nitrification inhibitors or retarders in wetland soils with varying degree of success (Patrick et al., 1968; Sakai, 1970; Lakhdive and Prasad, 1970; IAEA, 1970; Broadbent and Tusneem, 1971; Noguchi and Shinhara, 1971; Sarma, 1972; Manguiat and Yoshida, 1973; Rajale and Prasad, 1973, 1974; Sahrawat, 1973; Arunachalam et al., 1974; Yoshida and Padre, 1974; Ketkar, 1974; Narain and Datta, 1974; Bazilevich and Sidorenko, 1975; Reddy and Prasad, 1977; Rao and Shinde, 1977; Xian-fang et al., 1979; and many others) By and large, the nitrification retarders or inhibitors were found less effective in field studies than in laboratory or greenhouse studies These results suggest that there is an apparent need for a more potent nitrification inhibitor or retarder N-lignin is one of the slow-release nitrogen fertilizers that has the property to regenerate highly oxidative products to inhibit nitrification of fertilizer nitrogen This advantage was apparent from the field studies of wetland rice soil under varying agroclimate conditions in India (Subbiah et al., 1977) Condensation products of urea and aldehydes apparently reduce the rate of nitrification-denitrification in wetland soil Therefore, nitrogen loss through NITROGEN TRANSFORMATIONS 293 denitrification of slow-acting condensation products of urea may be of the following order (Chiang, 1970): ureaform (UF) > isobutylidene diurea (IBDU) > crotonylidene diurea (CDU) Immobilization of fertilizer nitrogen via biological and chemical processes is an unavoidable process but may not be considered a loss because the nitrogen is not removed from the soil system It may become available to rice plants in the course of time as a result of release if chemically fixed within the clay lattice, or after ammonification if assimilated by microorganism By ameliorating adverse soil conditions, such as that of low pH and aluminum toxicity of acid sulfate soils, by liming (Seirayosakol, 1971; Motomura el al., 1975), by removing excess sodium from sodic soils by improving drainage conditions, or by adjusting the C/N ratio with added soil organic matter, ammonification can be improved Point or band placement of fertilizer nitrogen may also help in reducing NH,+-N fixation by soil (Savant and De Datta, 1979; Craswell and Vlek, 1979b) Proper puddling will reduce downward movement of water, which in turn will reduce percolation loss of added nitrogen (Sanchez, 1973, 1976) Because the sulfur-coated urea fertilizers release nitrogen at a slow rate, their use may reduce leaching losses of nitrogen in the wetland soils (Savant and De Datta, 1979, 1980) Rao and Shinde (1977) prepared a slow-release, ball-type fertilizer material from rice straw or husks, wet soil, and fertilizer nitrogen (urea or ammonium sulfate) When these ball-type fertilizers, air-dried, and with a C/N ratio of 12:I , were placed at 8-cm depth between rows of flooded rice at planting time, a substantial decrease in 15N loss through leaching was observed Incorporation of carbonaceous plant residues such as rice straw may immobilize fertilizer nitrogen, thus reducing nitrogen loss through leaching (Shinde and Chakravorty, 1975) This may result in better nitrogen turnover under the wetland conditions (Krishnappa and Shinde, 1978b) Runoff loss of nitrogen can be minimized by thorough incorporation of fertilizer nitrogen in a wetland soil and subsequent impounding of floodwater for at least for 5-7 days (Singh, 1978) A similar practice of impounding water for week after topdressing is also suggested wherever possible to minimize runoff loss of topdressed nitrogen To minimize the mobility of urea, Patnaik and Nanda (1967) suggested mixing urea with 2-5 times its weight of soil followed by 48-hr incubation before application in the field VII UNRESOLVED CHALLENGES A great deal of research data are available and have increased the knowledge of nitrogen transformations in wetland soils However, there are many unanswered questions, and research efforts are needed to provide greater under- 294 N K SAVANT AND S K DE DATTA standing of the various transformation processes associated with a wetland rice crop Greater understanding of transformation processes would lead to development of better management practices, which could increase fertilizer nitrogen efficiency in rice The following are examples of the areas we believe need attention Information is needed on exchange equilibria, and sorption-desorption of NH4+, and kinetics of urea hydrolysis Such studies should involve relatively undisturbed soil samples collected separately from the oxidized and reduced soil layers, or simulated wetland soil samples Detailed studies are needed for a better understanding of leaching, movement, and transport of fertilizer nitrogen Again, wherever possible, undisturbed soil core samples should be used There is a need to study the mechanism and extent of nitrification-denitrification processes occurring in the rhizosphere in the reduced soil systems, especially as they are influenced by soil and plant factors In order to minimize nitrogen loss through denitrification, especially at site 11, more potential nitrification inhibitors should be identified The following characteristics are needed for a nitrification inhibitor or retarder to be effective in wetland rice soils in the tropics: (a) it should be stable under oxidized as well as under reduced soil conditions at least for a period of months; (b) it should not adversely affect rice roots; and (c) it should not have any adverse residual effects on soil ecology Nitrogen losses by various processes can be considerably minimized by deep placement of fertilizer nitrogen More extensive research data are needed on release, distribution, and movement of nitrogen 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Jr 1974 Soil Sci Plant Nutr 20, 241-247 Yoshida, T., and Padre, B C., Jr 1975 Soil Sci Plant Nutr 21, 281-292 Yoshino, T., and Dei, Y 1974 Japan Agric Res Quart 8, 137-141 Yoshino, T., and Dei, Y 1977a J Cent Agric Exp Sta Jpn 25, 1-62 Yoshino, T , and Dei, Y 1977b Proc Int Semin Soil Environ Ferti/ Munagc Inreiisilu Agric , TO~YO.pp 297-302 Yoshino, T., and Onikura, Y 1980 J Cent Agrir Exp Sta 31, 73-86 Zhao-liang, 1980 Nitrogen Advisory Committee Meeting, Int Rice Res Inst., Los Batios Philippines, April 1980 (unpubl mimeo) Zhao-hang, Z , Rong-ye, C , Yong-fu, X., Yin-hua, X., and Shao-lin, 1979 A m Prdol Sin 16, 218-233 Index A Crop production, predicting, 193-215 Cynodon ducqdon, 149 Aphelenchoides besseyi, 60 Alfalfa, 145, 175 Aluminum, 142, 147, 152 Ammonia volatization, 254-261, 288, 291 Ammonification, 262-2’74 Avena saliva, 151 Avocado, 226 D 2,4-D, 187 Dactylis glomeraiu, 15 I Denjtrification, 279-285 Dicamba, 187 Dormancy, seed, 171 Douglas fir, 227 B Barley, 151, 229 Beet, sugar, 222, 227, 228 Bermudagrass, 149 Blast, 58 Bluegrass, Kentucky, 228 Boron, 142 Breeding technique, innovative, 82-84 Bromus 151 Bromegrass, 151 Brown leaf spot, 59 Buckwheat, 152 E Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 23 Ethylenediaminedi-o-hydroxyphenylaceticacid, 231-232 Evapotranspiration, 195-205 estimating, 20 1-205 measuring, 199-201 F Fagopyrurn esculentum, I52 Fungicide, 186 C Cadmium, 142 Calcium, 181- 183 Canary grass, reed, 145 Charcoal, 235 Chilo plejudellus, 61 Chlorosis, 223-230 temperature effect, 97, 99- 100 Citrus 228, 229 Clover, arrowleaf, 187 crimson, 186 subterranean, 165- 191 white, 174, 186 Compost, 233-134 Copper, 142, 147 Corn, 28, 145, 146, 151, 199-201, 211-212, 224, 237, see also Maize; Zea mays G Genetics, iron utilization, 237-238 rice resource, 37-91 Germ plasm evaluation, 58-68 preservation, 68-71 use, 71-80 Glwine mux 145 Glyphosphate, 186 Grain moth, angoumois, 61 Growth study, sludge use, 144-148 H Helminthosporium oryzae, 59 303 304 INDEX Herbicide, effect, 186-187 Hoja blanca, 60 I Iron, 142, 147 calcareous soil, 217-240 K Kernel smut, rice, 60 L Leaching, 250-252 Legume fertilization, 175-183 nodulation, 146 Lignite, 235-236 Lignosulfonate, 234-235 Liming, 182-183 Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus, I M Macadamia, 226, 228 Magnaporthe salvanii, 59 Maize, 223, see also Corn; Zea mays Male sterility, 102 Manganese, 142 Manure, 233-234 Medicago sativa, 145 Mineral nutrition, temperature, 110-1 12 Millet, 148 Molybdenum, 181 N Neovossia barclayana, 60 Nickel, 142, 147 Nitrification, 274-285 Nitrogen fixation, 171-174, 185 nitrate, 226 transformation, 241-302 Oat, 151 Oebalus pugnax, 61 Orchard grass, 151, 152 Oryza barthii, 44 Oryza fatua 42 Oryza glabberima, 42, 44 Oryza longistaminata, 44 Oryza minuta, 42 Oryza izivara, 43, 75 0,yza officinalis, 42 Oryza perennis, 42 Oryza rufpogon, 43, 59 Oryza sativa, 42-45 Oryza sativa f spontanea, 74 Oryza stapfii, 44 P Panirum miliocium, 148 Paraquat, 187 Paspalum, 98 Pea, 229 Peanut, 18 Petunia, 227 Phalaris arundinaceae, 145 Phaseolus vulgaris, 147 Phosphate fertilization, 11 1-1 12 Phosphorus, 178-181 sewage sludge, 129-163 Photosynthesis, 222-223 low temperature, 98, 113-1 14 Pine, 227 Pyricularia oryzae, 58 R Rhizobium trifolii, 173-174 Rhizoctonia solani, 59 Rhizotron, 1-35 Rice, 102, 114, 225 genetic resource, 37-91 soil, nitrogen, 241-302 Root illumination, 18 research, rhizotron, 1-35 Rye, 146, 149 INDEX S Secult cereule, I46 Sheath blight, rice, 59 Sitotroga cerealella, 61 Sludge, 234 phosphorus in, 129-163 Snapbean, 147 Sogatodes orizicola, 60 Soil, calcareous, iron in, 217-240 Sorghum, 212, 226, 233 Sorghum, 98, 102 Sorghum vulgare sudanense, 145 Soybean, 18, 28, 98, 114, 145, 146, 175, 209-210, 223, 226, 229, 237 Spinach, 222 Spruce, 227 Stem borer, 61 rot fungus, 59 Stink bug, 61 Straighthead, 60 Sudan grass, 145 Sulfur, 177-179 Sunflower, 224 Sweet potato, 114 T Temperature, 184- 185 adaptation breeding, 119-124 chilling injury, 96-99 freezing injury, 94-95 growth, 104-109 low nonfreezing, 95-103 mineral nutrition, 110-1 12 morphogenesis, 114-1 17 rice, 61-62 water relations, 109-1 10 305 Tilletia barclaj~ana.60 Tobacco, 226, 228 Tomato, 237 Tr{folium incarnaium, 186 Trijolium repens, 186 Trijolium subterranean 166, I87 Trifolium vesiculosum, I 87 Triticum destivum, 147 U Urea, 254, 285-286 V Vetch, 187 Vicea sativa 187 w Water, drainage, 149-153 relation, temperature, 109- 110 stress, crop production, 193-215 Water weevil, rice, 61 Wheat, 147, 152 transpiration model, 205-209 White tip disease, rice, 60-61 Z Zea mays, 145, see also Corn; Maize low temperature effect, 93- 128 Zinc, 142, 147 This Page Intentionally Left Blank ... growing in the rhizotron bins By monitoring the amount of CO, which must be added to maintain a constant level in the circulating gas inside the above-ground chamber, it is possible to estimate instantaneous... TAYLOR V H WATSON ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY Prepared in cooperation with the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF AGRONOMY VOLUME 35 Edited by N C BRADY Science and Technology Bureau Agency for International Development... tunnel in rhizotron at East Malling, Kent, England off the cylinder from top to bottom The remainder of the cylinder would be fitted with a viewing panel, which would be sealed to the remainder
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