Advances in agronomy volume 31

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ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY VOLUME 31 CONTRIBUTORS TO THIS VOLUME J.-C FOURNIER UMESHC GUFTA M G HALE L D MOORE K NEMETH P H NYE GINETTE SIMON-SYLVESTRE R R SMITH N L TAYLOR G L TERMAN ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY Prepared irr cooperation with the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF AGRONOMY VOLUME 31 Edited by N C BRADY International Rice Research Institute Manila, Philippines ADVISORY BOARD H J GORZ,CHAIRMAN K M K I N G R B GROSSMANT M STARLING J B POWELL J W BIGGAR M STELLY, EX OFFICIO, ASA Headquarters 1979 ACADEMIC PRESS A Subsidiary of Harcourt Brme Jui~anovich,Publishers New York London Toronto Sydney San Francisco COPYRIGHT @ 1979, BY ACADEMIC PRESS,INC ALL RIGHTS RESERVED NO PART O F THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE REPRODUCED OR TRANSMITTED IN ANY FORM OR BY ANY MEANS, ELECTRONIC OR MECHANICAL, INCLUDING PHOTOCOPY, RECORDING, OR ANY INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM, WITHOUT PERMISSION IN WRITING FROM THE PUBLISHER ACADEMIC PRESS,INC 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, New York 10003 United Kingdom Edition published by ACADEMIC PRESS, INC (LONDON) LTD 24/28 Oval Road, London NW1 IDX LIBRARY O F CONGRESS CATALOG C A R D NUMBER:50-5598 ISBN 0-12-000731-2 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 79808182 CONTENTS CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME 31 PREFACE ix xi EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES ON THE SOIL MICROFLORA Ginette Simon-Sylvestre and J C Fournier Introduction I1 Methodology Applied in the Study of the Effects of Pesticides on the Soil Microflora 111 Effects of Pesticides on the Microorganisms and on the Total Activity of the Soil IV Effects of Pesticides on the Biological Cycles of the Soil V Action on Pathogenic Microorganisms VI Effect of Pesticides on the Microflora Respo Degradation VII Conclusion References 26 35 47 63 80 81 FACTORS AFFECTING ROOT EXUDATION II: 1970-1978 M G Hale and L D Moore Introduction I1 Plant Factors 111 Effects of Environmental Factors IV Foliar Application of Chemicals V Biotic Factors Affecting Root Exudation VI Summary References 93 95 103 107 111 120 120 RED CLOVER BREEDING AND GENETICS N L Taylor and R R Smith I Introduction I1 Taxonomy 111 Reproduction IV Heritability and Gene Action V 125 127 129 131 vi CONTENTS V VI VII VIII Sources of Genetic Variation Alteration of Populations through Selection and Hybridization Use of Selected Materials Maintenance of Genetic Stability during Seed Multiplication References 133 138 144 148 149 THE AVAILABILITY OF NUTRIENTS IN THE SOIL AS DETERMINED BY ELECTRO-ULTRAFILTRATION (EUF) K Nemeth I Introduction 155 IV The EUF Values Required for Optimal Plant Nutrition and Their Calculation V Conclusions for Practical Soil Analysis References 179 185 186 11 Problems of Conventional Soil Testing Practice 156 111 Electro-ultrafiltration 158 VOLATILIZATION LOSSES OF NITROGEN AS AMMONIA FROM SURFACE-APPLIED FERTILIZERS ORGANIC AMENDMENTS AND CROP RESIDUES G L Terman I Introduction 189 I1 * Measurement of NH3 Volatilization Losses 191 111 NH, Losses from NHq-N and Urea Fertilizers, Including Moisture and Temperature Effects NH, Losses from Urea NH3 Losses from Anhydrous NH, and NHIOH NH, Losses from Organic Amendments and Crop Residues NH3 Losses from Flooded Soils NH, Losses in Forest Fertilization IX NH, Sorption by Soils and Vegetation X Conclusions References IV V VI VII VIII 193 206 210 212 214 216 218 219 220 DIFFUSION OF IONS AND UNCHARGED SOLUTES IN SOILS AND SOIL CLAYS P H Nye I The Diffusion Process and Its Range 11 The Mechanism of Ion Movement 225 227 CONTENTS vii 111 Diffusion of Adsorbed Ions in Soil Clays and Clay-Type Minerals Diffusion of Ions and Molecules in Soil IV V v1 VII VIII 229 246 Prediction of Diffusion Coefficients in Soil 253 Volatile Solutes 261 Methods of Measurement of lon Diffusion Coefficients in Soil 263 Diffusion in Practice 266 References 269 BORON NUTRITION OF CROPS Umesh C Gupta Introduction I1 Boron-Containing Fertilizers 111 Methods of Determining Boron in Plants and Soils IV Role of Boron in Plants V Factors Affecting Boron Requirement and Uptake in Plants VI Deficient Sufficient and Toxic Levels of Boron in Plants VII Deficiency and Toxicity Symptoms of Boron in Plants VIII Summary and Future Research Needs References 273 275 276 280 283 292 293 302 303 SUBJECT INDEX 309 This Page Intentionally Left Blank CONTRIBUTORS Number\ in parentheses indicate the pages on which the authors’ contributions begin J.- C FOURNIER ( I ) , National Institute of Agricultural Research, Department of Soil Science, Laboratory of Soil Microbiology, DiJon Cedex, France UMESH C GUPTA (273), Research Branch, Research Station, P.O Box 1210, Agriculture Canada, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada C I A 7M8 M G HALE (93), Departtnent of Plant Pathology and Physiology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universiy, Blacksburg, Virginia 2406 I L D MOORE (93), Departtnent of Plant Pathology and Physiology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg Virginia 24061 K NEMETH ( , Biintehof Agricultural Research Station, Biinteweg 8, 3000 Hannover 71, Federal Republic of Germany P H NYE ( 2 ) , Soil Science Laboratory, Departtnent of Agricultural and Forest Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, England OXI 3PF GINETTE SIMON-SYLVESTRE ( l ) , National Institute of Agricultural Research, Department of Soil Science, Station of Soil Science, Versailles, France R R SMITH (125), United States Department of Agriculture, Madison, Wisconsin 53716 N L TAYLOR (125), Department oj Agronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40546 G L TERMAN* (189), Soils and Fertilizer Research Branch, National Fertilizer Development Center, Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, Alabama 35660 * Deceased ix 302 UMESH C GUPTA b Beans Excess B causes mottled and necrotic areas on the leaves, especially along the leaf margins (Van de Venter and Currier, 1977) c Blackeye Bean (Vigna unguiculata L.) Boron toxicity does not produce any characteristic pattern; yellow or dead areas occur between veins (Wilcox, 1960) d Indian Bean Slight chlorosis is caused, followed by dark-brown spots on the leaves Marginal scorching is found on the periphery of the leaves, and stunted growth occurs (Gandhi and Mehta, 1959) VIII Summary and Future Research Needs The deficiency of B in crops is more widespread than that for any other micronutrient in many regions of the world Under deficiency conditions, B applications result in increased crop yields as well as in improved quality of many vegetable crops Most vegetables and legumes have a higher requirement qf B than other crops Generally, the rates of applied B to correct B deficiency vary from 0.5 to kglha Lesser amounts are needed when B is applied in bands or as a foliar spray, compared with that applied broadcast At the same levels of application, banded B and B applied as a foliar spray result in greater absorption of B by most plants Although the physiological role of B in plants is less well understood than that for other nutrients, considerable progress has been made in this direction Some of the observed effects caused by a deficiency of B include slowdown of root extension, inhibition of cell division, abnormal thickening of cell walls, accumulation of callose in the conducting tissues, increased production of indoleacetic acid, and browning of plant tissue as related to the accumulation of polyphenolic compounds Boron has been demonstrated to unite with various sugars, resulting in an increase in translocation rate of photosynthetic products Increases in the rate of C incorporation into the free amino acids have also been shown A considerable amount of progress has been made on the methods of determining B in plants and soils With the advent of the azomethine-H color method, the use of the reagents carmine, quinalizarin, and curcumin requiring concentrated acids has been eliminated Further, because of the automation made possible by the use of azomethine-H as the color-developing reagent and development of a simplified method of extraction of available B from soils, the determination of B in soil and plants can now be performed satisfactorily with greater rapidity With the exception of some environmental factors, specifically under drought conditions where B could be very limiting for plants, soil pH is the most important factor affecting B uptake by plants Recent studies have shown that increased soil pH plays a significant role in decreasing the uptake of B by plants when the soil pH is greater than 6.3 BORON NUTRITION OF CROPS 303 In the last 15 years a considerable amount of information has become available on the deficiency and sufficiency levels and deficiency symptoms of B in various crops However, such data are still lacking for a number of crops, and future studies should be conducted to fill in the gap The available information on B-toxicity levels and symptoms in plant tissue is scanty, and further investigations need to be done in this regard At present, the plant parts analyzed for establishing the optimum and deficiency levels of B in crops vary considerably An extensive amount of cooperative effort is needed in standardizing plant part and stage of development for a given plant species with respect to determining levels of B in plant tissue This will facilitate meaningful comparisons of data from different locations and establishment of universally applicable criteria for B deficiency and toxicity in crops The information on the levels of hws B (available B) in soil as related to crop production is meager The sufficiency levels of hws B in soil vary considerably from one crop to another and are often affected by the chemical and physical properties of soil Interactions of B with various plant nutrients in soils need to be investigated in detail under field conditions Future research in the subject areas suggested in this section should result in the correction of 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623-628 Walker, J.C., McLean, J.G., and Jolivette, J.P 1941 J Agric Res 62, 573-587 Wall, J.R., and Andrus, C.F 1962 A m , J Bot 49, 758-762 Wallace, T 1951 “The Diagnosis of Mineral Deficiencies in Plants by Visual Symptoms.” H.M Statinery Office, London Warington, K 1923 Ann Bot (London) 37, 629-672 Wear, J.I 1965 In “Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, Agronomy 9” (C.A Black, ed.), pp 1059-1063 Am Soc Agron., Madison, Wisconsin Wear, J.I., and Patterson, R.M 1962 Soil Sci Soc A m Proc 26, 344-346 Weir, C.C 1970 J Sci Food Agric 21, 545-547 Weiser, C.J., Blaney, L.T., and Li, P 1964 Physiol Plunt 17, 589-599 Whittington, W.J 1959 Rep School Agric Univ Norringhum pp 51-53 Wilcox, L.V 1960 Agric Info Bull I I , A.R.S U.S Dept Agric., Washington, D.C., pp 3-7 Williams, D.E.,and Vlamis, J 1970 Soil Sci Plunr A n d 1, 131-139 Willis, A.L 1970 Soil Sci Plant Anul 1, 205-21 I Wolf, B 1940 Soil Sci 50, 209-217 Wolf 1971 Comtnun Soil Sci PIunt A n d 2, 363-374 Wolf, B 1974 Cornmuti Soil Sci Plutir Anul , 39-44 Yamaguchi, M., Howard, F.D., and Minges, P.A 1958 Proc A m Soc Hortic Sci 71,455-467 Zapata, R.M 1973 J Agric Univ Puerto Rico 57, 9-23 This Page Intentionally Left Blank Subject Index A Abscissic acid (ABA), 109-11 Acephate, 28, 41, 46 Achromobucter I Actinomyces ubikoensum, 57 Actinomycete, 26, 30-31 Agrobucterium tumeficieiis, 57 Alachlor, 12, 26, 40, 55, 73 Aldicarb, 34 Aldrin, 16, 28, 29, 38 41, 44, 45, 47, 49, 79 Alfalfa 27, 30 45, 103, 213, 278, 295 299, 30 Algae, soil, 31-32 Allium cepu, 298 Alternuriu humicolu, I 12 soluni 52 Aitiuruitthus, 58 Amitrole, 15, 20, 24, 31, 36, 67, 76 Ammonia, 175- 176 volatization, 189-223 Ammonicum dinitrocresol, 52 Anilazine, 24, 39, 41 Anthracnose, I32 Aphoiromjces euteiches, 50, 55 Apicum gruveoleus, 274 295 Apis melliferu, I29 Apple, 12, 15, 17 27, 46 scab, 59 Aruchis hypogueu, 295 Armilluriu melleu 52, 57 Arthrobacrer, I Aspergillus fumigutus 53 rtiger 52, 57, 112 Asulam 44 Atratone, 53 Atrazine 12, 14-17.20,24,27-40.43.44.46 50, 52-54, 56 57 Azauracil 282 Azotoharter 43-44 chroococum, 279 B Bncillus brevis, 57 mesetitericus, 58 oligoiiitrophilus 57 poljrtlyxu 57 Bacteria, pesticide effect, 26-28 Bahiagrass, 204 Barley, 12, 14, 48, 203, 283, 286, 296, 301 Bean, 27, 50, 101, 280, 295, 302 blackeye, 302 broad, 281, 282 dwarf kidney, 295 Indian, 300, 302 mung, 281, 282 white pea, 295 Bee, alkali, 129 leaf cutter, I29 Beet, 278, 298 heart rot, 274 sugar, 14, 40, 46, 52, 294, 300 Benomyl, , , , , , , , , , , 49, 59-62 Bentazone, 27, 44 Bentonite, 239 240, 241 Benzenehexachloride 39 Benzimidazole fungicide, 58 N-Benzoyl-N-(dichloro-3,4-phenyl)-N,Nfdimethylurea 17 20 24 Bermuda grass, 202, 203-204, 213 Beru vulgaris, 274, 278, 282, 294 BHC, 31, 36, 45 Biejerirtchkiu, I 14 Birdsfoot trefoil, 296, 299, 301 Boletus vuriegutus, 120 Boriihus 129 Bordeaux mixture, 58 Boric acid, 274 Boron nutrition, 237-307 Botrjrris citieren, 58-61 tulipue, 53 Brussico uupobrussicu, 274 278, 285, 294 oleiuceu var borujris, 274, 294 cupitam 298 geiiimiferu, 278, 287, 294, 298 itulica, 294 Broccoli 294, 298 Bromacil, 15, 35 Brornegrass, 204 Bromoxynil, 48 Brotiius iiiennis, 204 Brussel sprout, 278, 287 Bumblebee, 129 309 10 SUBJECT INDEX C 4-CPA, 66 2-(4-CPP), 66 CEPC, 66, 76 ClPC see Chlorpropham Cabbage, 15, 101, 298 clubroot, 50 Calcium, 174-175, 184, 201, 233, 235, 238, 239, 242-246, 250, 251, 284-286 cyanamide, 26, 30, 40 Callose accumulation, 280 Captan, 15, 21, 24, 30, 31, 34, 38, 41, 59 Carbamate, 14, 24, 73, 76 Carbaryl, 29, 35, 44, 45, 73 Carbofuran, 28, 30, 34, 38, 42, 46, 73 Carbon cycle, pesticide effect, 35-37 Carboxin, 49, 67, 68 Carrot, 278, 295, 298 Cauliflower, 287, 294, 297 brown-heart, 274 Celery, 286, 287, 295, 298 cracked stem, 274 Cellulose decomposition, 35-37 Cercosporu, 49 Cercosporellu herpotrichoides, 48, Chuerorniurnfunicolu, 53 Chloramben, 57, 108 Chloramphenicol, 108, 110 Chloranocryl, 42 Chlorazine, 27 cycloate, 27 Chlorbufam, , , , , , , , , , 43 Chlordane, 28, 36, 38, 41, 44, 45, 47, 49, 79 Chloride, 247, 255, 257 Chloropicrin, 14, 15, 28, 37, 38, 44, 46 Chloroprotham, 15 Chloroxuron, 33, 39 Chlorpropham (CIPC), 31, 35, 40, 41, 43, 55, 58, 66-67, 72, 76 Chlorpyrifos, 46 Chlortiamid, 14 Chlorthal, 36 Clostridiurn, 43 Clover, red, 184, 213, 278, 296, 301 breeding and genetics, 125-154 Colletotriehurn lindernurhianurn 52 trgolii, 132 Corn, 12, 14-17, 27, 37, 38, 43, 45, 52, 56, 101, 112, 202-204, 209, 278, 288, 290, 296, 300, 301 seedling blight, 50 Cotton, 31, 38, 40, 49, 58, 101, 118, 193, 203, 280, 300 bacterial blight, 49 seedling disease, 50 Cucumber, 101, 295 Cucurbiru p e p 28 Cwriurlorr duetdon, 202 Cyanazine, 12, 15, 24, 37 Cyclamen, 59 Cycluron, 14, 21, 24, 26 27, 29 32, 35, 36, 39,43 Cytokinin, 109 D 2,4-D see 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid 2,4-DA, 44 2,4-DB, 20, 24, 29, 31, 40, 44 DCPA, 27, 65 DCU, 35, 46 DD, 14, 28, 30, 36, 38, 42, 44, 45, 46 DDT, , , , 3 , , , , 4 , , , DMPA, 36 DNOC, 27, 30, 43, 45, 67, 70-71, 76 2,2-DPA, 15 Dalapon, 12,21, 27.30, 33, 34,36, 39,43,44, 45, 53, 76 Damping-off, 49, 50, 52 Duucu.s curotu, 278, 295 Dazomet, 20, 24, 30, 31, 41, 42 Defoliation, 104- I05 Demeton, 36, 38 Diallate, 20, 24, 40, 73, 76 Diazinon, 46, 68, 73 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP), 49 Dicamba, 36, 75 Dichlobenil, 14, 75 Dichlone, 57, 59 2,6-Dichlorobenzamide, 72 2,6-Dichloro-4-nitroaniline, 68 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyaceticacid (2.4-D), 12, 14, 16-17, 21, 24, 29, 32, 33, 36, 37, 38, 40, 43, 46,48,49, 51, 69-77, 108-110 Dichloropropene, I , 30 Dichlorprop, 48, 66,75 Dicloran, 15, 24, 30, 38,42, 64-66, 68 Dieldrin, 16, 20, 24, 29, 33, 36, 41, 44, 45 SUBJECT INDEX Dimethoate, 44, 45 Dinitramine, 48 Dinitroanilene, 50 Dinoseb 12, 14 17,24,27, 29,31,33,35,38, 43 44 45, 48, 50, 52, 53, 76, 77, 108 Diphenamid, 15,42, 49, 50, 52, 55, 56, 65 Diplocliu rnctyeh, 54 55 Disulfoton, 41, 73 Dityleriehus clipstrci, 132 Diuron 14, 15, 32 33 36, 40.45, 50 5 , 64, 311 Fungi, pesticide effect, 29-30 Fusuriuiii culnioruin, 57 mysporum , 53-56 f sp Iycopersici, 51 f sp vusinjectuin, 52, 54-55 rosrum f sp eerecilis 50 56 sokuiii, 53, 113 f sp pis;, 50, 56 spororrichiodes 53 wilt 49, 50 65 Dolichos luhlab, 300 G Drazoxolon; 30 E EPTC, 14, 24, 27, 30, 37 41, 50, 55, 73 Ecephate, 38 Eggplant, 50 Electro-ultrafiltration,155- I87 Endothal, 27, 43, 67 Endrin 45, 49 Epicoccum nigrum , 53 Ergot, 283 Erwinicc, 58 curotovoru, 58 Erysiphe gruiiiiuis, 50, 59 polygoiii, 132 Ethion, 49 Ethirimol, 59 Ethofumesate, 34 Ethofumisate 73 Ethoprop, 30, 34, 49 Ethylene dibromide, 28, 38, 45, 46 Eyespot disease, 48, 51 F Fenitrothion, 34 Fensulfothion, 28, 30, 34, 38, 42, 46, 49 Fenuron, 37, 42 Ferbam, 41, 46, 59 Flax, 12, 46 Flooding, 214-216 Fluometuron, IS, 32,33,38,39,40,53,65,73 Fluorodifen, 55 Forest fertilization, 216-218 Formaldehyde, 42 Fulviu fulvu, 59 Gaeiriii~iiiiioriiyc.esgruminis, 48, 55 Genetics, male-sterility, 13 I nitrogen fixation, 131-132 pest resistance, 132, 139 Germination, metabolite release, 100-101, 103 Gibherellu zeue, 54, 55 Gibberellic acid, 108 Gladiolus scab, 49 Glycine mux, 284 Glyphosate, 36 Gos.sypium hirustum 193, 280 Gramoxone w, 55 Grassland, 204-205 Groundnut, 49 Growth regulator effect, 109-1 11 H HBC 47 HCH, 33 Helianthus eitiiiuus, 282 Helmintosporium muydis, 74 sutivum 48, 51, 117 Heptachlor, 16, 20, 24, 41, 48, 49 Honeybee, 129 Hordeum vulgure, 203, 283, 296 Humus, 289-290 Hypom.vces, 59 I Illite, 230-231, 234 Indole-3-acetic acid, 109-1 I Ion diffusion, soil, 225-272 Ioxynil, 21, 33, 40, 43, 47, 48 Ipazine, 53 Ipoiiioeu butu!us 274 312 SUBJECT INDEX Iron, 112 lsoproturon, 33, 43 K Kubrtriellu cuulivoru, 132 Kaolin, 232-235, 236, 243 Kinetin, 109 L Lactuca saliva, 298 Lenacil, 27, 32 Lettuce 298 Light intensity, 291 Lindane, 29, 33, 41, 45, 49 Linuron, 17, 26, 30, 32, 33, 35-40.43-45 57, 58, 67, 73, 76 Lolium multiflorum, 202 Lotus cortiiculatus, 296, 299 Lupine, 12, 44, 45 Lyropersicoti emdentutti, 28 1, 295 Methyl bromide, 36, 57 Methylisothiocyanate, 28, 30, 38, 42, 46 Metobrornuron, 33, 40, 53, 55 Metoxuron, 17, 33, 36, 40 Metribuzin, 21, 28, 37, 39 Mint rust, 48 Monocrotophos, 38, 41 Monolinuron, 17, 32, 36, 39,43 Montrnorillonite, 232-235, 236, 240, 242-246 Monuron, 14, 33, 35, 40, 42, 55, 67, 76 Mustard, white, 17, 39 N Nabam, 20, 24, 30, 31, 41, 46 Neburon, 15 39, 65 Nicoriunu tubacum, 278, 286 Nilapurvaru lugens, 68 Nitralin, 65, 73 Nifrobacrer, 41 Nitrogen, 112 175-178, 247, 286-287 cycle, pesticide effect, 37-46 loss, volatization, 189-223 M Nirrosomonas Nomia tnelatideri, 129 MCPA, 14, 32, 33, 38 40, 46, 48, 57, 64-66, Nutrient availability, electro-ultrafiltration 69-70, 75 technique, 155-187 2,4-MCPB, 14, 24, 37 Magnesium, 173- 174, 201, 284-286 Maize see Corn Malathion, 33, 34, 41, 44,45 Oat, 16, 17, 43 Maleic hydrazide, 43, 46 48, 67 Onion, 298, 301 Maneb, 24, 39, 41, 46 sweet, 49 Manganese, 47, 112 Orange, 48 Manure, 212-213 Organomercuric, 42 Marigold, 115, 119 Onzu sarivu 190 Meclicugo safiva, 213, 278, 295 Oxarnyl, 38 Megachile rotiwdaru, 129 Oxitril, 48 Meloidogyne incognita 17, 18 Oxycarboxin 49 Menazon 44, 45 Mephosfolan, 33, 34 Metam-sodium, 30, 31, 36, 39, 42, 44, 74 P Metasystox, 44 Methabenzthiazuron 14, 24 PCNB, 49, 59 Methamidophos, 28, 38, 41, 46 PCP, 27, 37, 43 Methidathion, 38 Paraquat, 12 14, 15,24,26, 30, 34, 36, 37, 39, Methornyl, 68 43, 46, 5 , 57, 74 Methoprotryne, 14, 29, 35 Parathion, 29, 36, 41, 45 46 Methoxychlor, 44 Paspalum notatum, 204 SUBJECT INDEX Pea, 16, 17, 43, 50, 56, 282, 285 root rot, 50 Peanut, 48, 49 295 Pebulate, 21, 24, 37 40, 43, 46 Penicilliurn, 59-6 digitriruin, 48 herquei, I Iloralul~i.57, 59 siiiipiicissiiiiuiir, I 15 Pentachlorophenol, 52 Pepper, SO Pesticide, exudation of, 107-109 resistance, 58-62 soil microflora effect 1-92 Phaseolus, 295 ciureus 281 vulgaris 280 Phenazone, 32 Phenrnedipham, 38, 40 Phenobenzuron, 26 Phenylurea, 30, 31 Phirilophoru ciilerescens, 59 Phoniopsis cirri, 48 Phorate, 34, 73 Phosphorus, 112, 165-168, 178-179 182-183 246, 287 cycle, 46-47 Photosynthesis, 32 Phoxin, 44, 45 Phymarorrirhuni oinriivoruni, 54, 55 Phythiuni aphar~iclerr~~untr~~, 50, 51, 55, 58 Phyophrhora, 58 cirinaiiioini I 18, I20 Picloram, 21 24, 26 32 39, 40, 52 Pine, I12 Pisatin, 117 Pisuiir sutivuai, 282 Plant disease, pesticide influence, 48-58 Plusinocliophorci hrussicue, 50 I Potassium, 167-172, 175, 180-182, 233, 235 238, 239, 241, 243-246, 250, 287 Potato, 295 299 blight, 58 wart disease, 48 Prometryn, I?, 14, 15, 24, 29, 31, 32, 38, 39, 43, 44,45, 52, 54, 56, 58, 65, 73, 71 Propachlor, 12, 26, 29, 31, 36, 40 Propanil, 29, 36, 67 13 Propham, 27, 37, 43, 45 313 Proximpham, 76 fseudonionus incirginoru, 49 phaseoli, 58 putida 112 Pucciniu gruiniiiis var rririci, 114 Pyramine, 53 Pyrazon, 15,27.29,30,33,34 37,40,43.45, 46, 52 53 65, 67-69 u Quintozene, 15, 24, 30, 38 42, 78 R Radish, 298, 301 Ruphunus raphnni.itrum 57 Rhizobiuni, 44-45, 119 rrifolii, 45, 132 Rhizocronici, 49 iOl
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Xem thêm: Advances in agronomy volume 31 , Advances in agronomy volume 31 , II. Methodology Applied in the Study of the Effects of Pesticides on the Soil Microflora, III. Effects of Pesticides on the Microorganisms and on the Total Activity of the Soil, IV. Effects of Pesticides on the Biological Cycles of the Soil, V. Action on Pathogenic Microorganisms, VI. Degradation Effect of Pesticides on the Microflora Responible for pesticide Degradation, CHAPTER 2. FACTORS AFFECTING ROOT EXUDATION II: 1970–1978, III. Effects of Environmental Factors, IV. Foliar Application of Chemicals, V. Biotic Factors Affecting Root Exudation, CHAPTER 3. RED CLOVER BREEDING AND GENETICS, V. Sources of Genetic Variation, VI. Alteration of Populations through Selection and Hybridization, VII. Use of Selected Materials, VIII. Maintenance of Genetic Stability during Seed Multiplication, II. Problems of Conventional Soil Testing Practice, IV. The EUF Values Required for Optimal Plant Nutrition and Their Calculation, V. Conclusions for Practical Soil Analysis, III. NH3 Losses from NH3-N and Urea Fertilizers, Including Moisture and Temperature Effects, IV. NH, Losses from Urea, IX. NH, Sorption by Soils and Vegetation, III. Diffusion of Adsorbed Ions in Soil Clays and Clay-Type Minerals, IV. Diffusion of Ions and Molecules in Soil, V. Prediction of Diffusion Coefficients in Soil, VII. Methods of Measurement of lon Diffusion Coefficients in Soil, CHAPTER 7. BORON NUTRITION OF CROPS, III. Methods of Determining Boron in Plants and Soils, IV. Role of Boron in Plants., V. Factors Affecting Boron Requirement and Uptake in Plants, VII. Deficiency and Toxicity Symptoms of Boron in Plants, VIII. Summary and Future Research Needs

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