Advances in agronomy volume 29

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ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY VOLUME 29 CONTRIBUTORS TO THIS VOLUME ESHELBRESLER K R CHRISTIAN C S COOPER R C DALAL J DOBEREINER D R GRIFFITH GURDEVS KHUSH T MAEDA CARLOSA NEYRA S D PARSONS C B RICHEY W R SCOWCROFT H TAKENAKA B P WARKENTIN ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY Prepared under the Auspices of the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF AGRONOMY VOLUME 29 Edited by N C BRADY International Rice Research Institute Manila, Philippines ADVISORY BOARD w.L COLVILLE, CHAIRMAN G W KUNZE D G BAKER D E WEIBEL G R DUTT H J GORZ M STELLY, EX OFFICIO, ASA Headquarters 1977 ACADEMIC PRESS New York San Francisco London A Subsidiary of Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers COPYRIGHT @ 1977, BY ACADEMIC PRESS, INC ALL RIGHTS RESERVED NO PART OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY B E REPRODUCED OR TRANSMITTED IN ANY FORM OR BY ANY MEANS, ELECTRONIC OR MECHANICAL, INCLUDING PHOTOCOPY, RECORDING, OR ANY INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM, WITHOUT PERMISSION IN WRITING FROM T H E PUBLISHER ACADEMIC PRESS, INC 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, New York 10003 United Kingdom Edition prtblislied b y ACADEMIC PRESS, INC (LONDON) LTD 24/28 Oval Road, London N W l LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER:50-5598 ISBN 0-12-000729-0 PRINTED IN T H E UNITED STATES OF AMERICA CONTENTS PREFACE CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME 29 iX xi NITROGEN FIXATION I N GRASSES Carlos A Neyra and J Dobereiner I Introduction 111 Bacteriology IV Factors Affecting Nitrogen Fixation in Grasses V General Discussion References Note Added in Proof I1 Nitrogen Fixation in C-3 and C-4 Grasses 12 26 30 33 38 SOMATIC CELL GENETICS AND PLANT IMPROVEMENT W R Scowcroft I I1 111 IV V VI VII Introduction Plant Cell Tissue Culture Anther Culture and Haploids Mutant Isolation and Selection Plant Cell Protoplasts Genetic Transformation in F'lants Conclusions References 39 40 44 48 55 61 73 74 SOIL ORGANIC PHOSPHORUS R C Dalal I Introduction I1 Organic Phosphorus Content of Soil 111 Nature of Soil Organic Phosphorus IV Organic Phosphorus in Soil Solution V Organic Phosphorus Turnover in Soil VI Conclusions References 83 84 86 90 96 112 113 vi CONTENTS GROWTH OF THE LEGUME SEEDLING C S Cooper I I1 I11 IV V VI VII VIII Introduction Physiological Predetermination Germination Stages of Seedling Development Improvement of Legume Seedling Vigor Seedbed Preparation Seeding Forage Legumes Seeding Management Practices References 119 120 121 123 130 130 131 137 137 YIELDS AND CULTURAL ENERGY REQUIREMENTS FOR CORN AND SOYBEANS WITH VARIOUS TILLAGE-PLANTING SYSTEMS C B Richey D R Griffith and S D Parsons I Introduction I1 Tillage-Planting Systems I11 Influence of Tillage-Planting System on Yields IV Yield Factors Influenced by Tillage-Planting System V Energy Requirements for Various Tillage-Planting Systems Vl Projecting Energy Savings with Reduced Tillage VII Conclusions References 141 143 147 157 169 178 180 180 EFFECTS OF THE ENVIRONMENT ON THE GROWTH OF ALFALFA K R Christian I Introduction 111 Shoot Growth IV Root Growth I1 Genetic Variation in Response t o Environment V Environmental Factors and Vegetative Growth VI Phases in Development Vll Plant Associations VI11 Genetic Adaptation t o Environment References 183 185 186 189 191 209 214 217 219 CONTENTS vii PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ALLOPHANE SOILS T Maeda H Takenaka and B P Warkentin I I1 I11 IV V Introduction Index Properties Structure of Allophane Soils Physical Characteristics of Allophane Soils Soil Engineering References 229 232 241 246 253 261 DISEASE A N D INSECT RESISTANCE IN RICE Gurdev S Khush I I1 111 IV V VI Introduction Disease Resistance Insect Resistance Developing Varieties with Multiple Resistance Stability of Resistance Conclusions References 265 266 301 322 329 333 333 T R IC K LE-D R IP IR R IG A T I0N: PR INC IPL ES A N D APPLICATION TO SOIL-WATER MANAGEMENT Eshel Bresler I Introduction I1 Potential Advantages of Trickle Irrigation 111 Problems in Practical Use IV Modeling of Water and Salt Flows V Soil-Water Regime during Trickle Infiltration VI Solute Distribution during Infiltration VII Application of Infiltration Models to the Design of Trickle Irrigation Systems VIII Water Management in Marginal Soils List of Symbols References 376 387 389 391 SUBJECTINDEX 395 344 345 351 353 367 372 This Page Intentionally Left Blank CONTR I BUT0 RS Numbers in parentheses indicate the pages on which the authors’ contributions begin ESHEL BRESLER (343), Division of Soil Physics, lnstitute of Soils and Water, Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel K R CHRISTIAN (183), Division of Plant Industry, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Organization, Canberra, Australia C S COOPER (1 19), Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Bozeman, Montana R C DALAL (83), Department of Agronomy and Soil Science, University of New England, Armidale, N S W., Australia J DOBEREINER ( l ) , EMBRAPA, Campo Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil D R GRIFFITH (14 I), Purdue Agricultural Experiment Station, Lafayette, Indiana GURDEV S KHUSH (265), International Rice Research Institute, Los BaCos, Philippines T MAEDA (229), Department of Agricultural Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan CARLOS A NEYRA (l), EMBRAPA, Campo Grande, Ria de Janeiro, Brazil S D PARSONS (141), Purdue Agricultural Experiment Station, Lafayette, Indiana C B RICHEY (141), Purdue Agn’cultural Experiment Station, Lafayette, Indiana W R SCOWCROFT (39), Division of Plant Zndusty, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Organization, Canberra, Australia H TAKENAKA (229), Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan B P WARKENTIN (229), Department of Renewable Resources, McGill University, Montreal, Canada 386 ESHEL BRESLER tion coefficient for dividing flow, and pipe roughness coefficient The HazenWilliams equation accounting for dividing flow between emitters is HL = 2.78 F*L*D-4*8'(6N/C)1.85 (33) where HL = friction head loss in laterals (meters) = average rate of emitter discharge (meters3 hours-') N = number of emitters per lateral F = reduction coefficient for dividing flow between emitters along the lateral L = the lateral length (meters) D = inside diameter of the lateral pipe (meters) C = the Hazen-Williams roughness coefficient Equation (33) is an empirical equation Care should be taken in using the units specified to each of the above-dimensioned variables The empirical values of F and C have been tabulated (compare, e.g., Howell and Hiler, 1974) As the spacing between emitters along the lateral is given by d = 2r, (Figs 12 and 13), it is possible to express N as =4 N = -L (34) 2r, d where d is the distance between emitters along the lateral Substituting L / d for N in Eq (33) and rearranging L = 88.88 D'.708 (HL/F)0.351(Cd/a)"649 (35) Knowing the Q-d relationship (Fig 12 or 13) and assuming F to be constant over a given range of L and d, Eq ( ) gives the L-D relationships for any preselected value of head loss HL To select an appropriate value of HL for Eq ( , a proper criterion may be based on the differences between the emitter discharge at the lateral inlet and the downstream discharge, relative to the average discharge, Qi-Qd GE Q Here Qi is the inlet discharge, Qd is the downstream discharge, and E is a preselected error fraction, say 0.05 or similar The relationship between emitter discharge rate and the hydraulic head at the emitter may be given by the empirical expression Q=b@ (37) where b and p are constant characteristic of the flow regime in the emitter and H is the hydraulic head at the emitter Data of b and are available from the TRICKLE-DRIP IRRIGATION 387 manufacturer but also can easily be determined experimentally in the laboratory Using the maximum value of e it follows from Eq (36), using Eq (37), that H f = -€0+Pd b Since HL (38) = Hi - H d , then Knowing both the pressure head at the lateral inlet and the emitter constants b and 0,permits the calculation of HL from Eq (39) for a given and Q This value of HL is then substituted into Eq (35) to obtain the D-L relationship needed for the lateral design When the lateral length is given by the size of the plot and Hi is known, the diameter D is calculated from Eq (35) Otherwise, the optimum economic 0-L-Hi combination has to be calculated for each field and soil condition In summary, it is suggested (Bresler, 1977) that steady and nonsteady infdtration models, which are well suited for the analysis of unsaturated flow through porous media, can be applied to design a trickle irrigation system The two modeling approaches make it possible to calculate the spacing between emitters as a function of their rate of discharge, soil hydraulic properties, and crop sensitivity to water stress However, it is important to remember that each of the proposed methods has certain limitations For example, some of them involve errors that arise from the linearization procedure and from the estimation of K , and a The assumption concerning the steady state flow is a very restricting one It should also be emphasized that problems are involved in selecting the correct hydraulic parameters of the soil: K(O) and p(O) In addition, seepage of unused water below the rooting zone is not considered when S/S, (Fig 1I), O(r,o), or p(r,o) is taken at the soil surface It is also emphasized that problems are involved in seiecting the correct p c value Additional research is needed to ascertain the validity of the views expressed in this chapter, to develop field methods for determining the necessary soil-water parameters, and to select the best midspace pressure head for a given set of soil, climate, and crop growing conditions (Bresler, 1977) VIII Water Management in Marginal Soils Hardpans of various types, different sands and sand dunes, desert pavement of many kinds, and saline and alkali soils are very common marginal soils in arid 388 ESHEL BRESLER zones of the world (see, e.g., Gile, 1961; Litchfield and Mabbutt, 1962; Ives, 1959; Marbut, 1935; Burvill, 1956; Pennefather, 1951) In addition, in many areas of the humid tropics, soils are leached and become very acidic Soil acidity is generally associated with aluminum toxicity, which limits the rooting depth, especially of those crops which are sensitive to aluminum (Charreau, 1974; Wolf and Drosdoff, 1974; Wolf, 1975) Most of the above-mentioned marginal soils are characterized by low values of “available water” and/or “water-holding capacity,” properties often associated with limited rooting systems Moreover, in many parts of the humid tropics and of semiarid zones, rains are either inadequate in total amount or irregular in annual distribution This unfavorable climate-soil combination tends to produce soil-water deficits which in turn cause water management to be a critical factor for successful agriculture This is so because of the unfavorable soil-water properties of these marginal soils in combination with the occurrence of long dry periods and the limited root growth owing to hardpans, desert pavement, salinity, aLkalinity or acidity, and aluminum toxicity Obviously, a crop yield can not be obtained without irrigation during the dry seasion, in any kind of soil It appears that, since irrigation must be applied in these areas, a trickle irrigation system may be the preferred one in these marginal soils, for the following reasons The method is capable of delivering water into the soil in small quantities as often as desired, so as to maximize irrigation frequency without any additional costs As irrigation frequency increases, the infiltration period becomes the most important part of the irrigation cycle When irrigation frequency is sufficiently high, so that the irrigation cycle is dominated by infiltration rather than by the extraction stage, the water-holding capacity or water-availability properties of any marginal soil become relatively unimportant This is so because the soil-water regime is continuously maintained at a relatively high water-content level so that water is supplied to the crop as it is needed and there is no need to store water within the limited soil-root zone (Rawlins, 1973) Not having to bring water from storage to the limited root zone also eliminates the possible negative effect of fluctuations in soil-water content The effect is probably more severe as the soil becomes more marginal with respect to its water-holding properties Water management under high-frequency trickle irrigation therefore renders the unfavorable water-storage properties of many marginal soils essentially unimportant Irrigation management therefore involves optimization in the design of spacing between emitters and the lateral system (Section VII), as well as control of the quantities of water to be applied in order to meet the crop requirements and to supply the amount of water needed t o pass through the effective root zone to avoid salinity buildup (see Section VI) The quantity of water to be applied by an emitter in each single irrigation for any day after planting may be calculated from TRICKLE-DRIP IRRIGATION 389 '(t)= R '(r)&(t)I(t)m$ (40) where 4' is the quantity of water to be applied by an emitter at the day t after irrigation, E, is the class A pan evaporation between the preceding and the present irrigation, Z is the irrigation interval, r , is the radius of area wetted by an emitter, and R'(t) = ET(t)/E,(t) is the ratio between evapotranspiration (ET) and E, for the period t This ratio as a function of number of days after irrigation, must be obtained experimentally Note that this calculation does not take into account the quantity that must pass the effective root zone to avoid the hazard of salinity, which was discussed in Section VI An additional management problem common to many marginal soils is that they may have a low fertility status-as in sands or sand dunes, or a high capacity to fuc phosphorus so as to make it unavailable to crops [e.g., marginal soils in the humid tropics (Wolf, 1975)l The combination of low fertility status, high aluminum concentration, and phosphorus fixation may create an additional serious soil limitation to agricultural development These soil fertility problems may be controlled by applying fertilizers simultaneously with irrigation through the trickling system (Shani, 1973) By using the proper management practice, one is able to optimize this system with respect to the nutritional balance and water status LIST OF SYMBOLS The following symbols are used in this chapter: a = ap,/2 = parameter proportional to the length scale, dimensionless b = constant, Lz T-' c = solute concentration in the soil solution, C = Hazen-Williams roughness coefficient, dimensionless C, = solute concentration of the irrigation water, I W L - ~ D = inside diameter of the lateral pipe, L d = distance between emitters, L = soil diffusion coefficient, L T-I = hydrodynamic dispersion tensor, L T-' E = evaporation flux, LT-' E , = class A pan evaporation rate, LT-' ET = evapotranspiration rate, LT-' F = reduction coefficient for dividing flow, dimensionless (? = average vertical pressure head gradient over the ponded area at the soil surface, dim ensionless H = hydraulic head, L Hi = inlet head, L Hd = downstream head, L HL = head loss in lateral, L I = irrigation interval, T D, Dq 390 ESHEL BRESLER K$ = saturated hydraulic conductivity tensor, LT-' K,.(e) = relative hydraulic conductivity, dimensionless K = K ( ) = K @ ) = Kr(e)KS= capillary conductivity in isotropic media, LT-' L = lateral length, L N = number of emitters per lateral, dimensionless p = pore-water pressure head, L pa = air entry value of p , L Q = rate of discharge from emitter, L T-' Qi = inlet discharge, L T-' Q d = downstream discharge, L T ' q = specific solution flux (Darcy's velocity), LT-' q' = quantity of water to be applied by an emitter, L r = radial coordinate, L R = radial boundary of flow region, L R' = ratio between evapotransipration and class A pan evaporation, dimensionless rw = radius of the wetted area, L S = S(0) = S@) = transform water content, transform pore-water pressure head, L z T-' r = time, T T = end time of infiltration, T x i = Cartesian coordinate, L x, = vertical coordinate, L x,y = horizontal coordinates, L Y = crop yield per unit land area, V = average solution flow velocity, LT-' z = vertical coordinate, L Z = vertical boundary of flow region, L 01 = constant, L-' p = constant, dimensionless y = horizontal or radial coordinate, L f = relative vertical coordinate, dimensionless = volumetric water content, dimensionless @ = soil-water regime index, dimensionless = average value of 0,dimensionless @ = deviation of from &, dimensionless E = discharge difference fraction, dimensionless uz = variance of @(t), dimensionless h~ = longitudinal dispersivity, L AT = transversal dispersivity, L = relative radial coordinate, dimensionless p = radius of the ponded-water entry zone, L Subscrzp rs o = reference value usually air-dry water content N = initial value s = value at saturation u = ultimate value, limiting value c = selected critical midway value TRICKLE-DRIP IRRIGATION 39 REFERENCES Ayers, A D., Wadleigh, C H., and Magistad, C C 1943 J A m SOC.Agron 35, 796-810 Bear, J 1972 “Dynamics of Fluids in Porous Media,” pp 6 Am Elsevier, New York Bernstein, L., and Francois, L E 1973 Soil Sci 115, 73-86 Bernstein, L., and Francois, L E 1975 Agron J 67, 185-190 Black, J D F., and West, D W 1974 Proc Int Drip Irrig Congr., 2nd pp 4 Boaz, M 1973 “Trickle Irrigation in Israel.” Isr Minist Agric., Ext Serv., Tel Aviv Braester, C 1973 Water Resour Res 9,687-694 Brandt, A., Bresler, E., Diner, N., Ben-Asher, I., Heller, J., and Goldberg, D 1971 Soil Sci SOC.Am., Proc , Bresler, E 1973 Water Resour Res 9, 975-986 Bresler, E 1975 Soil Sci SOC.Am., Proc , 4 13 Bresler, E 1977 Irrigation Sci (in press) Bresler, E., and Russo, D 1975 Soil Sci SOC.A m , Proc 39, 585-586 Bresler, E., and Yaron, D 1972 Water Resour Res 8, 791-800 Bresler, E., Heller, J., Diner, N., Ben-Asher, I., Brandt, A., and Goldberg, D 1971 Soil Sci Soc Amer., Proc , 8 Burvill, G H 1956 J Dep Agric., West Aust., Salt Land Sum , 113-1 19 Charreau, C 1974 “Soils of Tropical Dry and Dry-Wet Climatic Areas of West Africa and their Use and Management,” Agron Mimeo 74-26 Dep Agron., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, New York Childs, S W., and Hanks, R J 1975 Soil Sci SOC.Am., Proc 39, 617-622 Christiansen, J E 1942 C a l q , Agric Exp Sm., Bull 670 Dan, H 1974 Proc Int Drip Irrig Congr., 2nd pp 491-496 Dasberg, S., and Steinhardt, R 1974 In: “Isotopes and Radiation Techniques in Soil Physics and Irrigation Studies Proc Series: 7 I.A.E.A., Vienna Frith, G J T., and Nichols, D G 1974 Proc In? Drip Irrig Congr., 2nd pp 4 Gardner, W R 1958 Soil Sci 85, 228-232 Gerard, C J 1974 Proc Int Drip Irrig Congr., 2nd pp 329-331 Gile, L H 1961 Soil Sci SOC.A m , Proc 25, Goldberg, D., and Shmueli, M 1970 Trans Am SOC.Agric Eng 13, 38-41 Goldberg, S D., Rinot, M., and Karu, N 1971 Soil Sci SOC.Am., Proc 35,127-130 Gornat, B., Goldberg, D., Rimon, D., and Ben-Asher, J 1973 J Am SOC Hortic Sci 98(2), 202-205 Grobbelaar, H L., and Lourens, F 1974 Proc Int Drip Irrig Congr., 2nd pp 41 1-415 GUStdfSon, C D., Marsh, A W., Branson, R L., and Davis, S 1974 Proc Inr Drip Irrig Congr., 2nd pp 17-22 Haise, H R., and Hagen, R M 1967 In “Irrigation of Agricultural Land” (R M Hagen, H R Haise, and T W Edminster, eds.), Agronomy, Vol 11, pp 577-597 A.S.A Publ., Madison, Wisconsin Halevy, I., Boaz, M., Zohar, Y., Shani, M., and Dan, H 1973 In “Trickle Irrigation,” F A Irrig Drainage Pap No 14, pp 75-1 17 F A UN, Rome Hanks, R J., Klute, A., and Bresler, E 1969 Water Resour Res 5, 1064-1069 Hart, W E 1961 Agric Eng 42(7), 354-355 Heller, J., and Bresler, E 1973 In “Arid Zone Irrigation” (B Yaron, E Danfors, and Y Vaadia, eds,), pp 339-351 Springer-Verlag, Berlin and New York Hiler, E A., and Howell, T A 1973 Trans A m SOC.Agric Eng 16(4), 799-803 392 ESHEL BRESLER Hillel, D 1972 In “Optimizing the Soil Physical Environment Toward Greater Crop Yields” (D Hillel, ed.), pp 79-100 Academic Press, New York Howell, T A., and Hiler, E A 1974 Trans Am Soc Agric Eng 17,902-908 Isob, M 1974 Proc Int Drip Irrig Congr., 2nd pp Ives, R L 1959 A m J Sci 257(6), 4 Kameli, D 1971 Proc, Znt Drip Irrig Congr., l s t , Tel Aviv pp 1-15 Kemper, W D., and Noonan, L 1970 Soil Sci Soc Am., Proc 34, 126-130 Lange, A., Aljibury, F., and Fischer, B 1974 Proc Znt Drip Irrig Congr., 2nd pp 422-424 Lemon, E R 1956 SoilSci Soc Am., Proc 20,120-125 Lemos, P., and Lutz, J F 1957 Soil Sci Soc Am., Proc 21,485-491 Lindsey, K E., and New, L 1974 Proc Znt Drip Zrrig Congr., 2nd pp 40ft404 Litchfield, W H., and Mabbutt, J A 1962 J Soil Sci 13, 148-159 Lomen, D O., and Warrick, A W 1974 Soil Sci Soc A m , Proc 38, 568-576 Lunin, J., and Gallatin, M H 1965 Soil Sci Soc Am., Proc 29,608-612 McElhoe, B A., and Hilton, H W 1974 Proc Int Drip Irrig Congr., 2nd pp 215-220 Marbut, C F 1935 In “Atlas of American Agriculture,” Vol 3, Advanced Sheet No U.S Dep Agric., Washington, D.C Neuman, S P 1973.J Hydrol Div., Proc, A m Sac CivilEng 99(HYl2), 2233-2250 Ogata, A 1970 US Geol Sum, Prof Pap 411-1 Olsen, S R., and Kemper, W D 1968 Adv Agron 20, 81-151 Patterson, T C., and Wierenga, P J 1974 Proc Int Drip Irrig Congr., 2nd pp 376-381 Peleg, D., Lahav, N., and Goldberg, D 1974 Proc Int Drip Irrig Congr., 2nd pp 203-208 Pennefather, R R 1951 West Mail 6 , Perkins, T K., and Johnston, C 1963 SOC.Pet Eng J 3, 70-84 Philip, J R 1968 Water Resour Res 4(5), 1039-1047 Philip, J R 1971 Soil Sci Soc Am., Proc 35, 867-871 Raats, P A C 1971 Soil Sci Soc Am., Proc 35,689-694 Raats, P A C 1972 Soil Sci Sac Am Proc 36, 399-401 Rawitz, E 1970 Soil Sci 110131, 172-182 Rawlins, S L 1973 Soil Sci Soc Am., Proc 37(4), 626-629 Rawlins, S L 1974 Proc Int Drip Irrig Congr., 2nd pp 209-211 Rawlins, S L., and Raats, P A C 1975 Science 18,604-610 Rawlins, S L., Hoffman, G J., and Merrill, S D 1974 Proc Int Drip Irrig Congr., 2nd pp 184-1 87 Rolland, L 1973 In “Trickle Irrigation,” F A Irrig Drainage Pap No 14, pp 3-73 F A UN, Rome Rose, C W 1961 Soil Sci , 4 Safran, B., and Panes, B 1975 “Nitrogen Fertilization Trials in Trickle Irrigated Vineyards.” Isr Minist Agric., Ext Serv., Rehovot (In Hebrew.) Seginer, I 1967 Agric Meteorol 4, 281-291 Seginer, I 1969 J Irrig Drainage Div., Proc Am Soc Civil Eng 95(IR2), 261-274 Shalhevet, J., and Bernstein, L 1968 Soil Sci 106, 85-93 Shani, M 1973 “Techniques for Coupling Fertilization and Irrigation.” Isr Minist Agric., Ext Serv., Rehovot (In Hebrew.) Talsma, T 1963 Meded Landbouwhogesch Wageningen 63(10), 1-68 Taylor, S A 1952 Soil Sci 74,217-226 Tranter, C J 1951 ‘‘Integral Transformations in Mathematical Physics.” Methuen, London Tscheschke, P., Alfaro, J F., Keller, J., and Hanks, R J 1974 Soil Sci 117,226-231 Wadleigh, C H., and Ayers, A D 1945 Plant Physiol 20, 106-132 TRICKLE-DRIP IRRIGATION 393 Wadleigh, C H., Gandi, H G., and Kolisch, M 1951 SoilSci 72, 275-282 Warrick, A W 1974 SoilSci SOC.Am., Proc 39,383-386 Warrick, A W., and Lomen, D 1974 Proc Int Drip Irrig Congr., 2nd pp 228-233 Warrick, A W., and Lomen, D 1976 Soil Sci Soc Am., J 41,639-643 Waterfield, A E 1973 In “Trickle Irrigation,” F A Irrig Drainage Pap No 14, pp 147-153 F A UN, Rome Wilke, C 1974 Proc Int Drip Irrig Congr., 2nd pp 188-192 Willens, A F., and Willens, G A 1974 Proc Int Drip Irrig, Congr., 2nd pp 388-393 Willoughby, P., and Cockroft, B 1974 Proc Int Drip Irrig Congr., 2nd pp 439-445 Wolf, J M 1975 Ph.D Thesis, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, New York Wolf, I M., and Drosdoff, M 1974 “Soil-water Studies on Oxisols and Ultisols of Puerto Rico,” Agron Mimeo 74-22 Dep Agron Agric Eng., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, New York Wooding, R A 1968 Water Resour Res 4(6), 1259-1273 Yagev, E., and Choresh, Y 1974 Proc Int Drip Irrig Congr., 2nd pp 456-461 Yaron, B., Shalhevet, J., and Shimshi, D 1973 I n “Physical Aspects of Soil Water and Salts in Ecosystems” (A Hadas, D Swartzendruber, P E Rijtema, M Fuchs, and B Yarou, eds.), pp 389-394 Springer-Verlag, Berlin and New York Zaslavsky, D 1972 In “Optimizing the Soil Physical Environment Toward Greater Crop Yields” (D Hillel, ed.), pp 223-232 Academic Press, New York Zaslavsky, D., and Mokady, R S 1966 Soil Sci 104, 1-6 Zentmyer, G A., Guillemet, F G., and Johnson, E L V 1974 Proc Int Drip Irrig Congr., 2nd pp 512-514 This Page Intentionally Left Blank SUBJECT INDEX A white, 301 yellow, 301, 305-306 Brach iaria brachylopa, mutica, 7, ru&osa, Brassica campestris, 45 napus, 57 oleracea, Bromegrass, 57, 72 Bromus inermis, 57 tetorum, 131 Brown leaf spot, 217-278 narrow, 278 Buckwheat, 92 Bulbostylis aphylanthoides, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, 66-69, 72 Aikiochi, 277 Alfalfa,43,60, 120, 121, 122, 124,127, 128,130,133 environment and growth, 183-227 Algae, blue-green, AlIophane, physical properties, 229-264 Aluminum, 205,206 Ammonia, 29, 145, 147, 164 Ammophyla arenaria, Andosol, 230 Andropogen gayanus, SPP., , Asclepias syrica, 162, 163 Asparagus, 57 Asparagus offcinalis, Astragalus cicer, 133 Atrazine, 162, 172-175 Azotobacter, 12 chroococcum, , 2 paspali, , , 14-15,28, 32 spirillum, 15 vinelandii, 13, 14,20, 21, 72 C Cajanus cajan, Calcium, 205, 206, 216 Capsicum annuum, 62 frutescens, 348 Carrot, 42, 51, 57, 58, 72, 73 Cassave, 23,43 Cell culture, genetic manipulation, 39-81 Cercospora oryzae, 278 Cheatgrass, 131 Chernozem, 107 Chilo suppressalis, 301 Chiseling, 143, 147-150,155-156, 163, 173,177 Citrus sinensis, 57 Clostridium, pasteurianum, Clover, 93,94, 216 alsike, 124, 130, 133 crimson, 124, 130 cup, 123 red, 124, 127, 130, 133 strawberry, 133 subterranean, 97,98, 121, 122, 124, 133 white, 98, 130, 133 Cochliobolus miyabeanus, 277 Cocksfoot, 217 B Bacillus maceranus, 11 megatherium var phosphaticum, 108 polimyxa 1 , sp., 32 Bacterial blight, 280-286, 322, 323 leaf streak, 287 streak, 287 Barley, , , , , 126, 129 Bean, 119 Beijerinckia, 6, 10, 13-14, 22 fluminensis, 14 indica, 14 Black shank, 47 Blast disease, 267-275, 322, 323 Borer, pink, 301 striped, 301-305 395 396 SUBJECT INDEX Coffee, 43 Corn, 92,108, 125,126, 216 see also maize borer, European, 169 disease control, 169 leaf blight, southern, 52 tillage-planting systems and yield, 141-182 Flax, 51 Flooding-tolerance, 54 Flowering, 212 Foxtail, 131 Fulvic acid, 85, 86 Coronilla varia, 133 Corticum saskii, 215 Cowpea, 51 Crepis, 44 Crown gall, 61 rust, 331 Cucumber, 126 Cucumis sativus, 126 Culture, anther and haploids, 44-48 cell, 40-44 Cynoden dactilon, I Cyperus obtusiflorus, I rotundus, I SP., Gall midge, 318-322 Gene manipulation, 65-13 Genetics, bacterial blight resistance, 282-286 blast resistance, 265-215 disease resistance, 276-217,218, 219, 281,295,291 environment adaptation, 211-219 response, 185-1 86 insect resistance, 303-305, 309-313, 316-318,320-322 multiple resistance breeding, 322-333 somatic cell, 39-81 tungeo resistance, 292-294 Germination, 121-123,213 Gibbsite, 234 Glycine max, Grass, nitrogen fixation, 1-38 salt marsh, 10 Grassy stunt, 294-296, 322, 323 Growth, leaf, 188-189 legume seedling, 119-1 39 root, 189-191 shoot, mathematical model, 186- 181 D Dactylis glomerata, 211 Dacus carota, 51 Dahlia pinnata, 12 Derxia gummosa, 14 Diabrotica longicornis, 169 Digitaria decumbens, nitrogen fixation, 2,5, 6, I , 26,29,30 Diplanthera wrightii, 12 Disease control, 169 resistance, 41, 52-53, 265-341 Disking, 145,141, 153,163, 114 Dormancy, 184,209 E Energy requirements, tillage-planting systems, 169-180 Enterobacter cloacae, 9, 10, 11, 12 F Fern, bracken, 23 Fertilization, 350, 313 Fertilizer, placement, 163-1 65 G H Haplopappus 44 Helminthosporium maydis, oryzae, 211 Herbicides, 144, 146, 111 Hoja blanca, 299-301 Hordeurn bulbosurn, 61 jubaturn, 131 culgare, Humic acid, 85,86 Humin, 85 Humus, 86,103 Hy parrh enia dissolu ta, I mfa, 7, 397 SUBJECT INDEX I M Imogolite, 230 Inositol phosphate, 86-88,91,93, 103, 107 Insect control, 169 resistance, rice, 301-322 Irrigation, 210 trickle-drip, 343-393 Maize, 43,49,51,53,54, 71, 107 see also corn nitrogen fixation, 8-9, 13,19,23,24,26, 27, 29, 30,31 Manganese, 20,205,206 Mangrove, 12 Manure, 101, 102, 111 Medicago asiatica, 186 falcata, 185, 203,213 glutinosa, 185 hispida, 129 lupulina, 203 sativa, 133,185, 186, 203,206 Melilotus alba, 122,133 officinalis, 133 Melinis rninuliflora, Mentek, 288 Methodology, cell protoplasts, 55-60 haploid culture, 44-46, 47 mutant isolation, 48-55 organic phosphorus analysis, 84 soil dispersing, 232-234 Milkweed, 162,163 Millet, 108 Mineral, interrelationship, 207-209 root growth,204 uptake, 204-206 Mineralization, 98,100-112 Moisture, mineralization, 103-104 Mold, blue, 47 Montmorillonite, 38 Mycorrhizae, 94-95,108 J Juncus balticus, 12 K KlebsieNa aerobacter, 12 pneurnoniae, 72 Kresek 280 L Laodelphax striatellus, 15 Lasso, 172-176 Leaf blight, corn, 169 Leafhopper, green, 292, 316-318, 322,327, 330 green rice, 298, 318 zigzag, 298 Legume, seedling growth, 119-1 39 Lespedeza, 124 cuneata, 133 sripufacea, 133 striata, 133 Leucena glauca, Light, growth, alfalfa, 191-195 Lilium, 44 Lime, 205 Linum usitatissirnurn, 57 Lolium, 189 perenne, 92, 98 rigidum, 98 LOIOX,173-176 Lotus cornicutatus, 133 purshianus, 129 Lucerne, 13 Lycopersicon escutenturn, N Nephotettix cincticeps, 298, 315, 318 virescens, 288, 316 Nicotiana, 45,47, 62 glauca, 58, 59 glu tinosa, 47 langsdorfi, 8,59 tabacurn, 41,57,59 Nilaparvata lugens, 294,307 Nitrapyrin, 164 Nitrogen, 85,105,106, 164, 216 nitrate, 128, 349 398 SUBJECT INDEX Nitrogen fixation, 206-207 efficiency, 21-22 gene manipulation, 71-73 grass, 1-38 Nodulation, 127, 128, 206, 207 No-till, 146,147,149-150,153,155,156, 163,169,175-176,177 Oat, 43, 108,215 Onobrychis viciifolia, 133 Orange, 57 Orange leaf virus, 288 Oryza nivara, 295, 327 Oxygen, nitrogen fixation, 17-18,28-29 P Pachydriplosis oryzae, 318 Panicum diehotomiflorum, 163 maximum, 7, 8,23,24,25,27 Panicum, fall, 163 Paraquat, 175-176 Paspalum comersenii, notatum, nitrogen fixation, 2,5, 7, 14-15,27,28,30,32 Pasture, 97-98 Pea, 57, 119 Pennisetum americanum, 25 purpureum, 7, 29 Pepper, bell, 348 red, 62 Peronospora tabacina, 47 Phaseolus spp., 119, 126,193 Photomorphogenesis, 192 Photoperiod, 187, 191-192 Photosynthesis, 3,189, 194 Phosphabacterium, 108 Phosphorus, 129,147,164,204,216 grassland cycle, 96-97 inorganic, 93, 97, 105-106 soil organic, 83-1 17 Physiological predetermination, 120-1 21 Phytophthora, 203, 204 megasperma, 203 nico tianae, Pinus radiata, 94 Pisum sativa, 57 spp., 119 Plant association, 214-217 Plant hopper, 299 brown, 307-313,323,323,330 small brown, 296, 315 white-backed, 314 Plowing, 130-131, 143,148-150, 153, 155,156,166,172-173,177 Podzol, 85,97 Potamogeton filiformis, 12 Potassium, 128,147, 164, 207, 208 Potato, 43 Protoplast, plant cell, 55-61 Pseudomonas tabaci, Pyricularia oryzae, 267 R Rape, 12 Rapeseed, 57 Recilia dorsalis, 298 Rhizobium, 24, 32, 72, 131 Rhizoctnoica solani, 275 Rhizophora mangle, 12 Rhodospirillum rubrum, 20, 21 Rice,43,45,46,47,51,72 blast, 267-275, 322, 323 cadang cadang, 288 delphacid, 314-315 disease and insect resistance, 265-34 dwarf, 288,298 nitrogen fixation, 9-10, 13, 27 Ridge system, 145, 149, 150,155, 159, 167,174,177 Root rot, 351 Rootwork, Northern, 169 Ryegrass, S Saccharum sp., 57 Sainfoin, 120,121,122,123,125,126, 128.133 Salinity, 348, 352 Salt-tolerance, 3-54 Sacrification, 122 Seedbed preparation, 130-131 Seedling growth, legume, 119-139 Sesarnia inferens, 301 Sheath blight, 275-27 Sogatella furcifera, 14, 15 399 SUBJECT INDEX Sogatodes cubanus, 299 oryzicola, 299, 314, 315, 322 Soil, allophane, 229-264 compaction, 159-162,254-256 erosion prevention, 166-169 solution, phosphorus, 90-95 stabilization, 260 thermal conductivity, 238-241 volcanic ash, 229 Soil-water management, trickle-drip irrigation, 343-393 Solanurn, 45 Sorghum, nitrogen fixation, 8-9, 19, 26, 27, 29, 30 Soybean, 43, 57,58,60,92, 108 tillage-planting systems and yield, 141-182 Spartina alternijlora, 12 Spirillurn lipoferurn, 6, , 10, 11, 12, 13, 15-26,27,28,31, 32,71 ecological distribution, 22-24 physiology, 17-22 Spirodela oligorrhiza, 94, 108 Stem borer, 301-306 Stem-rust, 331 Stress-resistance, 3-55 Stunt disease, 288 Strip disease, 296-298 Stylosanther harnata, 43 Sugar cane, 6, 13,43,57 Sulfur, 85, 105,204, 207 Superphosphate, 97 Sweet clover, 130 white, 122, 124, 133 yellow, 124,133 Sweet potato, 23 Syringodiurn filiforrne, 12 Tobacco, 45,46,47,51, 57,64,72 Tomato, 13,43,55,57,63 Transformation, plant, 61-73 Trefoil, big, 130 birdsfoot, 120, 122, 127, 130, 133, 137 narrow leaf, 124 Trerna cannabina, 72 Trifluralin, 163 Trifolium cherileri, 123 fragiferurn, 133 hirturn, 129 hybridurn, 133 incarnaturn, 129 rnicrocephalurn, 129 protense, 133 repens, 98,133 subterraneum, 97,98,120, 128, 133 tridentaturn, 129 Triticale, 45 Tryporyza incerrulas, 301, 305 innotata, 301 Tungro, 288-294,322 Turnip rape, 45 v Vetch, cicer milk, 121, 128,133 common, 133 crown, 120, 121,133, 137 woolypod, 123 Vicia dasycarpa, 123 sativa, 133 Vigna unguiculata, 57 Virus, tobacco mosaic, 47 W T Temperature, 127-128 growth effect, 195-199, 213 legume germination, 122-1 23 mineralization, 102-103 tillage systems and soil, 158-159 Thalassia testudinurn, 12 Till-planting, 146, 149-150, 167, 175, 177 Tillage-planting systems, yield and energy requirement, 141-182 Water conservation, 165-166 flow, modeling, 353-367 growth effect, 199, 200-204 trickle-drip irrigation, 343-393 retention, 247-250 transmission, 250-252 uptake, 199-200 Weed control, 162-163 Wheat, 43,45,47,51,12, 107, 108 nitrogen fixation, 10-11,13, 23, 27, 32 Wildfire disease, 52 SUBJECT INDEX X Xanthomonas oryzae, 280 transtycens orizicola, 281 Yield, improving soil-water regime, 346-348 Z Y Zostera marina, 12 Yellow dwarf virus, 288 Yellow-orange leaf, 288 A c D O E l F G H ... P WARKENTIN ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY Prepared under the Auspices of the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF AGRONOMY VOLUME 29 Edited by N C BRADY International Rice Research Institute Manila, Philippines ADVISORY... importance in the infection process of plant roots by N2 -fixing bacteria Recent findings (Rinaudo et al., 1971; Dobereiner et al., 1972a; Dobereiner and Day, 1976; von Bulow and Dobereiner, 1975)... plants in Wisconsin inoculated with strains of S lipofemm isolated from Digitaria roots in Brazil, showed establishment of the bacteria inside the roots (Burris, 1976; Dobereiner et al., 1976) Inoculated
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Xem thêm: Advances in agronomy volume 29 , Advances in agronomy volume 29 , II. Nitrogen Fixation in C-3 and C-4 Grasses, IV. Factors Affecting Nitrogen Fixation in Grasses, II. Plant Cell Tissue Culture, III. Anther Culture and Haploids, IV. Mutant Isolation and Selection, VI. Genetic Transformation in Plants, III. Nature of Soil Organic Phosphorus, IV. Organic Phosphorus in Soil Solution, V. Organic Phosphorus Turnover in Soil, CHAPTER 4. GROWTH OF THE LEGUME SEEDLING, IV. Stages of Seedling Development, V. Improvement of Legume Seedling Vigor, CHAPTER 5. YIELDS AND CULTURAL ENERGY REQUIREMENTS FOR CORN AND SOYBEANS WITH VARIOUS TILLAGE–PLANTING SYSTEMS, III. Influence of Tillage–Planting System on Yields, IV. Yield Factors Influenced by Tillage–Planting System, V. Energy Requirements for Various Tillage–Planting Systems, VI. Projecting Energy Savings with Reduced Tillage, II. Genetic Variation in Response to Environment, V. Environmental Factors and Vegetative Growth, VIII. Genetic Adaptation to Environment, CHAPTER 7. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ALLOPHANE SOILS, III. Structure of Allophane Soils, IV. Physical Characteristics of Allophane Soils, CHAPTER 8. DISEASE AND INSECT RESISTANCE IN RICE, IV. Developing Varieties with Multiple Resistance, II. Potential Advantages of Trickle Irrigation, IV. Modeling of Water and Salt Flows, V. Soil-Water Regime during Trickle Infiltration, VI. Solute Distribution during Infiltration, VII. Application of Infiltration Models to the Design of Trickle Irrigation Systems, VIII. Water Management in Marginal Soils

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