Advances in agronomy volume 22

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ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY VOLUME 22 CONTRIBUTORS TO THIS VOLUME K P BARLEY J R BROWNELL J w.CARY FRANCISE CLARK J P EVENSON D L GRUNES PAUL R HENSON E M HUTTON D S MCINTYRE H F MAYLAND M M MORTLAND ELDORA PAUL D L PLUCKNETT W G SANFORD ROBERTR SEANEY P R STOUT ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY Prepared under the Auspices of the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF AGRONOMY VOLUME 22 Edited by N C BRADY Roberts Hall, Cornell University, lthaca, New York ADVISORY BOARD W L COLVILLE W A RANEY I J JOHNSON J R RUNKLES R B MUSGRAVE G W THOMAS 1970 ACADEMIC PRESS New York and London COPYRIGHT 1970, BY ACADEMIC PRESS,INC ALL RIGHTS RESERVED NO PART OF THIS BOOK MAY BE REPRODUCED IN ANY FORM, BY PHOTOSTAT, MICROFILM, RETRIEVAL SYSTEM, OR ANY OTHER MEANS, WITHOUT WRITTEN PERMISSION FROM THE PUBLISHERS ACADEMIC PRESS, INC 1 Fifth Avenue, New York, New York 10003 United Kingdom Edition published by ACADEMIC PRESS, INC (LONDON) LTD Berkeley Square House, London W I X 6BA LIBRARYOF CONGRESS CATALOG CARDNUMBER:50-5598 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES O F AMERICA CONTENTS CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME 22 PREFACE ix xi TROPICAL PASTURES E M HUTTON Introduction II 111 IV V VI VII VII1 IX X XI XI1 XI11 XIV xv XVI Climate and Potential for Improved Pastures in the Tropics Role of Plant Introduction Tropical Legumes Temperate Legumes d in the Subtropics Nodulation and Nitrogen Fixation of Tropical Legumes Legume Nutrition Relative to Tropical Pasture Development Undesirable Compounds in Tropical Legumes Physiology of Tropical Legumes Breeding and Genetics of the Main Legumes The Main Grasse umes Phosphorus and Nitrogen Fertilization of Grass Breeding and Genetics of Tropical Grasses Beef Production from Legume-Based Tropi Summary and Conclusions References CLAY-ORGANIC 21 23 27 33 36 39 44 50 53 57 60 65 66 COMPLEXES A N D INTERACTIONS M M MORTLAND I I Bonding Mechanisms in Clay-Organic Complexes I11 Nature of Some Clay-Organic Complexes and Reactions IV Nature and Importance of Some Clay-Organic Complexes in Soils and Sediments V Conclusions V 75 77 95 108 113 I14 vi CONTENTS BIRDSFOOT TREFOIL ROBERTR SEANEYA N D PAULR HENSON I Introduction 11 Morphology 111 Physiology IV Culture V Utilization V1 Genetics and Cytology References 120 122 125 127 139 143 147 153 THE CONFIGURATION OF THE ROOT SYSTEM IN RELATION TO NUTRIENT UPTAKE K P BARLEY I Introduction I59 11 Geometrical Description of the Root System 111 Nutrient Transference in the Soil IV Physiological Conditions Governing Uptake 161 V The Influence of Configuration on Uptake VI Conclusions References 167 17 177 197 198 FROST AND CHILLING INJURY TO GROWING PLANTS H F MAYLAND AND J W CARY I Introduction Ill IV V VI f Protein Structure Cold Lability of Enzymes Membrane Composition and Permeability Protection from Freezing Conclusions 203 206 15 vii CONTENTS THE PLATINUM MICROELECTRODE METHOD FOR SOIL AERATION MEASUREMENT D S MC ~ NT YRE I The Method I1 Electrochemistry 111 Physical Effects of Electrode Insertion IV Models and Microelectrode Response V Conclusions V1 O2 Flux and Plant Response VI1 Summary References 235 241 266 268 276 278 281 281 RATOON CROPPING D L PLUCKNETT J P EVENSON AND W G SANFORD Introduction I1 Genetic Aspects 111 Botanical and Physiological Considerations IV Ratooning and Environmental Factors V Soil Relationships VI Pests and Disease VII Management VIII Future Outlook References 286 293 294 300 305 312 317 323 326 GRASS TETANY OF RUMINANTS D L GRUNES.P R STOUT.AND J R BROWNELL Introduction 11 Incidence Climate, and Season I11 Symptoms of Animals Iv soils V Forage 332 332 336 340 342 CONTENTS Vlll v1 Animal Factors in Hypomagnesemia VII Treatment of Affected Animals VIII Prevention of Grass Tetany IX Magnesium Deficiency in Humans X Summary References 354 363 363 368 369 369 THE MICROFLORA OF GRASSLAND FRANCIS E CLARKA N D ELDORA PAUL Introduction I1 The Microflora of the Living Plant I11 The Microflora of Grassland Litter IV The Microflora of Grassland Soils V Biomass and Bioactivity Measurements VI The Humic Component of Grassland Soil VI1 Nitrogen Transformations in Grassland Soils References 375 376 385 395 403 409 416 426 Author Index Subject Index 431 459 CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME 22 Numbers in parentheses indicate the pages on which the authors’ contributions begin K P BARLEY(159), Waite Agricultural Research Institute, Glen Osmond, South Australia J R BROWNELL* (331), Kearney Foundation of Soil Science, Davis, Calif0rn ia J W CARY(203), Snake River Conservation Research Center, Soil and Water Conservation Research Division, Agricultural Research Service, U.S Department ofAgriculture, Kimberly, Idaho FRANCISE CLARK (373, U S Department OfAgriculture, Fort Collins, Colorado J P EVENSON (28% University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia D L GRUNES(33 11, U S Plant, Soil and Nutrition Laboratory, U.S Department of Agriculture, Ithaca, New, York PAUL R HENSON( 19), U S Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland E M HUTTON( l ) , Commonwealth ScientiJic and Industrial Research Organization, Division of Tropical Pastures, Cunningham Laboratory, Brisbane, Australia D S MCINTYRE(235), Commonwealth ScientiJic and Industrial Resea reh organization, Canberra,Australia H F MAYLAND (203), Snake River Conservation Research Center, Soil and Water Conservation Research Division, Agricultural Research Service, U.S Department of Agriculture, Kimberly, Idaho M M MORTLAND( , Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan ELDORA PAUL (373, The University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada D L PLUCKNETT (285), College of Tropical Agriculture, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii W G SANFORD (285), College of Tropical Agriculture, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii ROBERTR SEANEY ( 19), Cornell University, Ithaca, New York P R STOUT(331), Kearney Foundation of Soil Science, Davis, California *Present address: Fresno State College, Fresno, California ix 448 AUTHOR INDEX McAuliff, C., 105,115 McAuliffe, H D., 379, 434 McBean, D S., 270, 279,281 McCaleb, J E., 46, 69 McCallum, K J., 412,421,427 McCarty, R E., 216, 233 McClure, J W., 195, 199 MacCollom, G B., 132, 138, 139,154, 155 McConaghy, S., 365,372 McConnell, P., 103, 115 McConnell, W B., 414, 431 McCown, B H., 205,233 McCracken K J 181 200 McCrady, M H., 379,432 McCraken, R J., 380, 381,431 McCreery, R A., 310,328 McCune, D L., 121, 127, 156 MacDonald, G M., 397, 398, 399,432 MacDonald, H.A., 120, 121, 122,123, 124, 125, 126, 128, 130, 137, 138, 139, 140, 144, 155, 156, 157 McDonald, I., 361,371, 384,433 McDonald, P., 346, 372 McDonald, P W., 142,154 McDougall, B M., 381, 383,385,431,433 McDougall, W B., 178, 199 McElgunn, J D., 178, 199 Macfadyan, A., 375,431 McGarity, J W., 406,432 McGill, R F., 359, 360,370 McIlroy, R J., 63, 71 Mcllvain, E H., 386,432 Mclntosh, T H., 417, 420 422,431 Mclntyre, D S., 240, 241, 247, 250, 253, 254, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 263, 264, 266, 268, 269, 270, 271, 278, 280, 282 Mclntyre, M P., 4, 70 Mack, E., 378, 431 McKee,G W., 125, 126, 129, 155 McKee, R., 124, 146, 155 Mackenthun, K M., 419,431 Mackenzie, D H., 288, 300, I I , 18,328 MacLachlan, E A., 369,371 McLaren, A D., 109, 1 1, 115, 412,428 McLeester, R C., 205,233 McLennan, H A., 144,154 McLeod, M N., 51, 71 McLuckie, J., 418, 431 McNaught, K J., 347, 365, 372 McNeal, B L., 87, 115 McQuillin, J., 377, 379, 434 Macrae, W D., 334,372 McTaggart, A., 6, 70 Macura, J., 409,431 McVey, D V., 134, 155 McVey, W M., 140,156 McWhirter, K S., 42, 70 McWilliam, J R., 229, 233 Madsen, N B., 21 I , 212,231 Maget, H J R., 258, 259, 260, 267, 269, 282 Majumder, S K., 204, 229,233 Makay, K., 88, 96,97, 106, 114 115 Malcolm, R L., 380, 381, 431 Malzahn, R C., 379,434 Mandal, R C., 288,328 Mangan, J L., 142, I55 Mangelsdorf, A J., 292, 315,328 Mann, S O., 360, 361, 362,370 Markey, S P., 110, 116 Marriott, F H.C., 174,199 Marriott, S J., 45, 47, 70 Marshall, K C., 109, 115 Marth, P C., 221,233 Martin, A E., 23, 55,69, 70 Martin, J P., 296,328, 410, 41 I , 431 Martin, M H., 253, 265, 270,282 Martin, R T., 109, 116 Maruyama, C., 34, 73 Mason, K R., 335,372 Materassi, R.,403, 426 Matherne, R J., 323, 327 Mathur, R B., 136, 155 Mathur, S P., 415, 416,431 Matsubara, H., 207, 210,233 Matsumoto, H., 34, 35, 67, 71 Maurer, A R., 22 I , 233 May, L H., 161, 165, 199 Mayaudon, J., 409,412,414,431,433 Mayland, H F., 227, 233, 417, 420, 422, 431 Mays, D S., 142,156 Mazur, P., 206, 213, 217, 218,233 Mead, F W., 46, 70 Meadows, M W., 133 139,154 Means, U M., 129,154 Mears, K A., 147, 156 AUTHOR INDEX Mears, P T., 9, 70 Meek, R C., 99, 117 Meggitt, W F., 88, 100, 102, 115 Mehta, N D., 409,428 Meiklejohn, J., 421, 422, 423, 427, 431 Melhuish, F M., 162, 199, 200 Melvin, J F., 352, 372 Mendelovici, E., 94, 114 Menzies, J D., 135, 155 Meredith, D S., 388, 431 Mershon, M M., 355, 356,372 Meryman, H T., 12,233 Metcalfe, D S., 124, 137, 138, 153, 156, 157 Metcalfe, G., 42 I , 431 Metson, A J., 332, 340, 341, 343, 344, 345, 346, 348, 349, 350, 351, 357, 362, 367,370, 372,374 Meyer, H., 334, 338, 339,372 Michniewicz, M., 221, 233, 424, 431 Midgley, A R., 127, 130, 156 Miles, J F., 7, 50, 70 Miles, J W., 196,200 Miles, R E., 187, 200 Milford, R., 46, 50, 51, 52, 56, 57, 70, 71 Miller, H P., I , 70 Miller, J D., 133, 150, 156 Miller, J G., 335, 372 Miller, M H., 168, 200 Miller, N H J., 422, 431 Miller, T B., 52, 70 Miltimore, J E., 33, 70, 142, 155 Minderman, G., 390, 393, 394,431 Minson, D J., 46, 50, I , 52, 56, 57, 70, 71 Miri, R K., 144, 145, 154, 156 Misch M I 2 , 232 Mishra, R R., 401,431 Mishustin, E N., 398, 407, 408, 415, 422, 31 Mitchell, C., 422, 433 Mitchell, H L., 221, 234 Mitchell, K J., 293, 301, 328 Mitra, A K., 288, Modlibowska, I., 227, 233 Mohan Rao, N V., 306, 307, 309,328 Moir, W W G., 322,328 Molina, J A E., 423, 431 Moller, R B., 14, 328, 329 Molloy, L F., 350,374 449 Monteith, J L., 405, 431 Montgomerie, R F., 340, 372 Montgomery, R D., 368,372 Moomaw, J C., 27, 73 Moore A W., 21, 23, 71, 419, 421, 422, 431 Moore, W L., 64, 71 M o m , P A P., 162, 199 Morgan, W C., 279,282 Morita, K., 34, 35, 71 Moms, M P., 35, 71 Morrison, N E., 344, 6 , Morse, R A., 137, 156 Mortensen, J L., 412, 431 Mortland, M M., 78, 80, 81.82, 83,84,87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 99, 100, 102, 105, 106, 114, 115, 116, 251, 282, 425, 431 Moth G O., 53, 55, 68, 69, 126, 140, 154, 156 Motta, M S., 2, 71 Mrysha, G N., 414,432 Mucke, D., 414,430 Mulder, C E G., 312, 328 Muller, L., 244, 283 Mundie, C M., 414, 427 Mungomery, R W., 296, 300, 307, 308, 309, 311, 314, , 2 , 3 , , Munro, P E., 422, 423,427, 432 Murdock, F R., 379,434 Murphy, R C., 110, 116 Murphy, R P., 131, 142, 156, 157 Murtagh, G J., 7, 17, 20, 71, 73 Musgrave, R B., 142, 155 Mutatkar, V K., 412,435 Myers, M G., 406,432 Myers, M N., 163, 199 Myers, R J., 419, 420,432 Mylsamy, V., 288, 309, N Nagai, I., 291, 328 Nahin, P G., 104, 116 Natanson, N E., 222,234 Naude, T J., 312,328 Naveh, Z., 16, 17, 71 Neal, J L., Jr., 422, 423, 424, 432 Nekrassow, L N., 244, 283 Nelson, A I., 212, 213,234 450 AUTHOR INDEX Nelson, C J., 143, 157 Nelson, J C., 121, 156 Neme, N A., 17,71 Nemethy, G., 207, 208, 209,233 Nestel, B L., 5 , 57, 71 Neunzig, H H., 135, 136, 156 Newbould, P., 175, 191,200 Newcomb, E H., 220,232 Newman, E I., 161, 167, 174, 200, 222, 233 Newman, J., 259,283 Newton, J D., 421,432 Nezamuddin, S., 288,328 Ng, H., 216,233 Nicholas, D J D., 417,433 Nicholson, J A., 346,370 Nicolson, T H., 419,432 Nielsen, K F., 270, 282 Nielson, J A., 163, 166, 200 Nikitin, D I., 407, 408, 415, 431, 432 Nilsson-Leissner, G 2, 73 Nittler, L W., 151, 156 Nobbe, F., 200 Noggle, J C., 353, 371 Noller, C H., 53, 55,68, 69, 352,370 Nordfeldt, S.,34, 35, 71 Norman, A G., 409,432 Norman, M J T., 4, 11,45,49,60,61,62, 71 Norris, D O., 19, 23, 24, 25, 26,66, 71 Novogrudskii, E D., 423,432 Nye, P H., 173, 174, 177, 179, 191, 192, 193,199, 200 Nylund, R E., 221, 234 Oakes, A J., , 17, 19, 46, 47, 54, 71 Ochilova, M., 415,432 O’Connor, K F., 424,432 Oden, S., 243, 245, 249, 250, 251, 253,282 Odu, C T I., 420,432 Offutt, M S , 127,156 Oginsky, E L., 406, 432 Ohlrogge, A J., 160, 198 Okada, T., 163,201 Okorie, I I., 63, 71 Oleniacz, W.S., 415, 432 Olien, C R., 206, 218, 220,233 Olness, A E., 103, 114 Olson, J S., 392, 393,435 Opstrup, P A., 386, 387,430 Ormrod, D P., 22 1,333 Orpurt, P A., 398,400,401,432 Orsi, S., 121, 156 Ortiz, F S., 121, 127, 156 Osborn, J F., 105, 216 Oshumi, F., 10,328 Ostazeski, S A., 127, 133, 134, 135, 156 Osterli, V P., 128, 130, 137, 156 O’Sullivan, M.,354,372 Ottley, A M., 120, 156 Oury, B., 319,329 Ovcharenko, F D., 87, 116 Ovchinnikova, M E., 414,432 Overstreet, R., 171, 199 Owen, J B., 357,372 Oxenham, D J., 55,69 P Padmanobhan, D., 315,328 Padmos, L., 344,373 Pagan, C., 35, 71 Page, A L., 95,114 Paine, F S., 400,432 Palafox, A L., 35,67 Palaniswamy, K M., 320,328 Paleg, L G., 161, 199 Paltridge, T B., 14, 48, 71 Pan, C L., 288,328 Panikkar, M R., 156 Pankratova, E M., 420,433 Pao, T P., 323,328 Paolillo, J., Jr., 145, 157 Papermaster, B W., 407, 433 Paquay, R., 357,372 Parago, J F., 288,328 Parberry, N H., 422, 424,432 Parbery, D B., 288, 300, 31 1, 318, 328, 329 Pardee, W D., 136, 156 Parfitt, R L., 87,89,94, 102, 103, 104,116 Parish, D H., 308,329 Pansi, A F., 369,373 Park, S J., 40, 41, 71, 72 Parker, D T., 393,432 Parkinson, D., 38 1, 409, 432 Parodi, L R., 49, 71 Parodi, R A., 49, 71 45 AUTHOR INDEX Parr, J F., 409,432 Parsons, J L., 131, 140, 156 Passioura, J B., 179, 180, 183, 196, 200 Patel, R M., 315,329 Patil, A S., 168, 200 Patil, B D., 13, 71 Patterson, E K., 178, 200 Paul, E A., 395, 404, 405, 409, 410, 412, 414, 415, 416, 419, 420, 421, 422, 426 427,431, 432 Pauli, A W., 166,200 Pauling, L., 207, 234 Pavlychenko, T K., 167, 200 Payne, W R., 100, 116 Peacock, H A,, 148, 149,156 Peake, E.,409, 429 Pearson, M C., 419,434 Pearson, R W., 253,283 Peebles, R H., 15, 329 Peele, T C., 56, 72 Pelczar, M J., Jr., 15, 432 Penefsky, H S., 216,234 Perminova, G N., 420,433 Perry, P W., 99,117 Peters, E J., 132, 156 Petersen, J B., 403, 432 Peterson, G H., 109, 1 , 115, 116, 412, 428 Peterson, M L., 128, 130, 137, 156 Pettit, R E., 134, 156 Pettit, R M., 210, 233 Peynado, A., 227,234 Philip, J R., 183, 200 Phillips, J., 3, 71 Phillips, R E., 168,200 Phillips, R L., 125, 146, 148, 149, 156 Pichel, W., 212,234 Pick, W., 369, 371 Pielou, E C., 186, 200 Piemeisel, R L., 401, 433 Pienkowski, R L., 136, 156 Piercy, A., 402,432 Pierre, J J., 130, 139, 156 Pietig, F., 412, 433 Pihl, E., 21 I, 234 Pirt, S J., 405,432 Pisano, M A., 415,432 Pisseau, M A., 19, 329 Pissot, P., 307,329 Pitman, M G., 174, 200 Pittman, U J., 165, 200 Playne, M J., 52, 71, 72 Plucknett, D L., 14, 27, 61, 73, 288, 291, 298, 300, 301, 302, 303, 306, 309, 313, 18,320,329 Pomeroy, K.,2 19,234 Poncelet, G., 81, 115 Pontovich, V E., 414,432 Poostchi, I., 144, 156 Pope, J D., 100,116 Porter, L K., 159,200, 393,420,422,432, 434 Posner, A M.,169,199, 410,432 Potter, E C., 242, 243, 249, 255, 265,283 Pound, A W.,35,43,69 Prasad, R B., 296, 31 I , 329 Pratt, H K., 229,233 Prescott, S C., 379,432 Pressey, R., 142, 156 Prince, A L., 341,370, 372 Prine, G M., 54, 72 Pritchard, A J., 38, 39, 40, 42, 49, 50, , 59, 72, 73 Pruppacher, H R., 227,234 Pugh, G J F., 388,432 Pullman, M E., 216,234 Purcell, G V., 213, 233 Purushothaman, G., 320,328 Purvis, E R., 341,370 Py, C., 19,329 Q Qualls, M., 126, 154 Quirk, J P., 78, 94, 96, 97, 98, 115, 116, 169, 178, 180,199,201 Quiros, C M., 121, 156 Quisenberry, J H., 34, 73 Quispel A., 419,430 R Racker, E., 216, 233, 234 Racz, G J., 163,200 Radok, J R M., 196, 198 Radul, N M., 87,116 Raheja, P C., 298,329 Rahman, H., 346,372 Raica, N., 422, 428 452 AUTHOR INDEX Rainey, R C., 312, 314, 329 Ralwani, L L., 288,327 Raman, K V., 81, 82, 83, 105,116 Raman, V S., 49, 70 Rama Rao, G., 306, 307, 309,328 Ramstad, S., 352, 358,371 Randles, F M., 161, 199 Rankin, J E F., 365,372 Rapista, E A., 288,328 Rauzi, F., 386, 387,432 Ray, R Y., 401,432 Reid, C S W., 350,374 Reid, J T., 140, 142, 156, 157 Reid, R D., 415,432 Reingold, N., 203, 234 Reith, J W S., 342, 347, 365, 372, 373 Renner, G T., 4, 73 Rennie, D A., 163, 200, 412, 421,427 Retzer, H J., 131, 154 Reuss, J O., 425,432 Rheaume, B., 219,234 Rhoades, E P., 386,432 Rhodes, A M., 296,326 Rhykerd,C L., 125, 126, 156, 352,370 Ricaud, C., 287, 289, 294, 300, 316, 326, 329 Rice, E L., 400, 422, 423, 424,428, 432 Rice, H B., 341,372 Rice, R G., 209, 224,231 Rice, W A., 419,420,42 I , 422.432 Richards, S J., 279,282, 410, 41 I, 431 Richardson, H L., 422,432 Richardson, T., 219, 232 Rickrnan, R W., 244, 245, 246, 248, 252, 258,259,267,269,271,275,283 Riddiford, A C., 244,283 Ridgeway, R L., 136, 156 Rinfret, A P., 217 223,232 Rios, E G., 87, 116 Ripperton, J C., 17, 72 Ritchey, G E., 34,68 Ritchie, N S., 367, 368, 371, 372 Ritson, J B., 62, 68 Rivera, J R.,315,329 Roach, S A., 188,200 Robert-Gero, M., 410,429 Robins, M F., 29,30,3 I , 32,50.54,66,68 Robinson, A R., 47, 69 Robinson, D H., 120, 127, 157 Robinson, J B., 397, 398, 399, 424, 427, 432 Rochecouste, E., 13,329 Rockett, J A., 256, 259, 260,283 Rodrigues, A., 87, 116 Rogers, 302, 328 Romney, D H., 54, 72 Ronningen, T S , 131, 157 Rook, J A F., 332, 337, 338, 339, 356, 364,372, 373 Rose, C W., 167,200 Rose, L E., 162, 199 Rosenberg, M N., 35, 72 Roseveare, G M., 49, 72 Rosha, N S., 414,432 ROSS,D B., 346, 360, 361, 362, 370, 373 Ross, D J., 5 , 73, 397, 406, 421, 423, 432,433 Ross, P.J., 55,69, 70 Rotar, P P., 14, 27, 36, 40, 41, 61, 71, 72 73 Rothberg, T., 114 Rothlein, R., 258, 259, 260, 267, 269,282 Rotman, B., 407,433 Rovira, A D., 176, 177, 198 381, 383, 384,412,423,431,433 Rowe, A W., 217,223,232,234 Roy, S K., 320,329 Ruelke, C., 46,69 Ruinen, J., 377, 378, 379, 380, 417, 433 Rurnsey, T S., 352,370 Russel1.C P., 163,199 Russell, E J., 404,422,433 Russell, E W., 53,72 Russell, J D., 81, 83, 85, 86, 87, 88,89,91, 92, 96, 97, 100, 102, 106, 114, 116, 117 Russell, J S , 22, 72 Russell, R S., 163, 175, 176, 191,200 Ruth, G., 33,69 S Sachs, M., 13,329 Sadasivan, T S., 391,433 Sakai, A., 218, 223, 234 Salette, J E., 5 , 72 Salmon, R C., 340, 341,373 Salmon, S C., 204,234 AUTHOR INDEX Salt, R W., 228, 232, 234 Samuel, G., 391,433 Samuels, G., 307, 32 I , 329 Sanders, D C., 221,234 Sanderson, J., 176, 200 Sandon, H., 398,433 Santarius, K A., I I , 216, 222, 223, 23 I , 232 Santhanam, V., 288,328 Santoro, T., 406,427 Saran, A B., 288, 320,329 Sastry, D K., 296,329 Satchell, J E., 390, 429 Sauerbeck, D., 410, 433 Saunders, W M H., 332, 343, 344, 345, 346, 348, 349, 35 I , 367,372 Savage, W H., 340,372 Sawyer, D T., 244,246,248,249,258,283 Saxton, W T., 418, 433 Sayre, C B., 160,200 Scantamburlo, J L., 49, 71 Scarth, G W., 206, 234 Scaut, A., 2,68 Schafer, W P., 321,329 Schank, S C., 46.69 Scharpenseel, H W., 412,414,433 Scheffer, F., 14,433 Scheraga, H A., 207, 208, 209,233 Schinckel, P G., 34, 69 Schleger, A V., 61, 72 Schmid, A R., 141, 157 Schmidt, H L., 414, 428 Schnitzer, M., 95, 96, 110, 111, 115, 116, 380,409,429, 433 Schoenike, R E., 419,430 Schofield, J L., 7, :I , 45, 72 Schotield R K 159 200 Scholl, J M., 122, 131, 132, 141, 157 Schonwalder, H., 414, 415,433 Schoth, H A., 139, 155 Schott, H., 103, 104, 116 Schribaux, E., 121, 157 Schuster, J L., 388, 433 Schuster, N., 334, 371 Schwartz, W L., 358,370 Schweizer, J., 380, 433 Scott, D., 361, 371 Scott, D C., 99, 116 Scott, G B., 422, 427 45 Scott, J E., 319, 326 Scott, R F., 267,283 Scotto, K C., 339, 358, 373 Scrutton, M C., 216, 234 Sealock, R W.,216, 232 Seaman, G V F., 109,115 Seaney, R R., 132, 145, 146, 151,155,157 Sears, H., 129, 155 Seawright, A A., 49, 70 Sedgley, R H., 162, 167, 198 Seekles, L., 340, 345,371, 373 Sellschop, J P F., 204, 234 Semikhatova, A., 216,232 Sen Gupta, P K., 90,115 Serratosa, J M., 79, 116 Servais, A., 115 Shafer, N E., 22 1, 234 Shamoot, S., 384,433 Shanmugasundram, A., 288, 309,329 Shantz, H L., 401,433 Sharpe, J P., 46 55.67 Shaw, N H., 4, 7, I I , 21, 23, 44, 45, 48, I , 62, 67, 68, 72 Shaw, R H., 124,156 Shedley, D G., 300,329 Shelton, D C., 224,232 Shepherd, H., 414, 427 Sherman, J K., 217, 234 Sherrod, L B., 288,329 Shibles, R M., 126, 157 Shields, L M., 402, 422, 433 Shih, S C., 224,232 Shikama, K., 208,209,215,234 Shkol’nik, M Y.,222, 234 Short, C., 286, 328 Shtina, E A., 402, 420, 433 Siberg, R A,, 217,232 Sidhu, B S., 125, 144, I55 Sieskind, O., 96, 116 Silow, R A., 145,157 Silva, S., 54, 73 Silver, W S., 417, 433 Siminovitch, D., 219, 224, 234 Simmonds, N W.,287, 300, 301, 19,329 Simon, E., 225,231 Simonart, P., 409, 412, 433 Simpson, K.,346,372 Sims, A P., 253, 265, 271,283 Sims, F H., 336, 338,370, 373 454 Sims, J R., 95, 114 Singer, R H., 335,373 Singh, D., 288,329 Singh, N., 13, 71 Singh, S S., 320,329 Singh, S V., 13, 71 Single, W V., 221, 234 Sinha, T D., 288,328 Sjollema, B., 332, 338, 373 Skaland, N., 130, 131,157 Skerman, P J., 32, 73 Skidmore, C L., 3, 68 Skipper, H D., 106, 116 Skou, J C., 355,373 Skov, O., 19, 54, 71 Skujins, J J., 406,434 Slack, S T., 142, 156 Smillie, L B., I , 12, 231 Smit, B., 12, 314,329 Smit, J., 318,434 Smith, A., 19, 72 Smith, C A., 65, 68 Smith, D., 143, 157, 205, 234 Smith, D H., 425,428 Smith, F B., 400,430 Smith, J B., 124, 148, 157 Smith, J H., 129, 157 Smith, R E.,140, 156 Smith, R H., 357, 362,373 Smith, R L., 425,432 Smyth, P J., 361,373 Snyder, L A., 58, 72 Soileau, J M., 181,200 Sokolowski, M B., 223, 234 Solomon, D H., 93, 106, 116 Soper, K., 178,200 Sorensen, L H., 394, 413,414,434 Soulides, D A., 422, 425,434 Sowden, F J., 412,427 Spencer, W F., 107, 114 Spillner, E., 323, 326 Spiss, L., 145, 157 Sprague, M A., 130, 153 Srhivasan, V., 320, 326 Stacey, M., 104, 114, 393, 429 Stahmann, M A., 19,232 Standley, J., 393,429 Staniforth, D W., 132, 157 AUTHOR INDEX Staples, I B., 20, 72 Starkey, R L., 381,434 Stebbins, G L., 143, 157 Steelink, C., 414, 434 Stein, W D., 218, 234 Steinberg, M P., 212, 213,234 Steindle, D R L., 292, 15,329 Steinlen, H.,288,329 Stevens, A., 417,435 Stevenson, F J., 110, 116 Stevenson, G., 418,434 Stevenson, L., 406, 415,430, 434 Stewart, B A., 159,200, 393, 426,434 Stewart, G A., 60, 62, 71 Stewart, J., 334, 346, 365,370, 373 Stewart, J McD., 216,229, 231,234 Stewart, W D P.,416,417,419,420,421, 422,434 Stickler, F C., 130, 157, 166,200 Stirk, G B., 54, 69 Stith, L S., 288, 329 Stobbs, T H., 4, 16, 44, 63, 72 Stocker, G C., I , 72 Stockli, A., 404, 434 Stokes, I E., 298,329 Stab', L.H., 238,239,240,241,243,244, 245, 246, 241, 248, 252, 253, 251, 260, 261, 268, 210, 271, 213, 274, 218, 279, 280,281, 282,283 Stone, E., 130, 156 Stone, R W., 379,434 S t o w , J E., 332, 338, 339, 351, 356, 364, 372,373 Stotzky, G., 109, 116, 406,434 Stout, J D., 390, 396, 434 Stout, P R., 351, 352, 353, 358, 370, 373 Stromberg, R R., 214,233 Strugger, S., 403, 434 Stuckey, H., 131, 157 Sturgess, W., 14, 329 Sturtz, J D., I , 72 Subba Rao, M S , 296,3 I , 329 Subra, P., 287, 304,329 Sullivan, C Y.,210, 233 Suman, R F., 56, 72 Sun, S W., 288, 330 Surendran, C., 288,327 AUTHOR INDEX Suresh, S., 288, 309, 329 Suttle, N F., 339, 373 Swain, F G., 131, 154 Swan, J B., 337,373 Sweet, D V., 380,431 Swincer, G D., 104, 116 Swoboda, A R., 81, 92,116 Synhorst, S H.,142, 156 Szegi, J., 414, 434 Szeicz, G., 405,431 Szokolay, G., 288, 300,329 Szurnkowski, W., 314,329 Szuszkiewicz, T E., 241, 252, 253, 257, 268, 269, 270, 271, 273, 274, 279, 280, 281,282 45 Tesar, M B., 130, 142, 155, 157 Thangavelu, S., 288, 309, 329 't Hart, M L., 332, 333, 334, 344, 345, 347, 348,371,372,373 Theng, B K G., 78,116, 410,432 Theron, J J., 422, 423,434 Therrien, H.,224,234 Thomas, D C., 35 I , 358 370 Thomas, J W., 142,155, 332, 359,373 Thomas, R O., 229,231 Thomas, S B., 377, 379,434 Thompson, A., 340,373 Thompson, G D., 321,330 Thompson, H E., 124, 138,157 Thompson, H.R., 162,200 Thompson, J F., 347,371 T Thompson, T D., 98, 115 Thomson, N J., 296,330 Thorne, P M.,29, 34,66, 69 Tackette, J L., 253,283 Thornton, R H., 401,434 Tahoun, S., 1, 84, 87, 89, 116 Thrower, L B., 388,431 Takahashi, M., 2, 17, 27, 34,35,71, 72, 73 Thurston, H.D., 315,327 Takuchi, K.,409,429 Timonin, M I., 381, 398, 400, 426, 430, Tamimi, Y N., 288, 298, 300, 301, 303, 434 306, 309, 313, 318, 320,329 Tinker, P B., 173,200 Tamm, E., 405,434 Tinsley, J., 414,430 Tanczos, G., 228,234 't Mannetje, L., 22, 24, 37, 39, 40, 45, 71, Tang, K H.,298, 306, 307, 321,329 72, 73 Tanimoto, T., 298, 306, 308, 309,322,326 Todd, J R., 332, 342, 343, 344, 363, 365, Tanner, C B., 245,283 366,371,372,373 Tanners, M A., 412,433 Tolbert, N E., 22 1,234 Tappel, A L., 210, 220,234 Toledo, J., 57,67 Tarasevich, Yu I., 87, 116 Toledo, R., 212, 213,234 Tatevosian, G S., 109, 115, 414, 428 Toler, R.W., 316, 324,326 Taylor, C B., 379, 397, 403,434 Tollin, G., 414,434 Taylor, H M.,386,432 Toman, F R., 221,234 Taymen, L A., 149, 155 Tome, G A., 123, 145,157 Tomlinson, T E., 99, 115 Tazaki, T., 204, 229, 233 Tchan, Y T., 402,434 Topping, L E., 397,434 Teakle, D S., 9, 67 Torssell, B W R., 167, 200 Teakle, L J H., 45, 68, 72 Toth, S J., 341,370 Teasley, J I., 100, 116 Tothill, J C., 44, 73 Teel, M R., 353,373 Touillaux, R., 87, 114 Templeton, J., 301, 304,312, 314,317,329 Tow, P G., 38, 73 Tennison-Woods, J E., 13, 66 Trernillon, B., 243, 245, 255,281 Tepe, W., 159,200 Tretjakova, A N., 420,433 Tepper, E Z., 414,434 Trimberger, G W., 140, 142,156, 157 Terry, M L.,369,371 Trkula, D., 223, 234 456 AUTHOR INDEX Troughton, A., 160, 201 Trouse, A C., Jr., 298, 306, 308, 309, 11, 322,326, 330 Trumanov, I., 220, 234 Trumble, H C., 2, 73 Truong, N V., 32, 73 Tseng, P M., 296,328 Tukey, H B., 380,431, 434 Tukey, H B., Jr., 380,434 Tulloch-Reid, L I., 54, 66 Turk, K L., 140, 142, 156, 157 Turner, H G., 61, 72 Tzagoloff, A., 216, 219, 232 U Ueno, M., 163,201 Umbreit, W W., 406, 432 Underwood, E J., 332, 336, 356,359, 366, 373 Upadhyay, J., 135, 157 Upchurch, R P., 99, 117 Urata, U., 40, 72 Ushuima, T., 204, 229,233 Utter, M F., 216,234 Uytterhoeven, J., 80, 81, 94, 95, 116 V Vallee, B L., 332, 373 Vallis, I., 5 , 73 Valoras, N., 105, 116, 252, 279, 281, 282, 283 Vandecaveye, S C., 397, 398,434 van der Boon, J., 228,234 van der Drift, J., 390,428 van der Molen, H., 332, 334,343, 344,373 van Doren, D M., 241,249,257,274,278, 282,283 Van Dyne, G M.,386,430 van Es, A J H., 348, 349, 362,372 van Gundy, S D., 260, 271,283 Van Hoof, H A., 46,68 Van Keuren, R W., 141,157 Van Olphen, H., 104,116 Van Rheenen, D L., 340,371 Van Schaik, P T., 301, 316,330 van Schreven, D A., 424,429 Varney, K E., 128, 131, 157 Vasantharajan, G S , 417,434 Vavra, J P., 186, 198 Veiga, F M., 321, 322,330 Veldkamp, H., 405,435 Venkatachari, A., 296,329 Venkataraman, R., 320,330 Verboom, W C., 16, 73 Vernon, T R., 398,435 Vetter, R L., 122, 141, 157 Vianne, E., 121, 157 Vicente-Chandler, J., 54, 56, 68, 73 Vichurina, G A., 216,231 Vidyabhushanam, R V., 288,328 Viets, F G., 161, 201, 393, 434 Vigil, E L., 220,232 Vilain, M., 235, 283 Vincent, J M., 416, 435 Vine, L., 420,432 Vlassak, K., 414,435 Voisin, A., 332, 335, 346, 354,373 Volk, G M., 426,435 Vostrov, I S., 407, 408, 415, 431 Vowles, L E., 360, 361, 362, 370 W Wacker, W E C., 332,354,355, 369,373 Wada, K., 110, 115, 116 Waddington D V., 279,283 Wagner, G H., 412,435 Wagoner, R E., 128, 155 Waid, J S., 390, 401, 435 Waite, R B., 20, 23, 48, 70, 72 Wake, J R H., 410,432 Wakefield, R C., 130, 131, 153, 157 Waksman, S A., 400, 406,415,428,435 Walker, G F., 80, 93, 106, 116 Walker, J M.,180, 201 Walker, J W., 229, 234 Walker, R D., 256, 260,281 Wallace, A T., 128,157 Wallace, L R., 332, 365, 373 Walshe, M J., 344, 373 Wang, C C., 294,330 Wang, H L., 415,435 Wang, J H., 216,232 Warcup, J H., 398,400,402,435 Ward, G M., 340,373 Warman, H J., 4, 73 Warmke, H E., 35, 58, 68, 71, 72, 73 Washko, J B., 142,156 AUTHOR INDEX Wassom, C E., 130, 157 Watson, S J., 377, 379, 426 Wayman, O., 34, 73 Wayne, N J., 221,234 Weaver, J E., 161, 166, 192,201,395,435 Webb, S J., 214, 215, 223,234 Weber, J B 79, 99 100, 116, 117 Webster, C C., 3, 73 Webster, J., 388, 389,429, 435 Wedin, W F., 122, 141, 157 Weed, S 79, 82, 99, 115, 117 Weihing, R M., 166 199 Wiersum, L K., 188,201 Weiss, A., 93, 106, 117 Weiss, E A., 289, 330 Wene,G P., 301, 312, 314,330 Weneck, E J., 223, 234 Wengel, R W., 278, 279,283 Wergin, W P., 220, 232 Werkenthin, F C., 400, 435 Werkhoven, J., 287,330 Wernsman, E A,, 143, 144, 147,157 West, D W., 25 I , 279,281,283 Wetter, L R.,419, 420, 421, 422,432 Whalley, R D., 45, 68 Wheaton, T A., 229, 233 Whetzal, F W., 386, 430 Whitaker, E S., 178, 201 White, C H., 125, 155 White, C L., 4, 73 White, E J., 380, 427 White, J L., 76, 83, 88, 92, 99, loo, 106, 114, 115, 116 White, R E., 48, 73 Whiteman, P C., 23, 36, 39, 73 Whitman, W C., 417, 435 Whittet, J N., 21, 73 Whyte, R O., 2, 61, 73 Wiebe, H H., 176,199 Wiegand, C L., 238, 240, 268, 277, 282, 283 Wiegert, R G., 386, 388,435 Wieringa, K T., 378, 434 Wiggans, S C., 124, 138, 157 Wild, A., 86, I15 Wilfarth, H., 38 I , 429 Wilkinson, H F., 178, 201 Wilkinson, W S., 53, 67 Will, F G., 258, 259, 267, 269, 283 Will, G M., 390, 435 457 Willers, E H., 34, 35, 71 Willet, E L., 34, 73 Witley, C R., 245,283 Williams, D E., 172, 201 Williams, I H., 305, 327 Williams, K R., 243, 244, 283 Williams, R D., 385, 435 Williams R J., 7, 14, 16, 73 Williams, W A,, 131, 157 Williamson, R E., 279, 283 Wilman, D., 357,372 Wilner, J., 224, 234 Wilsie, C P., 123, 144, 148, 149, 154, 156 Wilson, A A., 360, 373 Wilson, B D., 423, 431 Wilson, F., 165, 201, 300, 304, 330 Wilson, G F., 350,374 Wilson, G L., 39, 54, 70 Wilson, G P M., 7, 17, 20, 48, 71, 73 Wilson, J K., 383, 431 Wilson, J R., 23, 72 Wilson, P N., 3, 73 Winburne, J N., 286,330 Winch,J E., 123, 124, 127, 137, 138, 139, 155, 157 Winchester, W J., 47, 70 Windrum, G M., 35.68, 70 Winkler W., 376, 435 Winslow, C E A., 379,432 Wiseman, H G., 377, 378, 379, 390, 430 Withers, F W., 334,372 Witkamp, M., 392, 393,435 Witter, S H., 380, 434 Wittwer, L S., 140, 157 Wohlschlag, D E., 222,232 Wojciechowska, B., 124, 157 Wolcott, A R., I l l , 114 Woldendorp, J W., 422,435 Wolf, A., 377, 378, 379, 435 Wolton, K M., 364, 365, 374 Wong, C Y., 288,330 Wood, G 256, 260,281 Wood, G H., 306,330 Wood, G M., 130,157 Wood, R A., 306,307, 308,330 Woods, L E., 63, 73 Woods, R W., 122, 141, 157 Woods, S G., 56, 72 Worker, G F., 288,330 Wullstein, L H., 425, 435 AUTHOR INDEX 458 Wunsche, U., 221,234 Wutoh, J G., 38, 42, 73 Y Yadav, A S.,388,430 Yakuku, K., 405,431 Yang, K C., 288,330 Yang, L A., 420,433 Yang, S J., 288, 291, 330 Yariv, S., 85, 88, 89, 96, 97, 102, 117 Yates, J J., 65, 68 Yawalker, K S., 141, 157 Yoshida, R K., 18, 33, 73 Yoshida, S., 218,234 Yoshihara, K., 163,201 Young, F P., 288, 327 Young, R., 227, 231,234 Y o w e , R., 14, 27, 34, 35, 61, 71, 73, 288, 291, 298, 300, 301, 302 303, 306, 309, 13, 18, 320,329 Younger, V B., 279,283 Zachev, S., 288,330 Zandstra, I I., 120, 157 Ziechmann, W., 414,433 Zhmerman, M., 341,372 Zoebisch, C., 35, 72 SUBJECT INDEX c c c , 221 Ceanothus, 417 Cenchrus ciliaris, , 7, 45 Cenchrus setigerus, 45 Centro, 21, 23, 26, 29, 32, 63 Centrosema pubescens, 7, Chilling injury, 203-234 Chloris gayana, , 7, 45 2-C hloro-4,6-bis(ethylamino)-s-triazine,1 39 2-CNoroethyl trimethylammoniumchloride, 22 I Chloroplast, 219, 222 Clay-organic complexes, 75-1 17 Cocksfoot, 343 Corn, 341 Cotton, 229, 287, 288, 291, 293-294, 304, 310, ll,316,3l7-3l8 Crested wheatgrass, 335, 342, 352, 353 Cyanogenesis, 125, I34 Cynodon dactylon, , 23, 46, 59 Cyocel, 221 A Abaca, 287, 10 Actinomycetes, 396-398, I7 Agropyron cristaturn, 342 Agropyron desertorurn, 335, 342, 352, 353 Agropyron repens, 388, 389 Alar, 221 Alfalfa, 126, 132, 142, 336 Alnus, 17 3-Aminotriazole, 100 Ammonia, 425 Andropogon sorghum, 388 Artemisia lodriciana, 17 Avena sativa, 332, 342 B Bahiagrass, 48 Banana, 287,298, 304 Barley, 353 Barrel medic, 21, 22, 30 Bean, 22 I , 229 Bentgrass, 279 Bermudagrass, 59 Big trefoil, 120 Birdsfoot trefoil, 19- 157 Birdwood grass, 45 B-nine, 221 Boehmeria nivea, 287, 288 Brachiaria decumbens 45, 56 Brachiaria mutica, 7, 44 Brome grass, 353 Bromus inermis, 353 Bromus mollis, 342 Bromus spp., 407 Buffelgrass, , 13, 45, 59 65 Bulrush millet, 49 2-sec-Butyl-4,6-dinitrophenol, 132 C Cabbage, 221, 279 Calcium, 364 Calcined magnesite, 364-365, 366 Calopo, 7, 21 Calopogonium mucunoides, 7, D 2,4-D, 133 Dactylis glomerata, 335, 342, 343, 377, 388, 389,407 Dalapon, 132, 139 Dallisgrass, 27, 48, 61 Dalrymple vigna, 20, 29 2,4-DB, 132, 133, 139 N-Decenylsuccinic acid, 22 Denitrification, 424-426 Desiccation injury, 1 Desmonium canum, 14, 27 Darmodium gyroides, 14 Desmodium heterophyllum, 14 Desmodium intortum, 9, 14-16, 27, 36, 61, 63 Desmodium sandwicense, 14, 36, 41 Desmodium uncinatum, 9, 16 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid, I32 2,2-Dichloroproponic acid, 132 I ,5-Difluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, 22 Digitaria decumbens , 46 Digitaria sp., 459 460 SUBJECT INDEX N,N-Dimethylamino succinamic acid, 22 Dimethyl sulfoxide, 225 Dinoseb, 132 Diquat, 99 DMSO, 225 Dolichos axillaris, 20 Dolichos lablab, 7, 9, 20 Dolichos uniflorus, 20 Dolomite, 364 J Jaraguagrass, 44, I Johnsongrass, 49 K Kaolinite, 95, 99 Kentucky bluegrass, 13 I , 279 Kikuyugrass, 6, 27, 48, 54 Kraznozem, 17 E Ecosystem productivity, 375 Eleagnus, 17 EPTC, 132 S-Ethyl dipropylthicarbamate, I32 Eucalyptus regnans, 388 F Festuca arundinacea, 353 Freezing, protection, 220-228 Frost injury, 203-234, 302 G Gley soils, 28 Glycine, 24, 26, 29, 30, 32, 42 GIycine javanica, Glycine wightii, 6, 9, 16-17, 37-38 Grassland litter, 385-395 Grassland, microflora, 375-435 Grass staggers, 332 Grasses, tropical, 44-50 Greenleaf desFodium, 14, 26, 30, 36, 41 Green panic grass, 13, 54 Guinea grass, , 6, 13, 47, 5 H Hamilgrass, 39 Heteropogon contortus, 44 Hordeum leporinum, 342 Hordeum vulgare, 353 Humus, 385,409-416 Hydrogen bonding, 89-93, 207-208 Hyparrhenia rufa, 44, 63 Hypomagnesium tetany, 332-374 I Indigofera spicata, 34-36, 43 Ion-exchange, 77-80, 97 Latosol, 27, 61 Legumes, 335, 417 tropical, 3, 6, 8-2 1, 36-39 Leucaena, 17-19, 24, 32, 33-34,42-43 Leucaena leucocephala, 17- 19 Lolium perenne, 342, 347 Lotononis bainesii, 7, 19 Lotus corniculatus, 20, 12 I , 122, 126, 143 Lotus pedunculatus, 120, 128, 147 Lotus tenuis, 120, 127, 143 Lucerne, 1-22, 24, 29.30.43-44, I88 M Magnesium, 340-342, 354-356 Maize, 192 Medicago sativa, 21, 126, 336 Medicago truncatula, I Melinis minutiflora, , 47 Membrane permeability, 16, 17-220, 223-226 Microflora, grassland, 357-435 Miles Lotononis, 7, 8, 19-20, 29, 30, 31, 32,64 Mimosine, 33-34 Molassesgrass, , 47 54 Montmorillonite, 90, 94, 96, 99, 100, 103, 109, 11 I Mouse barley, 342 Murray lathyroides, 13-14, 29, 30, 31, 36, 45 Musa sapientum, 388 Musa textilis, 287 Mycorrhizae, 17-4 18 N Narrowleaf trefoil, 120, 127 Nitrification, 422-424 46 SUBJECT INDEX Nitrogen, 357 Nitrogen fixation, 8, 23-26, 34, 416-422 Nutrient transference, 167- 17 I Nutrient uptake, root system, 159-201 Oats, grass tetany, 332, 342 Opuntia fragilis, 17 Orchard grass, 332, 342, 343, 377 P Pangolagrass, , 21, 46-41, , 53, 54, 5 , 56, 61, 64 Panicum maximum, 6, 7, 39, 47 Panicum maximum var trichoglume, I3 Paragrass, 7, 44 Paraquat, 99, 13 Paspalum commersomii, 48 Paspalum dilatatum, , 27, 48 Paspalum notatum, 48, Paspalum plicatulum, Paspalum scorbiculatum, 288 Pasture, birdsfoot trefoil-grass, 140-142 tropical, 1-73 Patchouli, 287 Pea, 229 Pear, 221 Pennisetum clandestinum 6, 27 48 Pennisetum purpureum, 48 Pennisetum typhoides, 49 Phaesolus atropurpureus, 8, 12, 32, 36, 41 Phaseolus lathyroides, 13, 24 Phaseolus vulgaris, 229 Phleum pratense, 335, 342 Phosphorus, 23, 53-54 Phyl!osphere, 376-38 I , 389 Pigeon pea, 192 Pineapple, 287, 293, 294, 304, 309, 316, 18-3 I9 Pisum sativum, 166, 229 Podzolic soil, 23, 27, 28 Pogostemon cablin, 287 Potassium, 364 Prickly pear cactus, 417 Protein denaturation, 209-2 I2 Pueraria phaseoloides, 7, I Puero, 7, 21 R Ramie, 287, 288, 309-3 10 Ratoon cropping, 285-330 Red clover, 126, 132, 342 Rhizosphere, 38 1-385 Rhodesgrass, , 13, 45-46, 54, 5 , 57 Rice, 279, 287, 292, 301, 320 Rongai lablab, 7, 20, 33 Root exudates, 382 Root hairs, 178- I8 Rye, 332, 342 Ryegrass, 279, 341, 342, 343, 347, 350 Saccharurn oficinarum, 388 Sagebrush, 417 Secale cereale, 332, 342 Setaria, 57, 58 Setaria sphacelata, 6, 7, 49, , 63 Shepherdia, I7 Signalgrass, 45, 56 Silage, 140, 379 Silverleaf desmodium, 9, 14, 16, 23, 24, 28, 29, 30, 32, 36, 41, 64 Silvex, 133 Simazine, 139 Siratro, 8, 9, 12-13, 24, 29, 30, 32, 36, 3839, 41, Soft chess, 342 Soil aeration, platinum micro-electrode measurement, 235-283 Soil microflora, 395-409, 414-416 Solodic soil, 23, 27 Sorghum, 195, 279, 287, 288, 298, 301, 302, 303, 308, 309, 311, 316, 318 Sorghum almum, 49-50,51,54,57,58-59, 65 Sorghum halepense, 49 Speargrass, 44, 52 Stargrass, , 23, 46, 53, 63 Strawberry, 221 Strawberry clover, 30, Stylo, 7, 9-12 Stylosanthes guyanensis, 7, 9, 11, 29, 41, 44,63 Stylosanthes humilis, 6, 9, Sugarcane, 287, 292, 294, 296-298, 301, 302, 306-309,311, 314, 315-316 462 SUBJECT INDEX Sulfur, 23 Sweet corn, 221 U Urochloa sp., 7,50 T V Tall fescue, 353 Vermiculite, 92,99 Tillering in grasses, 301-303 Vigna luieola, 20 Timothy, 335,342 Tomatoes, 22I W Townsville lucerne, Townsville stylo, 6,7,9-1I , 23.24,29,30, Water, bound, 212-215 31,32,37,40-41,52,61 Wheat, 165,221,279,332,342,382 Transpiration, 174,183 Wheat pasture poisoning, 332 s-Triazines, 99 White clover, 21,22,24,28,29,32,48,64 2-(2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy)propionic acid, 133 Trifolium pratense, 126,407 Trifolium repens, 2I , 407 Trifolium semipilosum, 9, 22,39 Triiicum aestivum, 165, 332,342 Triiicum vulgare, 388 Y Yellow nutsedge, 132 Zea mays, 192,341 ... Tropics form a continuum in which the factors governing pasture production vary in degree rather than in principle As outlined, the tropical zones where there is distinct potential for increased cattle... ecosystems and how man is modifying them ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY VOLUME 22 This Page Intentionally Left Blank TROPICAL PASTURES E M Hutton Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization... also in northern Australia Four climatic zones can be distinguished in these monsoonal areas as follows: annual rainfall of 40-80 inches in two rainy seasons with short dry seasons; annual rainfall
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Xem thêm: Advances in agronomy volume 22 , Advances in agronomy volume 22 , III. Role of Plant Introduction, VI. Nodulation and Nitrogen Fixation of Tropical Legumes, VII. Legume Nutrition Relative to Tropical Pasture Development, VIII. Undesirable Compounds in Tropical Legumes, IX. Physiology of Tropical Legumes, X. Breeding and Genetics of the Main Legumes, XII. Feeding Value of Grasses versus Legumes, XIII. Phosphorus and Nitrogen Fertilization of Grass, XIV. Breeding and Genetics of Tropical Grasses, XV. Beef Production from Legume-Based Tropical Pastures, II. Bonding Mechanisms in Clay-Organic Complexes, III. Nature of Some Clay-Organic Complexes and Reactions, IV. Nature and Importance of Some Clay-Organic Complexes in Soils and Sediments, II. Geometrical Description of the Root System, III. Nutrient Transference in the Soil, IV. Physiological Conditions Governing Uptake, V. The Influence of Configuration on Uptake, Chapter 5. Frost and Chilling Injury to Growing Plants, II. Physicochemical Principles of Protein Structure, IV. Membrane Composition and Permeability, Chapter 6. The Platinum Microelectrode Method for Soil Aeration Measurement, IV. Models and Microelectrode Response ., VI. O2 Flux and Plant Response, III. Botanical and Physiological Considerations, IV. Ratooning and Environmental Factors, II. Incidence, Climate, and Season, VI. Animal Factors in Hypomagnesemia, VIII. Prevention of Grass Tetany, IX. Magnesium Deficiency in Humans, II. The Microflora of the Living Plant, III. The Microflora of Grassland Litter, IV. The Microflora of Grassland Soils, V. Biomass and Bioactivity Measurements, VI. The Humic Component of Grassland Soil, VII. Nitrogen Transformations in Grassland Soils

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