Advances in agronomy volume 14

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ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY VOLUME 14 This Page Intentionally Left Blank ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY Prepared under the Auspices of the AMERICANSocm-ry OF AGRONOMY VOLUME 14 Edited by A G NORMAN The Uniuetsity of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan ADVISORY BOARD E G HEYNE F L PATTERSON R W PEARSON W H h L A W A Y W H F ~ T E C G m m 1962 ACADEMIC PRESS New York and London COPYRIGHT @ 1962, BY ACADEMICPRESSINC ALL RIGHTS RESERVED NO PART O F THIS BOOK MAY BE REPRODUCED IN ANY FORM BY PHOTOSTAT, MICROFILM, OR ANY OTHER MEANS, WITHOUT WRITTEN PERMISSION FROM THE PUBLISHERS ACADEMIC PRESS INC 111 FIFTHAVENUE NEW YORK 3, N Y United Kingdom Edition Published by ACADEMIC PRESS INC (LONDON) LTD BERKELEYSQUAREHOUSE,LONDON W Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 50-5598 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES O F AMERICA CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME 14 C ROY ADAIR,Research Agronomist, Crops Research Division, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland L T ALEXANDER,Chief, Soil Survey Laboratoy, Soil Conservation Semice, United States Department of Agriculture, Plant Industy Station, Beltsville, M aylund H M BEACHELL, Research Agronomist, Crops Research Di&on, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Beaumont, Texas R L BERNARD, Research Geneticist, United States Regional Soybean Laboratory, Crops Research Division, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Urbana, Illinois D R BOULDIN,Soil Chemist, Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, Alabama J G CADY,Soil Scientist, Soil Survey Laboratory, Soil Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Plant Industry Station, Beltsville, Maryland J L CARTTER,Agronomist-in-charge, United States Regional Soybean Laboratory, Crops Research Division, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Urbana, Illinois MARLIN G CLINE,Professor of Soil Science, Department of Agronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York E E HARTWIG, Research Agronomist, United States Regional Soybean Laboratoy, Crops Research Division, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Stoneville, Mississippi HERBERT W JOHNSON, Research Agronomist, Crops Research Division, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland DONKIRKHAM, Curtiss Distinguished Professor of Agriculture and Professor of Soils and Physics, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa RAYMONDJ KUNZE, Assistant Professor of Soils, Department of Agronm y , Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa V vi CONTRIBmoRs M D MILLER,Extension Agronomist, Agronomy Department, University of California, Davis, CaZifornia S SNARAJASINGHAM, Assistant Chemist, Soil Surceys, Department of Agriculture, Peradeniya, Ceybn DWIGHTD SMJTH,Assistant Director for Water Management, Soil and Water Conservation Research Division, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsoilk, Maryland GILBERT L TERMAN, Agronomist, Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, Alabama FRANKG VETS, JR., Chief Soil Scientist, Northern Plains Branch, Soil and Water Conservation Research Division, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Fort Collins, Colorado J R WEBB, Associate Professor of Soils, Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa WALTER H WISCHMEIER, Research Investigations Leader for Water Erosion, Corn Belt Branch, Soil and Water Conservation Research Division, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Purdue University, Lafayette, lndiana PREFACE The eight chapters in this volume fall into the general pattern established for this series, which is to include reviews of research progress in soil and crop science and developments in agronomic practice The central theme is the soil-plant relationship Some European reviewers of this series have expressed the view that the range of subjects covered is far too wide to justify the implied suggestion that they are all branches of one science and that the literature reviewed is predominantly American Essentially this criticism hinges on the definition of the word “agronomy” which in European usage and particularly British usage does not have the same connotation as in the U.S Indeed one British reviewer states that “In England, little would be left for agronomy when the claims of chemistry, entomology, plant pathology and so on had been stated-perhaps the study of green manuring, seed rates and sowing dates.” As understood in the United States there is, however, a professional field of agronomy in which the above and many other disciplines have a part There is a professional organization of agronomists with upwards of 4,000 members trained in a variety of disciplines which they bring to bear on a great diversity of problems relating to the soil, and its efficient use in the production of economic crops Much of the science involved is international; but there are aspects that are regional and must be so For example, in this issue there are two extensive reviews dealing respectively with the genetics of soybeans and the management of the soybean crop Some sixty percent of the world soybean production is located in the United States An even higher percentage of the total scientific work on this fascinating crop plant is carried on in the United States, and it is inevitable, therefore, that the literature should be predominantly American Much the same applies to the article on rice production in the United States, where man hour per acre have been reduced to an astonishingly low figure In contrast, attention should be drawn to the authoritative review on the subject of laterite by Sivarajasingham, Alexander, Cady and Cline, which reflects the world-wide distribution of the investigators of laterites rather than the distribution of lateritic soils Greater fertilizer usage accounts in part for the steady yield increases recorded in most countries in recent years In the development of fertilizers considerable attention is being directed towards new and unconventional materials, the evaluation of which presents challenging problems Some of these are discussed by Terman, Bouldin and Webb vii viii PmFACE Viets, on the other hand, considers the involved relationships between fertilizer usage and the water requirement of crops, a very important issue in many areas of the world where rainfall is erratic and water reserves inadequate The remaining articles deal directly with soil properties Kirkham and Kunze discuss some of the applications of the use of isotopes and radiation to problems in soil physics, and Smith and Wischmeier the physical principles of soil erosion by rain A G NORMAN Ann Arbor, Michigan July, 1962 CONTENTS CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME14 Puge v PREFACE vii LATERITE BY S SIVARAJASJNGHAM L T ALEXANDER.J G CADY.AND M G CLINE I I1 I11 IV V VI VII The Term “Laterite” The Nature of Laterite The Environment of Laterite Profiles Containing Laterite Formation of Laterite Geomorphic Relationships Softening of Laterite References 14 20 26 53 55 56 RICE IMPROVEMENT AND CULTURE IN THE UNITED STATES BY c ROY ADAIR M D MILLER.AND H M BEACHELL I I1 I11 IV V Introduction Rice Culture in the United States Rice Field Pests Origin, Botany and Genetics of Rice Rice Breeding and Improvement in the United States References 61 68 85 92 96 104 RAINFALL EROSION BY DWIGHTD SMITHAND WALTERH WBCHMEIER I I1 I11 IV Introduction Mechanics of Rainfall Erosion Basic Factors Affecting Field Soil Loss Soil Loss Prediction References ix 109 113 123 137 144 418 AUTHOR INmEX Holstun, J T., Jr., 388, 410 Holt, R F., 394, 408 Holtan, H N., 112, 146 HoItz, H F., 235, 263 Hope, C E., 382,411 Hopper, T H., 376, 389,408 Horiuchi, S., 202, 221 Homer, G M., 129, 145 Homer, T W., 173, 176, 178, 201, 218, 219, 221 Horton, J H., 338, 356 Horton, R E., 112, 129, 144 Hough, G J., 40,58 Howell, R W., 187, 189, 196, 197, 198, 218, 219, 361, 367, 368, 369, 372, 377, 389, 390, 396, 403, 405, 409,410 Huberty, M R., 255, 262 ' W., 111, 115, 117, 118, 137, Hudson, h 145 Humbert, R P., 10, 14, 15, 17, 21, 26, 36, 39, 58, 345, 358 Humphrey, L hf., 209, 210, 219, 389, 410 Hunt, C M., 312, 318 Hunter, A S., 281,318 Hunter, J H., 400, 408 Hurst, ?Ir kf., 68, 83, 107 H! der, D N.,247, 253, 263 I Ingebretsen, K., 80, 105 Ingebretsen, K H., 91, 106 Ingerson, E., 352, 356 Ingram, J W., 89, 90, 105 Inman, D L., 349, 356 Isely, D., 91, 105 Ito, R., 372, 409 Izzard, C F., 122, 145 J Jackson, J E., 247, 261 Jackson, M L., 37, 42, 58 Jacob, K D., 266, 267, 274, 318 Jakobsen, S T., 291, 319 Jarnibon, V C., 130, 147 Jenkins, J M., 78, 80, 89, 97, 104, 105, 106,107 Jenny, H., 308, 318 Jensen, C R., 344, 345, 347, 3.56, 357 Jensen, L R., 246, 262 Jensen, M E., 238, 239, 240, 241, 247, 260,262 Jessop, R W., 25, 26,58 Jeter, R., 80, 105 Joachim, A W R., 4, 9, 10, 15, 17, 20, 22, 58 Jodon, N E., 78, 95, 96, 99, 104, 105, 106 Johnson, C M., 284, 287, 318, 399, 412 Johnson, H W., 153, 157, 181, 182, 183, 184, 187, 188, 190, 192, 194, 195, 198, 202, 204, 206, 218, 219, 361, 371, 372, 381, 390, 391, 408, 410 Johnson, I J., 195, 218 Johnson, L C., 401,411 Johnson, W H., 409 Johnston, J R., 385, 408 Johnston, T H., 99, 105 Johnston, W B., 337,356 Jones, B., 16, 58 Jones, D M A., 115, 116,145 Jones, G H G., 312,318 Jones, J B., 399, 400, 41 Jones, J W., 70, 71, 77, 79, SO, 82, 85, 89, 95,97, 99, 104, 105, 106, 107 Jordan J V.,334,356 Jordon, G S., 80,106 Jurinak, J J., 400, 411 K Kadam, B S., 95,106 Kalton, R R., 174 204, 205, 219, 221 Kamel, M S., 229, 262 Kamen, M O., 355,356 Kamprath, E J., 399,400, 410,411 Kandiah, S., 4,9, 10, 15, 17, 20, 22, 58 Kapp, L C., 81, 106 Karasawa, K., 158, 167, 208, 219 Kato, I., 153, 157, 219 Katz, J J., 346, 356 Kaufman, P B., 87, 106 Kaufman, W J., 340,356 Kaufmann, M J., 160, 170,218 Keeney, G H., 67,104 Kelaart, E F., 26, 58 Keller, W., 244, 262 Kelley, J., 226, 234, 244, 246, 262, 263 Kellogg, C E., 4, 20, 23, 24, 25, 55, 57, 58 AUTHOR INDEX Kelly, L L., 121, 145 Kelly, V J., 101, 105 Kempthorne, O., 288, 290, 291,293, 305, 317,318,319 Keneaster, K K., 101, 105 Keogh, J L., 393,411 Kepner, R A., 68,104 Kester, E B., 83, 106 Ketcheson, J W., 316,318 Key, J L., 394,410 Kidder, E H., 134,147 Kiesselbach, T A,, 235, 262 Kihara, H., 94, 106 Kik, M C., 62,84,106 King, A V., 394,408 King, B M., 97,106 King, W., 26, 58 Kinzer, G., 115, 117, 145 Kirkham, D., 126, 144, 322, 324, 328, 327, 328, 331, 333, 344, 345, 351,352, 354, 355, 356,357,358 Klemme, A W., 395,410 Klute, A., 336, 348,356,357 Kmoch, H G., 247,253,262 Knake, E L., 388,410 Knapp, S A., 66, 67, 79,106 Koch, E J., 308,317 Koehler, B., 390, 408 Koehler, F E., 247, 249, 252, 253, 262 Kolaian, J H., 318 Kozachyn, J., 119,148 Krall, J L., 130, 145 Kramer, H H., 101, 105, 179, 181, 219 Krimgold, D B., 111, 145 Kriz, W., 255,262 Krober, A., 196, 197, 219 Xromer, G W., 364,410 Kuehl, R O., 156, 157,219 Kuiken, K A., 197, 219 Kulp, J L., 339, 356 Kunze, R J., 331,333,341,356 Kuranz, J L., 323, 325, 343, 345, Kuron, H., 120,145 Kurtz, L T., 394,410 L Lacroix, A., 35, 59 Laflen, J M., 136,145 419 Lake, P., 19, 26, 27, 59 Lambert, J W., 187, 202, 219, 380, 403, 410 302, Lang, A., 369, 410 Lange, W H., 91,92,105, 106 Langston, R., 348, 357 Larson, W E., 129, 144 Latham, E E., 125,146 Latimer, W M., 52, 59 LauEer, C H., 88,91, 104 Lawless, G P., 328, 357 Laws, J O., 114, 115, 115, 117, 119, 121, 145 Lawton, K., 275,318 Learner, R W., 257,263 Le Clerg, E L., 311, 318 Leffel, R C.,153, 175, 176, 177, 187, 189, 197, 199, 205, 206, 219, 371, 372, 325, 373, 374, 375, 376, 377,410 350, Leggett, G E., 249,262 Lehman, S G., 152, 170,219,390,410 Lehman, W F., 187, 202, 219, 380, 410 Lehr, J R., 312,319 Lemon, E R., 229,230,231,262 Leneuf, N., 29, 59 Leonard, W H., 302,318 Leopold, A C., 369,410 Letey, !., 336, 356 w4, Levine, G., 121,145 Lewis, D C., 73,107 Lewis, G C., 334, 356 Libby, W F., 339,355 Lincoln, C., 84,107 182, Lindberg, G D., 88, 91,104 Lindsay, W L., 275, 276, 277, 287, 318 Little, J M., 122, 145 Little, R R., 101,106 Liu, H.-L., 169, 219 Liveman, J L., 359, 410 Lloyd, C H., 126, 138,145 Lloyd, L C., 129,145 Longnecker, T C., 306,317 Loo, w s., 212, 220 356 Lorenz, A., 284,287,318 Lorenz, R J., 240, 241, 247, 253, 260, 262, 263 Love, H H., 304, 318 Love, J R., 225, 263 Love, L D., 129, 144 Lovely, W G., 383, 387, 410 420 AUTHOR ISDEX Lowdermilk, it' C., 112, 113, 121, 145 Luclzack, F J., 340, 358 Luetkemeier, \\'., 387, 411 h t z , J A., Jr., 311, 319 Lutz, F., 111, 122, 14.5 Lyman, C M., 197, 219 LJnch, D L., 159, 170, 221, 391, 392, 410,412 M %la,R H., 186,219 hlcdister, J T., 381, 410 hlcCal1, A C., 122, 127, 129, 134, 135, 144,145, 147 blcCollum, R E., 198, 219, 401, 410 XlcCoIIy, H F., 379, 409 McCool, D K., 136, 146 hlcCune, D L., 113, 146 AlcDonaid, J E., 115, 146 XtcGee, \V J., 26, 59 MeGeorge, u' T., 311, 318 MacIntire, 11' H., 308, 318, 336, 356 Mclntyre, D S., 111, 121, 146 hlackie, W.W., 75, 106 htaclaren, M.,14, 21, 24, 28,46, 59 hlcSeal, X., 83, 106 LlcWhortcr, C C., 388, 410 hlagono, C., 116, 146 Xlahmucl, I., 159, 16.5, 179, 181, 182, 205, 219 hlaignien, R., 14, 13, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, it, L J , 39, 30, 51, 53, 54, 35, 59 Slain, R Xl., 350, 356 hlakkink, G F., 225, 262 Xlallet, F R., 3, 27, 59 hlannering, J V., 130, 131, 146 hlaples, R., 393, 41 hlarshall, J S., 115, 146 hlarston, R B., 329, 356 Martens, R K., 322, 355 Martin, J P., 400, 408 hlason, R J., 115, 120, 146 Massee, T W., 130, 145 Marbut, C F., 16, 20, 21, 24, 29, 40, 46, 47,48,54,59 Martin, F J., 4, 59 Martin, W E., 80, 105, 308,319 Mason, D D., 201, 218, 233, 262, 308, 317 Maximov, N A,, 225, 227, 262 hlazurak, A P., 235, 261, 262 Means, U M., 198, 219, 391, 410 hlederski, H J., 341, 357, 395, 398, 399, 400, 408, 410 Mehlich, A., 312, 313, 318 Menzel, R G , 353, 357 hlerriam, R A., 329, 357 hieyer, L D., 113, 130, 131, 136, 144, 146 Xlickelson, R If., 242, , 254, 260, 261 htiddleton, H E., 12.5, 146 Miears, R J., 72, 105 hlihara, Y., 111, 115, 116, 117, 119, 120, 121, 146 hlikkelsen, D S., 73, 77, 80, 106, 107 Iliksche, J P., 152, 219 hlillar, C E., 311, 317 hfiller, E C., 232, 235, 262 Miller, hI D., 71, 74, 77, 79, 80, 82, 83, 105, 108 Miller, M F., 113, 138, 146, 147 Miller, M H., 276, 318 hliller, R J., 396, 410 Milne, G., 54, 59 Mintzer, S., 345, 357 Misra, R N.,94, 107 hlitscherlich, E A., 308, 318 hlohr, E C J., 4, 14, 21, 24, 25, 28, 29, 30, 36, 37, 46,47, 48, 59 hloldenhauer, R E., 231, 262 hloldenhauer, W C., 134, 146 hloncrief, J B., 70, 106 hlontgomery, E C., 235, 262 Mooers, C A,, 361, 369, 372, 373, 377, 410 %loore, R P., 389, 406, 409, 410 hloorthy, 13 R., 181, 1843, 188, 190, 221 Moreno, E C., 276, 318 hlorse, W J., 150, 151, 152, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 185, 1'69, 171, 220, 361, 373, 389, 405, 410,411 Slortensen, W I'., 311, 319 Mortier, P., 325, 357 h4uckenhirm, R J., 119, 145 Mulcahy, M J., 17, 21, 22, 25, 44,53, 59 htulder, E C , 284, 295, 318 hfullins, T., 70, ,53, 105, 106, 107 hluma\v, C R., 202, 204, 220 Munsell, R I., 394, 408 Munson, R D., 281, 290, 304, 318 AUTHOR INDEX Mumeek, A E., 369, 410 Musgrave, G W., 128, 137,146 Musick, J T., 238, 239, 262 N 421 Olson, R A., 251, 254, 255, 261, 263, 276, 319 O’Neal, A M., 125, 146 Orlob, G T., 340, 356 Ormrod, D P., 69, 107 Osbom, G., 276, 318 Osenbrug, A., 248, 249, 263 Osler, R D., 373, 375, 376, 377, 411 Owen, C W., 408 Owen, F V., 157, 158, 159, 161, 162, 165, 166, 168, 189, 171, 172,220 Owens, L D., 334, 357 Ozaki, K., 181, 182, 183, 186, 188, 191, 221 Nagai, I., 158, 159, 160, 161, 163, 164, 165, 167, 168, 169, 171, 172,220 Nagao, S., 96, 106 Nagata, T., 151, 152, 153, 181, 220, 396, 387, 410 Naito, Y., 153, 157, 219 Nakatomi, S., 161, 171, 220 Nakayama, F S., 341, 357 Namken, L N., 323, 355 Nandi, H K., 92,106 P Neal, J H., 112, 114, 123, 127, 146 Nearpass, D C., 73, 104 Packer, P E., 113, 146 Nelson, C E., 257, 263 Painter, C G., 257, 263 Nelson, L B., 110, 146 Palache, C., 10, 59 Nelson, L E., 400, 410 Palmer, W McK., 115, 146 Nelson, M., 80, 81, 97, 105, 106 Papa, K E., 211,220 Nelson, R J., 80, 82, 106 Parish, C L., 126, 137, 144 heison, W L., 2154, 262, 393, 394, 397, Park, J K., 403, 405, 406, 410, 411, 399, 409,410, 412 Parker, E R., 255, 261 Neubauer, H., 311, 319 Parker, F L., 340, 357 Neville, K., 323, 357 Parker, M B., 399, 411 Newbold, T J., , , 17, 26, 27, 45, 59 Parker, M W., 153, 218, 220, 366, 369, Newsom, L D., 88, 91,104 411 Nichols, M L., 112, 146 Parks, C L., 393,411 Nicholson, R P., 254, 263 Parr, J F., 113, 126, 144, 146 Nielsen, D., 331, 332, 340, 353, 355, 355 Parsons, D A., 111, 112, 114,145,146 Nielsen, D R., 324, 325, 327, 328, 331, Passerini, G., 113, 146 357 Pearson, G A., 74, 107 Niklas, H., 312, 319 Pearson, R W., 241, 246, 263, 264, 395, Nitta, K., 191, 220 411 Nixon, P R., 328, 357, 402, 411 Peaslee, D E., 379, 409 Norman, A G., 322,357 Peele, T C., 125, 146 Norum, E B., 252, 264 Peevy, W J., 135, 145 Penck, W., 53, 59 Nye, P H., 16, 22, 23, 46, 49, 59 Pendleton, J W., 380, 411 Pendleton, R L., 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 14, 15, Odell, R T., 365, 371, 402, 410, 411 17, 20, 21, 22, 44, 47, 59 @lien,A., 336, 357 Penington, R P., 37, 42, 58 Ohlrogge, A J., 276, 318, 361, 396, 398, Penrun, H L., 225, 229, 242, 260, 263 401, 411, 412 Persons, T D., 88, 91, 104 Oinuma, T., 212,213,220 Pesek, J T., 254, 263, 285, 286, 288, 290, Oldham, R D., 4, 15, 16, 17, 18, 21, 27, 292, 300, 315, 319, 396, 410 51, 59 Peters, D B., 229, 231, 261, 263, 401, Ollier, C D., 16, 22, 59 411 Olsen, K L., 88, 106 Peterson, A E., 225, 263 422 AUTHOR INDEX Peterson, J B., 348, 357 Phillips, R E., 344,345,35> Pierre, J J., 138, 146 Pillsbury, A F., 254,262,263 Piper, C V., 361, 405, 411 Plank, V G., 115, 144 Poehlman, J M., 217, 220 Pomerene, W H., 112,145 Pond, G A., 384, 41 Porter, K B., 162,212,220 Portman, R F., 92, 107 Poschenrieder, H., 312, 319 Power, J F., 130, 145, 249, 252, 263 Prescott, J A., 2, 3, 5, 9, 14, 15, 17, 21, 22, 44, 59 Prince, A H., 85, 107 Prine, G M., 247,261 Probst, A H., 153, 158, 159, 160, 162, 164, 165, 168, 169, 170, 171, 182, 183, 187, 191, 196,202, 204,205, 218,219, 220, 221, 373, 375, 376, 377, 380, 387, 404, 411, 412 Prout, W E., 353,357 Prummel, J., 286, 319 Q Quackenbush, F W., 196, 221 Quereau, F C., 75, 107 R Radwanski, S A., 22,59 Raeber, J G., 205,220 Ragar, S R., 343, 358 Ramanathan, K., 151, 220 Ramiah, K., 94, 95,106,107 Ramig, R E., 247, 250, 253, 255, 262, 263 Raney, F C., 74, 75, 76, 105, 107 Raney, W A., 237, 261, 322, 357, 379, 409 Rao, D R R., 94,107 Rao, M B V N., 94,107 Rawvlings, J O., 210, 211, 220 Raychaudhuri, S P., 23, 59 Read, A A., 322, 358 Redit, W H., 68, 83, 107 Reed, J F., 82, 107 Reeve, E., 400, 411 Reichman, G A., 249, 252, 263 Reid, J T., 381, 409 Reid, P H., 397, 399, 411 Reuther, W., 400, 411 Reynolds, E B., 71, 76, 78, 79, 82, 107 Reynolds, J F., 345, 355 Rhoades, H F., 255,262 Rhykerd, C L., 348,357 Richards, L A., 225,226, 263, 329,357 Richards, S J., 25.5,263 Ricker, P L., 150, 220 Robertson, L S., 379, 409 Robins, J S., 226, 228, 232, 248, 262, 263 Robinson, B D., 121, 144 Robinson, H F., 181, 182, 183, 184, 187, 188, 190, 192, 219 Robinson, R G., 387, 411 Robinson, R R., 316, 319 Rochlin, R S., 355, 357 Rodrigues, S., 10, 30, 58 Rogler, G A., 253, 263 Roller, E M., 237, 261 Rolston, L H., 84, 90, 91, 107 Romney, E M., 399, 412 Romo, L A., 347, 357 Rosanow, I M., 245,263 Roschevicz, R J., 94, 107 Rose, C W., 111, 113, 121,146 Rosenberg, L E., 92, 107 Rosevear, R D., 16, 55,59 Ross, D I., 338, 356 Ross, J G., 213,218, 220 Ross, J P., 160, 170, 218 Rouse, H K., 246, 264 Rouse, P., 84, 90, 91, 107 Rouse, R D., 377, 394,396, 411 Rowe, P B., 112,146 Ruggles, F H., 340, 357 Ruhe, R V., 16, 18, 20, 22, 53, 54, 60 Runge, E C A., 365,371,411 Runkles, J R., 324, 357 Russell, D A., 400, 411 Russell, E J., 257, 263 Russell, E W., 2-57, 263 Russell, M B., 234, 263, 347, 355, 385, 408 Rust, R H., 348,357 Ruxton, B P., 22, 57 Ryker, T C., 87,107 AUTHOR INDEX S Sack, H S., 322, 355 Sackett, W G., 313, 319 Saito, M., 181, 182, 183, 186, 188, 191, 221 Saito, S., 159, 160, 165, 167, 172, 220 Sakaguchi, S., 153, 157,219 Sakai, K I., 92,107 Salley, A S., 63,107 Sampath, S., 94, 107 Sample, E C., 276, 279, 287, 291, 292, 315, 317 Sanders, M E., 213,218,220 Sandison, A., 300, 319 Sattenvhite, L E., 230,231, 262 Satyanarayana, K V S., 26, 60 Sauchelli, V., 268, 319 Scarsbrook, C E., 248, 263 Schade, H., 39, 60 Schleusener, P E., 403, 411 Schmid, A R., 384,411 Schmitthenner, A F., 160, 170,218, 220 Schneider, W., 311, 319 Schoen, B., 340, 356 Schofield, R K., 225,243,260,263 Scholtes, W H., 126, 144, 352, 357 Schultz, W W., 355,357 Schuster, C E., 308, 319 Schwab, G O., 402, 411 Schwardt, H H., 91,105 Scofield, C S., 237, 263 Scott, C O., 288,289,317 Scott, R C., 339, 355 Scott, V H., 73, 107 Scott, W O., 388,410 Scrivenor, J B., 14, 60 Sears, H., 383, 392, 410, 411 Seatz, L F., 400,411 Sedgwick, V E., 389,405,410 Seigler, W E., 410 Semb, G., 336, 357 Sen, N K., 212, 220 Senewiratne, S T., 72, 107 Setter, R., 353, 357 Sexton, H D., 112, 146 Shantz, H L., 225,232,235,261 Sharasuvana, S., 4, 5, 8, 20, 59 Sharp, A L., 112,146 Shastry, S V S., 94, 107 423 Shaw, B T., 321,357 Shaw, R H., 225, 261, 324, 328, 356, 357, 358, 402, 411 Shaw, W C.,85, 86, 87, 107, 385, 386, 411 Shaw, W M., 336,356 Sheets, T J., 388, 410 Shed, A F., 389, 411 Sherman, G D., 46,60 Shih, S H., 316,318 Shive, J W., 400, 411 Shook, J F., 345,355 Shrader, W D., 129,144,402,411 Siemer, E G., 246, 264 Simons, J W., 407, 408 Simpson, E S., 7, 14, 20, 21, 24, 28, 46, 49,60,340, 357 Sinah, M N., 77, 106 Singh, M P., 169,220 Sivarajasingham, S., 13, 40, 60 Sjogren, J W., 405, 411 Slater, C S., 125, 146 Slatyer, R O., 329, 357 Sletten, W H., 238, 239, 262 Slife, F W., 387,388,410,411 Slusher, M W., 70,83, 106, 107 Smerdon, E T., 136, 146 Smika, D E., 253, 263 Smith, A G., 382,411 Smith, D B., 348,349,357 Smith, D D., 117, 122, 123, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 140, 146, 147 Smith, L L., 407,408 Smith, P E., 160, 170, 218, 220, 375, 376,377, 380,404,408,411 Smith, P R., 393, 411 Smith, R J., Jr., $5, 86, 87, 88, 107 Smith, R L., 126, 147, 380,411 Smith, R M., 126, 130, 136, 144, 147 Smith, T J., 366, 373, 375, 376, 377, 411 Smith, W D., 68, 83, 85, 107 Sneva, F A., 248,253,263 Somerhalder, B R., 403, 411 Sonnenschein, C., 212, 220 Specht, A W., 73, 104 Spencer, A T., 115,144 Spencer, D., 399, 408 Spies, C., 254, 263 Spilhaus, A F., 115,147 424 AUTHOR IhiDEX Spink, N’ T., 88, 91, 104 Sprague, H B., 390, 41 I Sprague, C., 316, 319 Srivastava, S C., 337, 356 Stallings, J H., 110, 147 Stanbern,, C O., 238, 244, 263 Stanford, G., 254, 262, 280, 312, 313, 318, 319 383, 387, 410 Staniforth, D W., Stansel, J W., 101, 105 Starostka, R W., 276, 319 Stauffer, R S., 134, 147 Steele, J G., 138, 144 Steenberg, K., 336, 357 Steenbjerg, F., 291, 319 Stefansson, B R., 403, 410 Steinmetz, H J., 120, 145 Stephens, C G., 16, 17, 60 Stephenson, H F., 275, 277, 287,318 Stephenson, R E., 308, 319 Stewart, G L., 325, 357 Stewart, L C., 313, 319 Stewart, R T., 157, 158, 160, 165, 167, 171, 174, 220, 221 Stirling, A,, 2, 60 Stoizy, I H., 327, 358 Stolzy, I H., 325, 327, 329, 357, 358 Stone, J F., 372, 324, 358 Stout, P R., 399, 412 Strauh, C P., 340, 358 Straub, P., 353, 357 Strickling, E., 255, 262, 384, 412 Stringfield, G H., 378, 409 Stubbe, H., 210, 220 Sturgis, M B., 70, 82, 107, 108 Swamy Rao, A A., 131,147 Swanson, A F., 365, 412 Swanson, N P., 113, 147 Swanson, R W., 322, 358 Swidler, R., 231, 261 Swofford, T F., 389, 409 Szuszkiewicz, T E., 327, 358 Tang, P S., 212, 220 Tanner, C B., 225, 229, 230, 231, 232, 234, 245, 262, 263 Tawlings, J , 220 Taylor, hi., 386, 408 Taylor, R E., 130, 147 357 Taylor, S.,3Z, Taylor, S A., 231, 261, 330, 355 Terao, H., 159, 161, 162, 166, 171,220 Terman, G L 294, 295, 296, 297, 299, 304, 307, 308, 309, 311, 312, 313, 314, T Uchiyama, Y., 372, 409 Uhland, R E., 1.23, 12.6, 128, 133, 140, 147 Underwood, N., 322, 343, 358 Takagi, F., 158, 159, 161, 165, 168, 171, 220 Takahashi, hl E., 96, 106 Takahashi, N.,157, 159, 167, 220 Takahashi, Y., 159, 161, 163, 164, 167, 220 319 Thatcher, L E., 402, 408 Theobald, W., 26, 6U Thom, C C., 215, 263 Thomas, H C., 347,356 Thomas, J R., 248, 249, 263 Thomas, P K., 26, 60 Thompson, E K., 62, 63,67, 69, 105 Thompson, J R., 403, 410 Thompson, L M., 323,358 Thorne, M D., 322, 357 Thornton, J F., 130, 147 Thornton, S F., 311, 319 Thornthwaite, C W., 22.5, 263 Thorp, J., 4, 57 Thurston, W R., 353, 356 Ting, C L., 157, 158, 167, 172,208, 220 Tippit, J,, 126, 147 Tisdale, W H., 89, 107 Todd, E H., 89, 107 Torrie, J H., 204, 205, 220, 374, 412 Toth, S J., 346, 350, 358, 399, 412 Tower, H E., 134, 147 Tracey, J I., Jr., 36, 58 Trouse, A C., Jr., 345, 358 Trumble, H C., 245, 263 Truog, E., 312, 313,318,319,395, 412 Tsai, H Y., 101, 108 Tnllis, E C., 89, 80, 105, 107 Tyler, S A., 37, 42, 58 U V van Baren, F A, 4, 14, 21, 24, 25, 29, 30, 36, 37, 46, 48, 59 AUTHOR INDEX van Bavel, C H M., 229, 232, 263, 322, 343, 356,358,403,412 Vandecaveye, S C., 308, 312, 319 Van Doren, C A., 127, 134, 138, 147, 377, 408 Van Royen, W., 82, 108 Van Schaik, P H., 153, 1\60, 168, 182, 1883, 191, 221, 404,412 van Wijk, W R., 325, 327,328,357 van Zelst, T W., 323, 357 Veatch, C., 158, 162, 174, 221 Veihmeyer, F J., 234, 263, 329, 358 Veinik, A I., 337, 358 Vidyabhusan, R V., 212, 220 Viets, F G., Jr., 226, 227, 248, 257, 261, 262, 263, 316, 318,400, 412 Viljoen, N J., 377, 412 Vincenheller, W G., 66,108 Vine, H., 28, 55, 60 Viste, K L., 85,86, 87, 88, 105, 107, 108 Vlamis, J., 80, 105, 308, 318 Voigt, R L., 206, 221 Volarovych, M P., 343, 358 Vomocil, J A., 275,318,342, 358 Yon Buttlar, H., 339, 358 Voysey, H W., 2, 27, 60 Voznesensky, A S., 125, 147 W Wadleigh, C H., 225, 226, 263, 329, 357 Waegemans, G., 10, 60 Walker, A J K., 245,263 Walker, R K., 70, 71, 76, 77, 80, 106, 108 Wallace, A., 398, 412 Walther, J., 3, 21, 24, 60 Ware, L M., 257, 263 Wargel, C J., 403, 410 Warth, F J., 3, 7, 8, 60 Warth, H., 3, 7, 8, 60 Washbum, W F., 377, 412 Wasson, R A., 76,80,108 Watson, D J., 2228,264 Weatherspoon, J H., 186, 188, 192, 221 Weathenvax, P., 95,108 Weaver, H A., 241, 264 Weaver, W H., 311,318 Webb, B K., 403, 405,406, 410, 411 Webb, J R., %85, 286, 288, 290, 291, 425 292, 293, 300, 305, 315, 317,319, 3W, 412 Weber, C R., 153, 154, 162, 171, 173, 174, 176, 177, 178, 181, 182, 184, 186, 187, 188, 190,201,202,204, 205,206, 207,208, 218, 219,220,221, 373, 375, 376, 377, 383, 387,406,408, 410 Weeks, L V., 327,358 Weihing, R M., 70, 106 Weiss, M G., 157, 158, 162, 170, 171, 174, 175, 177, 187, 190, 204,205, 212, 219, 220, 221, 361, 365, 373, 375, 376, 377, 390,396,398,412 Welch, C D., 393, 412 Weldon, M D., 400,412 Wellensiek, S J., 369, 409 Wells, J P., 81, 104 Wendt, I., 339, 358 Wentworth, C K., 49, 60 Wentz, J B., 157, 160, 167, 174, 186, 188, 192, 220, 221 Whitaker, F D., 130, 147 White, H B., 196, 221 White, R F., 288, 290, 291, 293, 305, 319 Whitehouse, F W., 20, 26, 60 Whitt, D M., 122, 127, 134, 135, 137, 138, 147, 402, 403,412 Whittig, L D., 10, 13, 14, 29, 38, 39, 55, 57 Whyte, R O., 369, 410 Widdowson, F V., 291, 317 Wiggans, R G., 202, 221 Willard, C J., 388, 412 Willhite, F M., 246, 264 Williams, A H., 70, 71, 77, 79, 85, 92, 99, 106, 107 Williams, J H., 195, 211, 220, 221 Williams, L F., 157, 159, 160, 161, 162, 164, 165, 167, 170, 171, 172, 187, 208, 210, 221, 361, 373, 375, 376, 377, , 402, 410, 412 Williams, R E., 85, 108 Williams, R R., 62, 84,106 Williams, V R., 101, 108 Williams, W A., 82, 108 Williamson, E B., 379, 409 Willis, A L., 37, 42, 58 Wilm, H G., 112, 147 Wilson, J H., 398, 410 426 AUTHOR INDEX Wingate, G., 26, 60 Winogradsky, S., 313, 319 Winterberg, S H., 308, 318, 336, 356 Wischmeier, W H., 111, 117, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 132, 134, 138, 140, 141, 142, 146,147 Witham, W C., 364, 409 Wojta, A J., 135, 147 Woodbum, R., 119, 121, 127, 144, 147, 148 Woodruff,C M., 123,148 Woodward, L., 112, 129, 148 Woodworth, C M., 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, l&, 167, 168, 169, 171, 172, 174,186, 188,221 U'oolnough, W G., 3, 17,60 Wooten, B., 378, 379,409 Worley, L D., 136, 148 Wu, W.T., 101,108 Wunnecke, G W., 130, 144 Wyche, R H., 80,81,97, lOS, 106,108 Wynne, A B., 26, 60 Y Yamada, T., 202,221 Yarimizu, H., 372, 409 Yeh, B., 94, 108 Yoder, R E., 127, 144 York, E T., Jr., 397, 411 Yoshino, Y., 181, 182, 183, 186, 188, 191, 221 Yungen, J A., 281,318 Z Zacharias, M., 209,210,212,221 Zaslavsky, D., 338,354, 358 Zingg, A W., 112, 122, 127, 128, 134, 135, 136,137,147,148 Zoellner, J A., 291, 318 Zubriski, J C., 252, 264 SUBJECT INDEX A Advection, 230, 231-233 Aeration, soil, 342, 347-348 Aeschynmlene virginica, 85 Aldrin, 90, 91 Alfalfa, 230, 231, 232, 237, 244, 250, 311,313,330,348 Algae, 88 Allophane, 29 Almond moth, 84 Alumina, 8, 9, 10, 27, 29, 31, 39, 45, 49, 50, 55, 50 Aluminum, 3,7,275,287,400 Amiben, 388 3-Amino-2,5-dichlorobenzoic acid, 388 Ammannia coccinea, 85 Ammonia, 82, 255 Ammonium, 275, 278 Ammonium chloride, 80 Ammonium nitrate, 81, 255, 274 Ammonium nitrogen, 73, 80 Ammonium phosphate-sulfate, 81 Ammonium sulfate, 79, 80, 81, 82, 281, 282,284,285,300,334,335 Angoumois grain moth, 84 Aphelenchoides oryzae, 88 Arasan, 392 Arrowhead, 85 Aspergillus niger, 312 Atrazine, 385 Atropine, 212 Availability coefficient index, 389 Azotobacter, 312 B Bacterial pustule leafspot, 170 Bahiagrass, 247 Barley, 235, 238, 258 Barnyardgrass, 85, 86, 87 Beans, 150, 388 Beets, 233 Belle Patna rice, 99 Bermudaerass, 247 Biotite, 34 Bird's-foot trefoil, 348 Blast, 88, 89 Blue gramagrass, 248 Bluegrass, 348 Blue rose rice, 99 Boehmite, 10, 13, 58 Boron, 74, 82, 398, 400 Bouteloua gracilis, 248 Brickstone, Bromegrass, 230, 240 Brown leaf spot, 88, 89 Buckwheat, 313 Bulrush, 85 Burclover, 82 O-sec-Butyl-4,8-dinitrophenyl, 387-388 C Cadelle beetle, 84 Calcium, 29, 48, 74, 75, 198, 338, 393, 394, 400, 401 Calcium nitrate, 285 Calcium phosphate, 274, 275, 276, 282, 283, 290 Caloro rice, 69, 74, 75, 77, 97, 99 Calrose rice, 99 Caperonia castaneaefolia, 85 Capillary flow, 332 Captan, 392 Carbon dioxide, 348, 350 Catalase, 73 CercospoTa oyzae, 88 Cercospora sojina, 170 Cesium, 353 Chloride, 198, 313, 331, 338, 340, 400401 2-Chloro-N,N-diallylacetamide, 388 Chlorophyll, 171, 231, 398, 399 Citrus, 255 Clay, 81, 125, 126, 347 Cliachite, 10 Clover, 230, 235 Cobalt, 334, 398, 399 Cocklebur, 388, 404 Coff eeweed, 85 Colchicine, 212, 213 Colusa rice, 79, 97, 99 427 488 SUBJECT L\mEX Confused flour beetle, 84 Evapotranbpiration, 224, 225, 226, 227, Consumptive use, 227 259,329,330 Copper, 82,398,400 fertilizer and yield, 223-246 Copper sulfate, 88 validity of data, 228-233 Corn, 123, 131,132,133,242,245,251, F 254,256, 257,259,260, 281,285, 300,309,314,315,328, 329,330, Ferric sulfate, bO, 335,345,347,364,365,371, 382, Fertilizer, chemical characteristics, 266-280 384,385,386,397,400 efficient water-use, 223-264 Cornstalks, 130 water infiltration, 254-256 Cotton, 69,123,133,230,243,246,257, Fertilizer evaluation, 264-319 365,392,397 concepts of, 580-295 Cottonseed meal, 79,81 methods used, 295 p-Coumaric acid, 77 Ferulic acid, 77 Crested wheatgrass, 248,252 Field beans, 71,86 Cucumbers, 245,314 Field capacity, 325,326,329 Cunninghamella sp., 313 Field peas, 82 Curly indigo, 85 Flat grain beetle, 84 Cyanamid, 82 Floral induction, 366 Cyperus sppp., 85 Fortuna rice, 97 Foxtail, 387 D Frogeye leafspot, 170,389 Dactylis glomerata, 242 Fungicides, 390,392 Def 01 iat ion, 404-405 FW-450, 154 Dehydroabietylamine acetate, 88 G Deuterium, 331,340,341,346,355 Diammonium phosphate, 81 Germination inhibitors, 77 Diaporthe phaseoIotum var sojae, 198 Giant ragweed, 388 Diazinon, 92 Gibberellin, 403-404 Dichlone, 88 Gibbsite, 10, 13,32,33,35,36-37,39, 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 87,388 43,45 3,4-Dichloropropionanilide,88 Glycine clandestina, 151 Glycine falcata, 151 Dieldrin, 90,91,92 p-[2-( 3,5-Dimethyl-2-oxocyclohexyl)-2- Clycine gracilis, 207 hydroxyethyl] glutarimide, 88 Glycine javanica, 151 Glycine latrobeona, 151 Diuron, 385,389 C h i n e max, 82,149,150,207,208, 360 Dolerite, Glycine petitiana, 151 Do\vnv mild en^, 170,197,389 Glycine sericea, 151 Glycine tabacincz, 151 E Chycine tomentella, 151 Echinoclzola ~pp.,85,87 Glycine ussuriensis, 151,207,208,209 Eleocharis spp., 85 Goethite, 10,13, 14,33,39,41,42,43, Enhpoasca fabae, 167 56 Environment, 186,106,197 Gooseweed, 85 Erosion, Grape colaspis, 90 control, 134-136 Grapes, 257 rainfall, 109-148 Grasshopper, 91 Erosion-index, 124 Green manure, 82,364 European corn borer, 302 Groinid-water laterite, 23,24,25 429 SUBJECT INDEX H Hairy vetch, 82 Heat budget, 229,233 Helminthosporium oryzae, 88 Hematite, 10,13,39,41,43 Herbicides, see also individual compound, Herbicides, 330,385,387-389 Heteranthera sp., 85 Heterodera &cines, 170 High-level laterite, 18,19,51 Hoja blanca, 88,91,98 Horsebeans, 82 Hydrogen, 323 p-Hydroxybenzaldehyde, 77 p-Hydroxybenzoic acid, 77 I Indian-meal moth, 84 Indoleacetic acid, 77 Intermediate wheatgrass, 255 Iodine, 337 Ion movement, 334-342 in plants, 341-342 in water, 334-337, 339-341 Iron, 7,8,10,27,29,31,38,40,43,45, 55,82,170, 198,275,395 398 movement of 45-53 Iron clay, Irrigation, 67,73-77, 246,255,402-403 Isopropyl N- ( 3-chlorophenyl ) carbamate, 87,387 mineralogical characteristics, 10-14 parent material, 16 physical characteristics, 5-7 pisolitic, profiles, 20-26 softening of, 55-56 topography, 16-20 vegetation, 15-16, 44 vesicular, 5-6 Leaching, 335 Leafhopper, 82 Legumes, see also individual, 132 Lespedeza, 70, 71 Lesser grain borer, 84 Levee, 72-73 Lime, 79,80,255,393-394 Limiting yields, 282-295 Linoleic acid, 196 Linolenic acid, 195,196 Littoral drift, 348 Low-level laterite, 18,19,51 Lodging, 199,375,406 Lysimeter, 229,230,231,238,243,329 M Magnesium, 29, 48, 74, 75, 198, 312, 393,394,395,396,401 Malathion, 90,92 Manganese, 3,9,10,73,82,287,398 Manure, 130,255 Mass flow, 341 Medicago hispida, 82 Isotopes, Methionine, 196, 197 soil physics, 321-358 2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, 87 Mexican weed, 85 K Midge, 92 Kainite, 79 Kaolin, 6,8,13,29,33,35,36,37,38, Millet, 309 Milo, 235-236 42,43,51,55,56 Mineralization, 351 Kernel smut, 88 Miscible displacement, 331 L Molybdenum, 398,399 Ladino clover, 71,311 Montmorillonite, 13,347 Laspeyresia glyciniuorella, 167 Morning glory, 404 Laterite, 1-60 Mudplantain, 85 cellular, N chemical characteristics, 7-10 climate environment, 14-15, 43-44 N-1-Naphthylphthalamic acid, 388 definition, 1-4 Narrow brown leaf spot, 88,89 formation of, 26-53 Nematode, 89 geomorphic relationships, 53-55 Neorjossia barclayana, 88 430 SUBJECT Seutron irradiation, 209, 211, 212 Neutron moisture meter, 332-330 Nira rice, 97 Nitrogen, 383 evduation, 274, 275, 276, 281, 301, 309, 312, 313, 316 rice culture, 73, 75, 79, 80, 81, 82, 86, 89 soybeans, 391-393 transformation, 350-352 water-use efficiency, 235 236, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242, 265, 246, 247, 249, 251, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257 Nitrogen fixation, 213, 391, 399 Nitrate, 235 Nitrate nitrogen, 73, 275, 313 Nodulation, 390-393 Oats, 70, 71, 86, 233, 245, 251, 256, 309, 314, 315, 316,348,364,381,384 Orchard grass, 242, 245 Oryza glaberrima, 92 Oryza satioa, 85, 92, 94 Oryza satica var fatua, 94 Oryzea perennis, 94 Oryzea perennis var balunga, 94 Oxygen, 347 P Pangolagrass, 247 Peanuts, 397 Peas, 233, 381-382 Pentachlorophenol, 388, 404-405 Peronospora manshccrica, 170 Photoperiod, soybean, 153, 369-371 Phosphate, 250, 256, 393 evaluation, 267, 274, 275-280, 281, 287, 292,294, 309, 312 rice culture, 79, 80, 81, 86, 87 Phosphoric acid, 82 Phosphorus, 198, 337 evaluation, 267, 275-280, 283 285, 291, 294, 295, 297, 299, 300, 307, 311, 312, 313-315, 316 soybean, 393, 394-396, 400 water-use efficiencv, 236, 249, 252, 257 Photosynthesis, 69, 229, 368, 400 Phtrtovhthora mePmverma var soiae 170 TNDEX Phytophthora rot, 170, 198 Pigweed, 388, 404 Piricularia oryzae, 88 Planthopper, 91 Plinthite, Plow-plant, 378, 379 Pod blight, 197, 389 Pod borer, 167 Pole bean, 314 Ponderosa pine, 129 Potash, 80, 82, 89, 236 Potassium, 29, 74, 198, 257, 336, 353 evaluation, 274, 275, 278, 312, 313 soybean, 393, 396-398 Potatoes, 69, 256, 313, 314 Potato leafhopper, 167 Purple stain, 389 Purple vetch, 82 Pyrausta nubilalis, 302 Q Quartz, 8, 10, 13, 41 R Raindrop characteristics, 114-118 Rainfall erosion, 109-148 mechanics of, 113-123 tools used, 111-113 Rainfall-erosion equation, 138-144 Rainfall-erosion index, 124, 125, 138 Red clover, 313, 348 Red flour beetle, 84 Hed rice, 85 Redstem, 85 Rexoro rice, 97, 99, 103 Rhizobium, 407 Rhizobium japonicum, 170, 391 Rice in United States, 61-108 Rice, botany of, 92-96 breeding, 96-104 culture, 68-84 diseases, 88-89 drying and storing, 83-84 harvesting, 83 history of, 62-68 insects, 89-92 milling, 84-85 uses, 61-62 weeds 85-88 SUBJECT INDEX Rice dwarf virus, 88 Rice leaf folder, 92 Rice leaf miner, 91 Rice moth, 84 Rice stalk borer, 90-91 Rice stinkbug, 90 Rice stripe virus, 88 Rice water beetle, 91 Rice water weevil, 91 Rice weevil, 84 Rill erosion, 110 Roots, moisture extraction, 252-254 Root knot nematode, 89 Root temperature, 75 Rotating vane sampler, 111 Rubidium, 336, 340, 345, 347 Runoff erosion, 121 Rye, 312 Ryegrass, 133, 245 S Safflower,71, 86 Sagittaria spp,, 85 Sand, 119, 120 Savannah, 15 Saw-toothed grain beetle, 84 Sdrpus, sp., 85 Sclerotiurn myzae, 88 Self-difFusion coe$cient, 332, 334, 336 Sesbania eraltata, 85 Sheet erosion, 110, 119, 122 Silica, 3, 7, 8, 10, 27, 28, 31, 34, 37, 45, 55 Simazine, 385 Smooth bromegrass, 247, 248, 255 Snap beans, 257 Sodium, 29, 74, 255 Sodium hypochlorite, 77 Sodium nitrate, 300 Sogato orizicola, 91 Soil, see also laterite soil, aeration, 342, 347-348 density, 342-346 erodibility, 125-126 soil loss, factors affecting, 123-136 prediction, 137-144 Soil moisture, 324, 325 431 Soil moisture tension, 230, 234 Soil physics, aeration, 347-348 density, 342-346 isotope methods in, 321-358 particle movement, 348-350 profile formation, 352 radioactive waste, 353-354 structure, 346-347 temperature, 348 transformation of materials, 350-352 water, 322-342 Soil profile, 352 Soil suction, 327 Soil structure, 346-347 Sorghum, 71,86, 213, 238,251, 254 Soybean, breeding, 199-218 climatic adaption, 305-372 erosion control, 385-386 genetics, 157-158 growth regulators, 403-404 harvesting, 404-406 management, 359-412 nutrient requirement, 390-401 origin, 151-152 photoperiod, 369-371 planting methods, 378-383 planting time, 372-378 production, 360-365 reproduction, 152-157 rotation practice, 383-385 seed quality, 389-390 seed storage, 406-407 taxonomy, 150-151 water requirements, 401-403 weed control, 386-389 Soybean cyst nematode, 170 Soybean meal, 364 Soybean oil, 187-191, 194, 195-196, 197, 210, 364, 377 Soybeans, 70, 82, 86,257 Spergon, 392 Sphenoclea zeyanica, 85 Spikerush, 85, 86 Splash erosion, 119, 121 Spring wheat, 249, 253 Stem blight, 197, 389 Stem rot, 88, 89 Straighthead, 88, 89 432 SUBJECT INDEX Strawberry clover, 71 Straw mulch, 119 Strip cropping, 134-135 Strontium, 353 Sudangrass, 241 Sugar beet, 246, 256, 257 Sugar cane, 345 Sugarcane beetle, 91 Sulfur, 334, 398, 399-400 Summer fallow, 70 Superphosphate, 244, 394 evaluation, 267, 274, 279, 283, 286, 287, 290, 300 Sweet clover, 313 Sweet corn, 257 T Tadpole shrimp, 91-92 Temperature, effect on growth, 365-368 iodine number, 377 oil formation, 368 root, 75 soil, 348 soil loss, 123 Tmndipcdidue, 92 Terracing, 135-136 Thernial neutrons, 210 Timothy, 235 Titanium, 10 Tobacco, 313 Tobacco ringspot virus, 154 Tomatoes, 257, 313 Toro rice, 99, 103, 104 Toxaphene, 90 Tractor-plant, 378 Trefoil-grass, 71 Triops longicaudatus, 92 Tritium, 331, 338, 339, 340, 341, 355 U Umbrellasedge, 85 Urea, 81, 82, 255, 275, 300 V Vaniilic acid, 77 Vapor transfer, 337-338 Veratrine, 212 Vetch, 71, 82, 1.33 Viciu atropurpirreu, 82 Viciu faba, 82 Vicia uillosa, 82 W Water, intercepted, 328 measurement of soil, 322-342 movement, 338-348 soybean requirements, 401-403 Water erosion, 119 Watergrass, 86 Water requirement, 227 Water-use efficiency, 223-264 definition, 227-228 Wheat, 62, 71, 235, 246, 251, 252, 253, 309,314,364, 384, 397 White tip, 88, 89 Winter wheat, 130, 239, 249, 250, 251, 257 X Xanthomonas phaseoli var sojensis, 170 X-rays, 154, 209 210,211,212 Y Yellow-striped annywoim, 92 z Zinc,82, 198,257,287,398,400 .. .ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY VOLUME 14 This Page Intentionally Left Blank ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY Prepared under the Auspices of the AMERICANSocm-ry OF AGRONOMY VOLUME 14 Edited by A G... determined by loss on ignition, is appreciable but is generally higher in aluminous than in ferruginous varieties, as is shown in Table I Titanium is also common in significant amounts in most... boehmite are found commonly as fillings in cracks and pores, both in the matrix and in nodules Pores and cracks may also be lined with oriented kaolin having varying degrees of iron impregnation,
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Xem thêm: Advances in agronomy volume 14 , Advances in agronomy volume 14 , II. The Nature of Laterite, III. The Environment of Laterite, CHAPTER 2. RICE IMPROVEMENT AND CULTURE IN THE UNITED STATES, II. Rice Culture in the United States, IV. Origin, Botany, and Genetics of Rice, V. Rice Breeding and Improvement in the United States, II. Mechanics of Rainfall Erosion, III. Basic Factors Affecting Field Soil Loss, CHAPTER 4. SOYBEAN GENETICS AND BREEDING, III. Genetics of Qualitative Characters, IV. Genetics of Quantitative Characters, CHAPTER 5. FERTILIZERS AND THE EFFICIENT USE OF WATER, III. Validity of Evapotranspiration Data, IV. The Effects of Fertilizers on the Relationship of Evapotranspiration and Yield, VI. Fertilization and Water-Use Efficiency with Limited Moisture Supply, XI. Is Maximum Water-Use Efficiency Desirable?, II. Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Fertilizers, III. Concepts of Fertilizer Evaluation, IV. Methods Used in Fertilizer Evaluation Tests, CHAPTER 7. ISOTOPES METHODS AND USES IN SOIL PHYSICS RESEARCH, III. Soil Density and Soil Structure, IX. Disposal of Radioactive Waste, CHAPTER 8. THE MANAGEMENT OF SOYBEANS, II. Soil and Climatic Adaptation, III. Time of Planting and Varietal Adaptation, IV. Planting Methods and Equipment, V. Rotation Practices and Erosion Control, VII. Seed Quality and Seed Treatment, IX. Water Requirements and Utilization

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