Advances in agronomy volume 11

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ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY VOLUME XI This Page Intentionally Left Blank ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY Prepared under the Auspices of the AMERICANSOCIETYOF AGRONOMY V O L U M E XI Edited by A G NORMAN University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan ADVISORY BOARD D G ALDRICH, JR J E DAWSON W H FOOTE J E GIESEKING W P MARTIN R W PEARSON G F SPRAGUE H M TYSDAL 1959 ACADEMIC PRESS - NEW YORK and LONDON Copyright 0, 9 , by Academic Press Inc ALL RIGHTS RESERVED NO PART OF THIS BOOK MAY BE REPRODUCED IN ANY FORM, BY PHOTOSTAT, MICROFILM, OR ANY OTHER MEANS, WITHOUT WRI'ITEN PERMISSION FROM THE PUBLISHERS ACADEMIC PRESS INC 111 FIFTHAVENUE NEWYORK 3, N Y United Kingdom Edition Published by ACADEMIC PRESS INC (LONDON)Lm 40 PALLMALL, LONDON SW Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 50-5598 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUMEXI DAVIDE ANGUS,Department of Irrigation, University of California, Davis, California.* G W BURTON, Research Geneticist, Forage and Range Research Branch, Crops Research Division, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, and the University of Georgia, College of Agriculture Coastal Plain Experiment Station, Tifton, Georgia P DOLL,Assistant Professor of Agriculturul Economics, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri JOHN T W EDMINSTER, Assistant Chief, Eastern Soil and Water Management Research Branch, Soil and Water Conservation Research Division, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland D L GRUNES,Soil Scientist, Western Soil and Water Management Research Branch, Soil and Water Conservation Research Division, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Mandan, North Dakota R M HAGAN,Chairman, Department of Irrigation, University of California, Davis, California D W HENDERSON, Associate Professor of Irrigation, University of Calif ornia, Davis, California, and Associate Irrigationist, Agricultural Experiment Station, United States Department of Agriculture, Davis, California L W HURLBUT,Chairman, Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebrska K D JACOB, Chief, Fertilizer Investigations Research Branch, Soil and Water Conservation Research Division, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland P J GAMER, Professor of Botany, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina P G M E IJERS, Agronomist, Groningen, Holland * On leave from the Division of Meteorological Physics, C.S.I.R.O., Australia V vi CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME XI I-I F MILLER, JR., Chief, Harvesting and Farm Processing Resecrrch Branch, Agricultural Engineering Research Division, Agriculturul Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland ROBERTD MUNSON,Agronomist, American Potash Institute, St Paul, Minnesota M B RUSSEU,Head, Department of Agronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois Y VAADIA,Assistant Professor of Zrrigation and Assistant Zrrigationist, University of California, Davis, California D WWSMA, Assistant Professor of Agronomy, Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana PREFACE To serve as editor of this series is a rewarding experience on several grounds In the past decade the editor has learned a good deal about agronomy and the ways of agronomists Above all, however, he has had impressed on him a realization of the vigor of agronomic research, and of its accelerated pace Investigators are abandoning empiricism and tackling head-on many of the tougher problems of soil science and crop science, frequently using the knowledge and skills developed in more basic sciences, or adapting them ingeniously to their needs Many examples of this are to be found in the lengthy article in this volume which deals with the complexities of water in relation to the growth of plants in soils This chapter, which occupies more than a fourth of the book, marks a new departure, in that it was prepared by an impressive group of co-authors under the sponsorship of a committee of the Agricultural Board of the National Academy of Sciences Under the leadership of M B Russell, the committee sought to prepare a definitive and critical statement of the knowledge in this field, so that investigators in contiguous areas of agronomic science would be informed as to the present understanding of the many problems of water in relation to plant growth and crop productivity The practice of including a regional survey dealing with soil resources and changing crop patterns of a selected area has been continued in this volume P G Meijers discusses land use in the Netherlands, an area not generously endowed with productive soils, but raised to a high level of productivity by the development and adoption of intensive agronomic practices The higher crop yields of the last two decades have come in part from the availability of new machinery which performs old operations more efficiently, more rapidly and more promptly, and in part from greater and more efficient use of fertilizers It was therefore thought to be of interest to deal in this volume with some of these matters which, though perhaps not strictly a part of soil or crop science, are vital in modem agriculture T W Edminster and H F Miller review the remarkable developments in agricultural machinery, K D Jacob the realm of chemical technology on which fertilizer production rests, while R D Munson and J P Doll discuss economic aspects of fertilizer use and raise issues not always considered by those concerned only with maximum yields A G NORMAN Ann Arbor, Michignn August, 1959 vii This Page Intentionally Left Blank CONTENTS Contributors to Volume XI Preface , Page v vii WATER AND ITS REL TlON TO SOILS ND CROPS COORDINATED BY M B RUSSELL I Introduction 11 Water and the Hydrologic Cycle by M B RUSSELL,L W HURLBUT and D E ANGUS , 111 Interactions of Water and Soil by M B RUSSELL , , IV The Soil Environment and Root Development by D WIERSMA V Plant-Water Relations by P J KRAMER and M B RUSSELL , VI Soil-Plant-Water Interrelations by R M HAGAN,Y VAADIA, M B RUSSELL, D W HENDERSON and G W BURTON , , VII Summary and Conclusions , , References , , , , , 35 43 51 77 118 122 THE ECONOMICS OF FERTILIZER USE I N CROP PRODUCTION BY ROBERTD MIJNSON AND JOHNP DOLL I Introduction 133 11 Concepts and Principles Involved in the Economics of Fertilizer Use 134 111 Current Research on Economics of Fertilizer Use , 158 IV Conclusions 166 References 167 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS I N AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY BY T W EDMINSTER AND H F MILLER, JR I Introduction 11 Developments in Tillage and Seedbed Preparation 111 Developments in Planting Equipment IV Developments in Cultivating Equipment V Developments in Spraying and Dusting Equipment VI Developments in Harvesting Equipment VII Conclusions References ix , , , 171 173 182 , 190 193 196 , 226 226 414 AUTHOR INDEX-VOLUME Van Denburg, J V., Jr., 247, 258, 331 vander Marel, H.W., 347, 368 Van Der Pauuw, F., 137, 169 Van Doren, C A., 187, 231 van Duin, R A A., 28, 130 van Heemst, H D J., 20, 126 Van Ness, H W., 247, 258, 331 Van Nortwick, H S., 265, 528 van’t Woudt, B D., 74, 76, 77, 130 Van Wazer, J R., 271, 331 van Wijk, W R., 28, 74, 76, 130 Van Wyk, D J R., 266, 331 Veihmeyer, F J., 27, 46, 54, 79, 125, 130 Veltman, P L., 273, 323 Venema, H J., 27, 124 Venkatachalam, S., 284, 325 Venkatesham, Aj., 292, 331 Ver Planck, W E., 301, 331 Verduin, J., 58, 130 Viets, F G., Jr., 302, 315, 369, 370, 372, 373,376,377,390,394,396 Vieweg, G H., 58, 129 Vilbrandt, F C., 267, 330 Vincent, E A., 289, 329 Visse, L D., 266, 331 Vittum, M T., 390, 396 Vogelaar, B F., 204, 232 Volk, G W., 369, 390, 391, 396 Volk, N J., 390, 396 von Lossberg, V., 266, 331 Vreeland, D C., 309, 331 W Wadleigh, C H., 44, 49, 53, 54, 60,61, 62, 70, 79, 82, 89, 91, 128, 130 Waggaman, W H., 262, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 271, 273, 275, 277, 280, 331 Wagner, R E., 189, 231, 261, 314 Wakefield, Z T., 274, 281, 318 Wakerley, D S., 299, 316 Walker, H B., 173, 185, 216, 231 Walker, W J S., 258, 299, 317 Wallace, H M., 242, 255, 306, 309, 328 Wallace, H R., 50, 130 Walter, H., 67, 130 Walthall, J H., 280, 281, 283, 284, 331 Ward, F N., 270, 283, 321, 322 Waters, C E., 276, 304, 331 Waters, W F., 289, 314 XI Watson, D J., 62, 130 Watson, J R., Jr., 261, 325 Way, R W., 304, 331 Waylett, W., 266, 316 Wear, J I., 301, 321, 331 Weatherley, P E., 67, 68, 130 Weaver, J E., 43, 47, 50, 124, 130 Webb, B K., 207, 230 Weber, W C , 273, 277, 322, 331 Weick, F E., 189, 231 Weihing, R M., 107, 125 Wells, J V B., 11, 126 Wells, R R., 266, 330 Went, F W., 35, 129 Werner, H O., 67, 130 Wesemael, J E van, 386, 394 Wesseling, J., 74, 76, 130 Whetstone, J., 256, 258, 316, 332 White, N C , 293, 332 Whitfield, C J., 180, 232 Whitney, W T., 269, 283, 284, 332 Whitt, C D., 274, 316 Whitt, D M., 113, 116, 129 Whittaker, C W., 255, 256, 282, 294, 300, 316, 328, 332 Whittemore, H C., 225, 231 Whynes, A L., 307, 332 Wieczorek, G A., 270, 280, 286, 321, 326, 332 Wienert, F O., 292, 332 Wiersma, D., 86, 130 Wiersum, L K., 46, 130 Wiklander, L., 388, 396 Wilbanks, J A., 271, 327 Wild, A,, 385, 396 Willard, C J., 176, 231 Willard, M E., 291, 332 Willcox, W., 137, 138, 169 Williams, A J., 289, 332 Williams, D., 306, 332 Williams, R F., 57, 63, 130, 131 Williams, T H., 257, 332 Williams, W B., 275, 332 Wibmson, E B., 190, 195, 208, 231 Willis, A J., 381, 382, 384, 396 Willoughby, W M., 62, 131 Wilson, C C , 66, 131 Wilson, C M., 301, 331 Wilson, J D., 196, 231 Wilson, R A,, 275, 277, 315 AUTHOR INDEX-VOLUME XI 415 Y Wilson, R W., 191, 224, 232 Wilson, T V., 105, 130 Yamaga, R H., 369, 394 Winkelblech, C S., 178, 232 Yamamoto, G., 33, 131 Winkler, A J., 220, 229 Yamanouchi, N., 292, 3-26 Winn, P N., 224, 232 Yang, Y C., 284, 322 Winsor, G W., 262, 326 Yatazawa, M., 370, 396 Winsor, H W., 301, 332 Yates, L D., 274, 275, 276, 278, 279, Winterberg, S H., 270, 273, 324 281, 304, 322, 326, 332 Winters, H F., 60,126 Yeandle, W W., 248, 332 Wise, L N., 189, 228 Yee, J Y., 255, 256, 261, 262, 316, 328, Wisler, C O., 115, 131 332 Wisniewski, A J., 261, 325, 332 Yemm, E W., 381, 382, 384, 396 Witt, R H., 209, 230 Yeo, R R., 192, 232 Wittcoff, H., 267, 324 York, E T., 48, 131 Witzel, 1-1 D., 204, 232 Yost, J F., 310, 332 Wolf, F A., 60, 124 Young, A A., 26, 131 Wolf, R., 68, 122 Young, C L., 35, 129 Woltz, S S., 294, 332 Young, E., 268, 332 Womochel, H L., 173, 230 Young, H Y., 261, 328 Wood, G M., 193, 230 Young, R D., 273, 276, 277, 281, 307, Wood, W S., 209, 230 327, 332 Woodard, A W , 237, 328 Young, V D., 196, 227, 232 Woodhams, D H., 60, 86, 131 Younts, S E., 48, 131 Woodruff, N P., 180, 227, 232 Z Woodworth, R C., 161, 169 Zernova, L K., 53, 127 Wooten, B., 208, 231, 232 Ziegler, V., 268, 323 Work, J., 271, 315 Zingg, A W., 113, 116, 129, 180, 232 Work, P., 212, 232 Zink, E., 50, 130 Work, R A,, 53, 54, 122 Worthington, E A., 253, 304, 317, 320, Zink, F W., 254, 312 Zirngibl, H., 299, 322 332 Zoellner, J A., 137, 165, 168 Worthington, W H., 174, 232 Zwerman, P J., 178, 230 Wright, E H., 268, 275, 329 Zwicker, R., 56, 131 Wright, R E., 271, 332 Subject Index-Volume A Acid soils, 391, 392 Agriculture in the Netherlands, advisory services, 387-368 educational facilities, 367-368 Agropyron crystatum, 50 Aldrin, 309, 310 Alfalfa, 19, 20, 43, 47, 49, 75, 10% 114, 161, 387 Alkaline soils, 49, 50, 390, 391 Almond, 218 Aluminum phosphate, 284-286 Amino acids, 382 Ammonia, 153, 304-305, 311 anhydrous, 250-252, 311 aqueous, 252 metering devices, 186 synthesis, 244-248 Ammonium nitrate, 254-256, 311, 373, 378, 379, 390 Ammonium phosphate, 278-279, 311 Ammonium sulfate, 257-259, 370, 373 Apple, 46, 53, 58, 60, 61, 221, 346, 372 Ash, 64 Asparagus, harvest-aid machines, 211-212 Atmometer, 27 Auxin, 384, 385 XI in saline soils, 49 harvesting equipment, 209-211 Beech, 56, 59 Beet, 216 Bennudagrass, 57, 107, 109, 292, 389 Birch, 56, 59 Biuret, 261 Blueberry, 222 Bog peat, see Low peat Bolster, 349 Borax, 301 Boron, 299, 301-302 Bowen ratio, 32 Brassica mpus var oleifera, 364 Broccoli, 213 Bromus Inemis, 50 Buckwheat, 343, 350 Brush burning, 117 Buffered soils, 393 C Cabbage, harvest-aid equipment, 212 in the Netherlands, 351 Calcium, 49, 294-296 effect on root penetration, 47 Calcium phosphate, 279-280, 392 Caraway, 360, 384 Carlum c a d , 364 Carnation, 46 B Carrot, 216 BHC, (benzene hexachloride), 309 Castor bean, 224-225 Bahiagrass, 57 Celery, 212 Baler, 199-200 Cereals, 114 Barley, 204, 241, 370, 372, 373, 377, Cereals, 381, 383, 390 effect of alkalinity, 362 in the Netherlands, 344, 347, 363, flood damage, 75 364, 366 in the Netherlands, 339, 346, 347, salt tolerance, 106 364, 365, 366 Basic slag, 282, 295 nitrogen requirement, 360 Basin clay, 34-47 potassium requirement, 361 Bade unit, 138 Chelates, 300301, 309 Bean, 80, 212 Cherry, 222, 346 in Netherlands, 339, 363 Chlordane, 309, 310 effect of moisture stress, 86 Cinchona, 60 416 SUBJECT INDEX-VOLUME Citrus, 46, 53 toxic foliage sprays, 261 Clay soils, 79, 383, 564 Climate of the Netherlands, 337-339 Clover, 86 in the Netherlands, 363 Cobalt, 302, 344 Colza, 360, 363, 364 Combines, 204-207, 210-211 Complete extraction zone, 88 Contouring, 116 Copper, 299, 301, 302, 344 Corn, 20, 45, 47, 48, 53, 58, 61, 62, 106, 107, 109, 114, 158, 159, 161, 187, 196, 241, 261, 370, 371 harvesting equipment, 202-204 in the Netherlands, 339 response to moisture regime, 79, 80, 81, 82, 85 seasonal water use, 20 Costs in crop production, 137 Cotton, 49, 50, 55, 56, 60, 62, 114, 184, 192 cost of mechanical picking, 208 harvesting equipment, 207-209 verticillum wilt yield reduction, 91 Cranberry, 196 Crimson clover, 48, 207, 380 Cryptomeria, 91 Crop rotation, 362-383 Cucumber, 213 Cultivation, 50, 108, 111, 190-195 Cuticular transpiration, 54, 62 Cyanamide, 244, 391 D 2,4-D, 309, 310 DDT, 309, 310 “Dal” soil, see High peat Darcy’s law, 41 Defluorinated phosphate rock, 282-283 Detritus, 358 Dew, 33-35, 59 Dieldrin, 310 Diffusion pressure deficit, 67-69 Dinitrophenol, 383 Diseases of crops, 38, 50, 91 Donnan distribution, 388-389 Drought injury, 75 417 XI Drought tolerance, , 70-73, 105106 Dune soils, 345 Dusting equipment, 196 E Eelworm, 350 Evaporation, Dalton equation, 29 factors affecting, 17 measurement, 26-27 physics, 21-24 prevention, 17 Evapotranspiration, 117 effect of crop on rate, 20 effect of wind turbulence, 23, 30 errors in measurement, 25, 26, 27 in the Netherlands, 338 methods of determining, 24-33 potential for US.,12 Evapotranspirometer, 25, 32 F Fertilizer, caking, 305-307 effect on root growth, efficiency, 36 hopper design, 185-186 law of diminishing soil yield, 136-140 law of the minimum, 135-136, 153, 154 minimum rate of application, 146 mixed, 303-309 placement, 48, 185-187, 370, 376-377 practices in the Netherlands, 359-362 US consumption, 133, 236-242 world consumption, 235-236 Fescue, 207 Fick‘s law of diffusion, 374 Filbert, 218 Fir, 56 in the Netherlands, 343, 363, 364, 366 Flax, 225 Forage grasses, 43 Forage harvesting equipment, 197-198 Frasch process, 298 Fruit harvest aids, 220-223 Fungicides, 299 418 SUBJECT INDEX-VOLUME G Grain harvesting equipment, 204-207 Gibberellic acid, 310-311 Grape, 46 harvesting equipment, 220 in the Netherlands, 345 Grasses, 46, 47, 48, 50, 56, 109, 371 in the Netherlands, 343, 346 lime requirement, 362 nitrogen requirement, 360 potassium requirement, 361 Grass seed harvesting equipment, 204207 Gravitational water, 41 Green bean, 212 Ground-water, 8, 14, 15 depletion, 16, 17 Growth of plants, effect of soil moisture stress on, 79, 80, 81, 84-87, 88, 89, 90, 93 Guayule, 61, 86 Growth regulators, 48 H Hargreaves process, 293 Harvesting equipment, 196-225 Hay crushers, 198-199 Hay peIIeting machine, 201-202 Heat exchange, 22, 23 Heat injury to plants, 75 Heptachlor, 309, 310 Heterochra rostochiensis, 350 Heterosis, 107 High peat soils, 340, 348-350, 363, 364, 365, 366 liming, 362 phosphate requirement, 360 potassium requirement, 361 Humus, 359 Hydrogen source for ammonia synthesis, 240-248 Hydrologic cycle, 3, 6-35 Hysteresis, 94 XI Ion carriers, 382, 383 Ion exchange capacity, 381 Iron, 301, 302 Iron phosphate, 284-286 Irrigation, 36, 44, 75, 82, 85, 86, 88, 90, 91, 93, 344 effect on fertility, 83-84 efficiency, 17-18 nematode infestation, 50 practices, 98-104, 104-109 water quality, 15-16 Isotopic exchange, 377 K Kenaf, 225 Ladino clover, 43, 50, 58, 60 effect of soil moisture regime on, 87, 91, 92 Land reclamation, delta plan, 354-355 in Zuider Zee area, 357-358 Lead arsenate, 309 Lemna minor, 372 Legume harvesting equipment, 204, 206-207 Lespedeza, 207 Lettuce, 43, 372, 389 harvest-aid equipment, 212 Licking disease of cattle, 344 Lima bean, 212 Lime, 47, 345, 346, 347, 349, 354, 357, 358-359, 362, 363, 391, 392 Llnum usitatissum, 364 Loblolly pine, 64 Livestock in the Netherlands, 367 Loess loam, 340, 345346, 362 phosphate requirement, 360 Low peat soils, 340, 350452 Lupine, 345 Lygus bug, 50 Lysimeter, 24-25, 32, 34 I M IPC (isopropyl N-phenyl carbamate), 309 Indoleacetic acid, see Auxin Interseeding, 187-188 Magnesium, 296-297 Magnesium content in soil amendments, 295 Magnesium deficient soils, 344 SUBJECT INDEX-VOLUME Maize, see Corn Malathion, 310 Manganese, 299, 301, 302 Manganese deficiency, cause of, 362 in soils, 344 Mangold, in the Netherlands, 344, 346, 364, 365 Marginal physical product, 141, 152 Marginal rate of substitution, 153 Melons, 213 Metabolism, effect of nitrogen, 381385 Metaphosphate, 281-282 Micronutrients in compost, 349 Millet, 56, 107 Moisture conservation, 110-115 Molybdenum, 302 Moor peat, see High peat Moss peat, 349, 351 Mowers, 198 Multinutrient glasses, 300 N Napier grass, 201 Navy beans, 210 Nematodes, 50, 91 Nitrate fertilizers, 254-257 Nitric acid production, 254 Nitrification, effect on soil pH, 390 Nitrogen, 63, 82, 83, 109, 369393 absorption, 60-61 biological effects, 370-385 chemical effects in soil, 385-393 compounds of, used as fertilizer, 248262 effect on root growth, on transpiration ratio, 56-57 fertilizer production, 242-262 influence on Verticillium wilt, 50 use in the Netherlands, 360 Nitrogen oxide production, 243-244 Nitrophoska, 280 Nut harvesting equipment, 218-219 Oak, 56, 59 Oats, 57, 241, 261, 377, 378, 380, 381, 387 in the Netherlands, 343, 344, 346, 347, 363, 364, 366 419 XI Oilseed in the Netherlands, 343 Onion, 43 harvesting equipment, 216-217 Opuntia, 64 Orthophosphate, 278-279 Osmotic stress, 67, 80, 81, 82 Overgrazing, 109, 117 Oxidative phosphorylation, 384 P Palatia phosphate, 284 Pangolagrass, 57 Pea, 49, 213, 372, 378 harvesting equipment, 209-211 in the Netherlands, 364, 365, 366 Peach, 53, 220, 372 Peanut, 56 harvesting equipment, 214-215 high speed planter, 189 Pear, 53, 54, 61, 66, 220 flooding, 75 Peat soils, liming, 362 Pecan, 58 harvesting equipment, 218 Pennisetum glaucum, 107 Peppers, 213 Permeability of roots, effect of poor aeration, 74 Phaseolus uulgaris in the Netherlands, 339 Pesticides, 309-310 Phosphate m e in the Netherlands, 360361 Phosphate rock, 262-270, 295, 310, 390 direct application, 269-270 mining and beneficiation, 266-267 reserves, 262-266 uranium, vanadium, and fluorine in, 267-269 Phosphate rock-magnesium silicate glass, 283-284 Phosphoric acid, 311 added to irrigation water, 273 production, 272-274 Phosphorus, 49, 82-83, 109, 153, 309, 369-393 diffusion in soil, 375 effect of salts on solubility, 385-389 effect on root development, 47, 48 420 SUBJECT INDEX-VOLUME effect on transpiration ratio, 57 elemental, production, 270-271 yellow, toxicity, 270 Phosphorus absorption, 44, 80-83 effect of ammonium, 377-378 effect of moisture, 80-82 effect of nitrogen, 371 effect of pH, 389-393 effect of plant age, 379 Phosphorus fertilizers, 282-287 Photosynthesis, 91, 92, effect of water deficit, 5 Piche evaporation, 27 Pine, 91, 372 Pineapple, toxic foliage sprays, 281 Pinto beans, 310 Planting row-crops, 183-187 Planting equipment, 182-190 airplane, 189-190 grain and seed drills, 187-189 hill-drop planter, 184 seed press wheel, 184-185 Pleistocene sandy soils, 340-344 Plow-plant method, 178-180 Plum, 222, 348 Podsolic soil, 342, 344 Pole bean, harvesting equipment, 212 Potash, 257 fixation in soil, 347 resources, 288-289 Potassium, fertilizer production, 287-294 mining and processing, 290-292 resources, 288-290 use in the Netherlands, 381 Potassium chloride, 292-293, 311 Potassium nitrate, 312 Potassium sulfate, 293 Potato, 43, 87, 241, 372, 378 effect of excess potassium, 381 effect of high pH, 382 harvesting equipment, 215 in the Netherlands, 343, 344, 348, 347, 350, 383, 384, 365, 388 nitrogen requirement, 380 Potato scab, 382 Precipitation, 8-10, 110 Profits, 142, 143, 146-147, 157 Prune, 222 harvesting equipment, 218 XI Pulse, in the Netherlands, 343, 388 nitrogen requirement, 380 R Radioactive phosphates, 286-287 Radish, 49, 217-218 Rainfall, see Precipitation Rakes, 199 Rape, 383, 378 Raspberry, 222 Red clover, 181, 348 Reed peat, 349, 351 Relative humidity, effect on growth, 82 Relative turgidity, 86-87 Respiration, 80 Rhenania-type phosphates, 284 Rice, 45, 204, 370 planting by airplane, 189 River clay, 340, 348347, 364, 385, 388 lime content, 382 phosphate requirement, 381 potassium requirement, 381 Root-crop harvesting equipment, 214218 Root efficiency, 372-377 Root growth, effect of minor elements, 48 effect of nitrogen, 370472 influence of cultivation, 50 iiiechanical impedance, 46-47 Root-top ratio, 47 Rubber, 85 Rubidium, 82 Runoff, 8, 11, 15, 113, 115-118 Rye in the Netherlands, 343, 348, 350, 383, 386 Ryegrass, 371, 380, 392 S Saline soils, 49 Sandy soils, 79, 340345, 364, 385, 388 lime requirement, 382 phosphate requirement, 380 potassium requirement, 381 Scalding, 75 Saturation deficit, 88 Sea clay, 340, 352-359, 384, 385, 388 lime content, 382 SUBJECT INDEX-VOLUME nitrogen content, 360 potassium requirement, 3Gl Silt deposit, 75 Seedbed finishing tools, 182 Silage chopper, 200-202 Sodium nitrate, 373,380 Soil, aeration, 45,46 aggregates, 46 effect of water, 35-37 effect on root growth, 43-51 moisture, 8,9,35-42,44 availability to plants, 13,77-94 effect on compaction, 37 effect on fertility, 44,80-84 energy of retention, 39, 94 movement, 41,78-80,82 seasonal changes in distribution, 42 vapor transfer, 41 water storage capacity, pH, 362,389-393 reclamation, 343,349 testing, 164-166 texture, effect of moisture, 37 effect on water infiltration, 39 effect on water retention, 9, 13 types in the Netherlands, 339-359, 365 Soil conditioners, 305306 Soil moisture stress, 40,55,68,77-94 effect on yield, 85-87,89,91 Soil moisture tension, 40,79-80, 82 Soil-plant-water interrelations, 77-98 effect of climate, 91-94 Soil solution, concentration, 16,36 Sorghum, 43,56,90,107,114,302 Soybean, 61,204 cracking of seed, 206 Spinach, 213 Spraying equipment, 193-196 Stornatal opening, 53,69 Strawberry, 222 Strip farming, 116 Stubble-mulching, 108 Sub clover, 207 Subsidence, 351 Sudangrass, 392 Sugar beet, 19,82,192,372 harvesting equipment, 216 421 XI in the Netherlands, 339,343,347,350, 363,364,365,366 nitrogen requirement, 360 potassium requirement, 361 special planter, 190 sugar content, 86 yield under irrigation, 93 Sugar cane, 65,66 harvesting equipment, 223 sugar content, 86 Sulfate of potash-magnesia, 293,295 Sulfur, 295,297-299 Sunflower, 46, 64,384 Superphosphate, 274-278,295,370,371, 372,377,378,387-388,391,392 Surfactants in fertilizers, 305 Sweet corn harvester, 213 Sweet potato, 215,241 f Thinning equipment, 192-193 Tillage, 173-182 in arid regions, 180-182 minimum, 17b180 mulch, 176-178, 180-182 Tobacco, 45,61,62,191,241,384 effect of soil moisture stress, 60 harvest-aid equipment, 224 Tomato, 48,50,54,55,60,62,213,261, 345,377,389 effect of soil moisture stress, 61,86 Toxaphene, 309 Tonoplast, 382 Trace nutrient elements, 299-302 in multinutrient glasses, 300 Transpiration, 22-23,54-57,59,62,64, 65 effect of soil moisture, 55 Transpiration ratio, 56-57 Transport of ions, 382-383 Tree nut and fruit harvesting equipment, 218-223 Trefoil, 50 Triple superphosphate, 276-278,311 Tulip, 345 T u g , 225 Turnip, harvesting equipment, 216 in the Netherlands, 343,344 422 SUBJECT INDEX-VOLUME U Urea, 259-262, 311, 377 biuret formation, 261 Urea-form, 261-262 V Vapor-flow, Verticilliuni wilt, 50, 91 Vicia faba, 363 Vegetable crop harvesting equipment, 211-214 W Walnut, 218 Water, absorption, 64, 74 as a plant constituent, 65-66 consumption, 105 cost, 99-100 excess, 36-37, 74-77 physical nature, 4-6 resources, 6-19 role in plants, 51-70 Water-application efficiency, 99-104 Water consumption, effect of crop, 19-21, 105 in US.,18 Water deficit, in the Great Plains, 110 in the Netherlands, 339 Water deficit in plants, cause, 83-85 effect on cellular growth, 61 effect on yield, 62 measurement, 85-69 XI Watermelon, response to irrigation, 88, 105 Water requirement of plants, 56 Water table, 45, 46, 75 Water-use efficiency, 98-104, 104-109, 111 Weed control, by flaming, 192 equipment for herbicide application, 192 Wheat, 20, 48, 53, 60, 73, 106, 111, 204, 206, 241, 372, 377, 378, 379, 384 in the Netherlands, 343, 344, 346, 347, 350, 363, 364, 366 moisture requirement, 111 seasonal water use, 20 Wilting, see Water deficit in plants Y Yield, 393 analysis for or more nutrients, 147157 economic analysis, 159-164 effects of weather, 163 marginal analysis, 141-142 response to fertilizers, 134-140 response to moisture, 60, 62, 82, 83, 85-87, 89, 90, 91,93 single-nutrient analysis, 140-147 Z Zeo mays in the Netherlands, 339 Zinc, 299, 301, 302 Cumulative Author Index Volumes VI-X Aberg Ewert: Swedish Crop Production Recent Changes in Addicott F T., and Lynch R S Defoliation and Desiccation Allison F E Soil Nitrogen Balance Sheets The Enigma of Anderson A J Molybdenum as a Fertilizer Andrews W B Anhydrous Ammonia as a Nitrogenous Fertilizer Baldridge J D See Henson P R Volume Page VII 39 68 IX VII 213 VIII 164 VIII 62 IX 122 Cheney H B., et a1 Field Crop Production and Soil Management VIII Chepil W S See Olson R V., et a1 x Christensen J J See Culbertson J O., et ul VI Coleman N T., Kamprath E J., and Weed S B Liming x Cook R L See Lawton K VI Cook R L., and Davis J F Fertilizer The Residual Effect of IX Coons G H., Owen F V., and Stewart D Sugar Beet Improvement VII Cope W A See Henson P R 1% Cowan J R Tall Fescue VIII Culbertson J O., et a1 Seed-Flax Improvement VI 56 181 475 254 205 90 142 283 144 Davis J F See Cook R L 1x9 Dawson J E Organic Soils VIII DeMent J D See Martin J P., et a1 VII Dexter S T Winter Hardiness Evaluation of Crop Plants for VIII Donald C M See Stephens C G x Dungan G H., Lang A L., and Pendleton J W Corn Plant Population in Relation to Soil Productivity x Dunham R S See Culbertson J O., et ul VI 205 378 204 168 Ennis W B., Jr Weed Control in the Southern United States Ensminger L E See Jordan H V Erlanson C See Hodge W H x VII 252 408 189 VIII VI VIII 242 152 VI 145 1.Iafenrichter A L Grasses and Legumes for Conservation Haise H R See Olson R V., et u1 Harlan J R See Olson R V., et ul Harmsen G W., and VanSchreven D A Organic Nitrogen in Soil 423 X X 350 47 15 300 Fitts J W and Nelson W L Soil Tests Flor H H See Culbertson J O., et a1 Foote W H See Cheney H B., et a1 Geddes W F See Culbertson J O., et a1 VII x VII 436 168 424 CUMULATrVE AUTHOR INDEX-VOLUMES VI-X Harrar J G International Collaboration in Agriculture Hemwall J B Phosphorus The Fixation of by Soils Henson P R., Baldridge J D., and Cope W A Lespedezas Heyne E G See Olson R V., et al Hide J C See Olson R V., et a1 Hodge W H., and Erlanson C Plant Introduction Joffe J S Green Manuring Viewed by a Pedologist Jordan H V., and Ensminger L E Sulfur in Soil Fertility Kamprath E J See Coleman N T Kelley J Soil Water Requirement and Availability Kempthorne Statistics The Contributions of Knowles P F Safflower Knox E G See Cheney H B Volume Page 95 VI 95 IX 114 IX X 23 x 189 VII VII X 142 408 X VI IX X VIII 475 87 177 290 of Lang A L See Dungan G H Lawton K., and Cook R L Potassium in Plant Nutrition Lynch R S See Addicott F T X VI IX 436 254 88 Martin J H See Quinby J R Martin J P., et a2 Soil Aggregation Martin W P See Martin J P., et al McIlvain E H., and Savage D A Range Improvement Melsted S W Corn Belt Soils New Concepts of Management of Mortland M M Ammonia in Soils Reactions of VI VII VII VI VI X 305 2 121 325 VIII 321 242 Nelson L B Mineral Nutrition of Corn Nelson W L See Fitts J W Nelson W L., and Stanford G Plant Nutrient Behavior and tilizer Use Nikitin A A Trace Element Usage Technological Aspects of Norman A G Microbiology in Soil Science The Place of VIII Fer- X VI VII 68 183 399 Olson R V., et al Trends and Problems in the Great Plains Owen F V See Coons G H VII 90 Page J B See Martin J P., et al Pearson R W., and Yeager J H Agricultural Trends Cotton Belt Pendleton J W See Dungan G H VII IX X 438 Quinby J R., and Martin J H Sorghum Improvement VI 305 VIII 2 36 143 Rampton H H See Cheney H B., Raney W A See Martin J P., et Rhoades H F See Olson R V., et Rodenhiser H A See Stakman E et al a1 X in the Old al C VII X X CUMULATIVE AUTHOR INDEX-VOLUMES Savage 1) A See McIlvain E I1 Shaw R H See Wilsie C P Smith D C Grass Breeding Progress in Smith G D See Tavernier R Stakman E C., and Rodenhiser H A Race 15B of Rust-What It Is and What It Means Stanford G See Nelson W L Stephens C G., and Donald C M Australian Soils Stewart D See Coons G H Wheat 425 VI-X Volunie Page 199 128 217 Stem 143 68 168 90 Tavernier R., and Smith G D Braunerde (Brown Forest Soil) Thorne W Zinc Deficiency and Its Control 217 31 VanSchreven D A See Harmsen G W Vomocil J A Soil Bulk Density and Penetrability 300 159 Wadleigh C H Mineral Nutrition of Plants Weed S B See Coleman N T Wilsie C P., and Shaw R H Crop Adaptation and Climate 75 475 199 Yeager J H See Pearson R W Zimmerman L H Castorbeans 258 This Page Intentionally Left Blank Cumulative Subject Index Volumes VI-X Agricultural Trends in the Old Cotton Belt Agronomic Trends and Problems in the Great Plains Ammonia in Soils Reactions of Anhydrous Ammonia as a Nitrogenous Fertilizer Australian Soils and Their Responses to Fertilizers Volume Page Ix X 325 X VIII 62 168 X Braunerde (Brown Forest Soil) The Concept of IX 217 Castorbeans: A New Oil Crop for Mechanized Production Corn Belt Soils New Concepts of Management of Corn Plant Population in Relation to Soil Productivity Crop Adaptation and Climate Crop Production Swedish 258 121 X VI Defoliation and Desiccation: Harvest-Aid Practices Fertilizer and Lime Requirements of Soils Fertilizer Anhydrous Ammonia as a Fertilizer Molybdenum as a Fertilizer The Residual Effect of Fertilizer Use and Plant Nutrient Behavior Changing Concepts of Field Crop Production and Soil Management in the Pacific Northwest Grass Breeding Progress in Grasses and Legumes for Soil and Water Conservation Green Manuring Viewed by a Pedologist x 436 VI VII 199 39 IX 68 VIII 242 62 164 205 68 VIII VIII 1x3 X VIII International Collaboration in Agriculture A Pattern for Legumes and New Grasses for Soil and Water Conservation Lespedezas Lime and Fertilizer Requirements of Soils The Determination of Liming Microbiology in Soil Science The Place of Mineral Nutrition of Corn as Related to Its Growth and Culture Mineral Nutrition of Plants as Related to Microbial Activities Molybdenum as a Fertilizer Organic Nitrogen in Soil Mineralization of Organic Soils VIII 350 VII 142 VI 95 X IX VIII 350 114 242 475 VII VIII VII VIII 399 X VU VIII 427 128 x 32 75 164 300 378 428 CUMULATIVE SUBJECT INDEX-VOLUMES VI-X Phosphorus The Fixation of by Soils Plant Introduction as a Federal Service to Agriculture Plant Nutrient Behavior and Fertilizer Use Changing Concepts of Potassium in Plant Nutrition Volume Page 95 189 VII 68 X 254 VI = X VI 143 Safflower X Seed-Flax Improvement VI Soil Aggregation VII Soil and Water Conservation New Grasses and Legumes for X Soil Bulk Density and Penetrability Measurement of IX Soil Fertility the Role of Sulfur in x Soil Management and Field Crop Production in the Pacific Northwest VIII Soil Nitrogen Balance Sheets The Enigma of VII Soil Water Requirement and Availability of VI Soils Australian and Their Responses to Fertilizers X VI Sorghum Improvement IX Statistics The Contributions of Sugar Beet in the United States Improvement of VII Sulfur in Soil Fertility X Swedish Crop Production Recent Changes in VII 290 144 350 159 408 213 67 168 305 177 90 408 39 Tall Fescue Trace Element Usage Technological Aspects of VIII VI 283 183 VII VIII 252 204 IX 31 Race 15B of Wheat Stem Rust-What It Is and What It Means Range Improvement Progress in Weed Control in Principal Crops of the Southern United States Winter Hardiness The Evaluation of Crop Plants for Zinc Deficiency and Its Control ... MACHINERY BY T W EDMINSTER AND H F MILLER, JR I Introduction 11 Developments in Tillage and Seedbed Preparation 111 Developments in Planting Equipment IV Developments in Cultivating.. .ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY VOLUME XI This Page Intentionally Left Blank ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY Prepared under the Auspices of the AMERICANSOCIETYOF AGRONOMY V O L U M E XI Edited... activity It continues to reshape the landscape, is a dominant factor governing all aspects of the environment on the earth's surface, and since the beginning has been intimately involved in the rise
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Xem thêm: Advances in agronomy volume 11 , Advances in agronomy volume 11 , CHAPTER 1. WATER AND ITS RELATlON TO SOILS AND CROPS, II. Water and the Hydrologic Cycle, III. Interactions of Water and Soil, IV. The Soil Environment and Root Development, II. Concepts and Principles Involved in the Economics of Fertilizer Use, III. Current Research on Economics of Fertilizer Use, II. Developments in Tillage and Seedbed Preparation, III. Developments in Planting Equipment, IV. Developments in Cultivating Equipment, V. Developments in Spraying and Dusting Equipment, VI. Developments in Harvesting Equipment, II. Consumption of Fertilizers and Plant Nutrients, IX. Mixtures of Fertilizers and Other Agricultural Chemicals, I. General Situation: Land and People, IV. Plant Nutrient Requirements and Fertilizer Use, V. Land Use and Productivity, II. Effects of Nitrogen on the Availability of Phosphorus to Plants

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