Advances in agronomy volume 01

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ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY VOLUME I This Page Intentionally Left Blank ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY Prepared under the Auspices of the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF AGRONOMY VOLUME I Edited by A G NORMAN Camp Detrick, Prederick, Maryland ADVISORY BOARD H BRADFIELD H H LAUDE N P NEAL L A RICHARDS V G SPRAGUE E WINTERS 1949 ACADEMIC PRESS INC., PUBLISHERS NEW YORK Copyright 1949, by ACADEMIC PRESS INC 125 EAST ,23m STREET NEW YORK 10, N Y All Rights Reserved N o part of this book may be reproduced in any form, b y photostat, microfilm, or any other means, without written permission from the publishers PRINTED I N THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME I K C BERGER, Associate Professor of Soils, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin FRANCIS E CLARK, Bacteriologist, U S Department of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy, Ames, Iowa A S CRAFTS, Professor of Botany, University of California, Davis, California L A DEAN, Senior Soil Scientist, Division of Soil Management and Irrigation, Bureau of Plant Industry, Beltsville, Maryland J E GIESEKING, Professor of Soil Physics, University of Illinois, Urbarn, Illinois W A HARVEY, Associate in Botany, University of California, Davis, California H E HAYWARD, Director, U S Regional Salinity and Rubidoux Laboratories, Riverside, California RANDALL J JONES,Chief, Soils and Fertilizer Research Section, Division of Agricultural Relations, Tennessee Valley Authority, Knoxville, Tennessee HovAm T ROGERS, Agronomist, Soils and Fertilizer Research Sectiom, Division of Agricultural Relations, Tennessee Valley Authority, Knoxville, Tennessee ORA SMITH,Professor of Vegetable Crops, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York C H WADLEIGH, Principal Plant Physiologist, U S Regional Salinity and Rubidoux Laboratories, Riverside, California MARTING WEISS,Professor of Farm Crops, Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa WILLIAM J WHITE,Oficer-in-Charge, Dominion Forage Crops Laboratory, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada This Page Intentionally Left Blank Preface Many sciences and skills contribute to the subject of agronomy; many persons with widely different duties can properly call themselves agronomists Not all of these agronomists would agree as to the precise definition of the word agronomy, yet all, in some way or another, have interests that relate directly or indirectly to the growth of plants in soil The kind of professional training required of those studying the genesis and classification of soils has few points in common with that required of men engaged in genetical studies of a particular crop Yet their fields of activity are linked by their colleagues who must develop the proper fertilizer recommendation for profitable production of adapted varieties of that crop on various soil types The great body of knowledge about plants-their nutritive requirements and growth, their management and improvement, their adaptation and utilization-is continually expanding It is becoming increasingly difficult for many of those involved in one way or another in the theory or practice of soil management and crop production to keep themselves even reasonably well informed of the newer developments in all but their immediate fields of activity Progress is to a degree centrifugal in it.s effects and through specialization tends to throw us apart This volume, Advances in Agronomy, has as its objective the survey and review of progress in agronomic research and practice The articles are written by specialists They are critical and reasonably comprehensive in treatment They are written primarily for fellow agronomists across the hall and across the continents who also find it difficult to keep well informed in all phases of agronomy The authors of this volume all live on the North American continent, and it is primarily North American agronomy that is reviewed It is not intended that this shall always be the case, and contributions to latcr volumes will be sought from workers in other countries overseas I n the selection of topics for these volumes an attempt will be made to include material that will be helpful to workers with diverse subject matter and regional interests The edit,ors’ definition of what constitutes agronomy is catholic; they will be guided in their choice more by what information may be of use to agronomists than by what constitutes agronomy The central theme must be soil-crop relationships, for soils without crops are barren and field crops cannot be considered without vii viii PREFACE reference to the soil on which they are produced From time to time articles may be included that deal with related fields of horticulture and forestry The editors will take cognizance of other publishing plans, in so far as they are known to them, in order to avoid duplication of treatment For example, such considerat,ions led them to omit from this volume the subject of pastures, which was comprehensively surveyed in the 1948 Yearbook of Agriculture, and the subject of soil classification which was reviewed in a recent issue of Soil Science The editors wish to acknowledge the co-operation of the several contributors to this volume, whose articles have been prepared as a service to the profession of agronomy A G NORMAN Frederick, Md October, 1949 CONTENTS Page Contributors t.o Volume I Preface., v vii Plant Growth on Saline and Alkali Soils BY H E HAYWARD AND C H WADLEIGH U S Regional Salinity and Rubidoux Laboratories Riverside California I Introduction I1 Characteristics of Saline and Alkali Soils I11 Physiological Basis of Salt Tolerance IV Physiological Basis of Alkali Tolerance V How Saline and Alkali Soils Affect Plant Growth VI Salt Tolerance as Related to the Life Cycle of the Plant VII Specificity in Salt Tolerance References 10 20 29 35 New Fertilizers and Fertilizer Practices BY RANDALL J JONES AND HOWARD T ROGERS Tennessee Valley Authority Knoxville Tennessee I Introduction I1 New and Improved Fertilizer Materials I11 Recent Developments in Fertilizer Use References 39 41 53 72 Soybeans BY MARTIN G WEISS Iowa State College Ames Iowa I Introduction 78 I1 Production and Distribution 80 I11 Disposition and Utilization 83 I V Physiology of the Soybean Plant 85 V Effect of Climate and Location 97 VI Effect of Cultural Practices 101 VII Genetics and Cytology 115 VIII Variety Improvement 123 I X Effect on Soils 136 X Disease and Insect Pests 143 XI The Regional Approach to Soybean Research 150 References 152 I ix 426 AUTHOR INDEX Martin, J P., 263, 264, 286, 287 (see Waksman) Martin, L D., 378, 387 (see Bates) Martin, W H., 366,387 (see Daines) Masaewa, M., 15, 37 Matthews, E M., 218, 239 (see Grizzard) Mattson, S., 194, 203, 401, 402, 403, 411 Maughan, F B., 382, 388 Maunsell, P W., 326, 360 Mayhugh, M S., 327 (see Eaton), 3.49 (see Eaton) Mae&,P., 322, 336, 337, 360 Meadows, D T., 50 (see Volk), 76 (see Volk) Meadows, M W., 358 (see Smith), 359 (see Smith), 389 (see Smith) Means, R H., 70, 74 Medler, J T., 224, 225, 240 (see Scholl) Mehlich, A., 181, 201 (see Coleman) Mehring, A L., 40, 52, 74 (see also Jacob) Melchers, L E., 235, 236, 239 (see Peterson) Meldrum, H R., 104 (see Englehorn), 163 (see Englehorn) Melhus, I E., 108, 164 Melvin, E H., 323, 324, 360 Menkin, R., 255, 286 Menkina, P., 252, 286 (see Sheloumova) Merrill, R M., 56, 61, 74 Metzger, W H., 256, 286, 395 (see also Romine), 398, 41f (see also Romine) Michelbacher, A E., 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 240 (see Smith) Midgley, A R., 62, 74, 195, 202 (see Kelley),-330, 343 (see Dunklee), 360, 395, 402 (see Kelly), 410 (see Kelly), 411 Miles, S R., 141 (see Wiancko), 142, 167 (see Wiancko) Miller, C E., 60, 61, 74, 323, 349 (see Cook) Miller, E C., 279, 286 Miller, H F., 44 (see Karraker, Roberts), 74 (see Karralcer), 76 (see Roberts) Miller, L B., 102, 103, 164 (see Lang) Minarik, C E., 96, 154 Minina, E G., 270, 286 (see Sabanin) Mishusten, E N., 263, 286 Mitchell, H L., 257, 986 Mitchell, J., 218, 238 (see Bentley) Mitchell, J G., 378 (see Wilson), 389 (see Wilson) Mitchell, J W., 276, 287 (see Stevensen), 293, 296, 301, 303, 304, 305, 306, 310, 318 (see also Kraus) Mitchell, R B., 265, 275, 286 Mogen, C A., 28, $7 Moore, E C., 292, 318 Moran, W T., 312, 318 Morgan, E T., 361, 371 (see Teakle), 389 (see Teakle) Morgan, M F., 392 (see Anderson), 409 (see Anderson) Moore, H C., 357 (see Wheeler), 389 (see Wheeler) Morofsky, W F., 383, 388 Morris, H J., 259 (see Allison), ,982 (see Allison) Morrow, M B., 274,286 Morse, W J., 78, 79, 80, 115, 117, 118, 123, 131, 151, 164, 166 (see Piper, Ricker), 208 (see Piper), ,939 (see Piper) Moss, E G., 17 (see Garner), 36 (see Garner) Moulton, R W., 46, 74 Moyer, L S., 16, 87 Muenscher, W C., 318 Muir, A., 178 (see Nagelschmidt), 203 (see Nagelschmidt) Mulvey, R R., 102, 103, 142, 166 (see Vittum) Muncie, J H., 383, 388 (see Morofsky) Munro, J A., 248, 239, 382 (see Post), 389 (see Post) Munsell, R I., 62, 73 (see Brown) Murneek, A E., 86, 164 Murphy, H C., 108 (see Melhus), 164 (see Melhus) Murphy, H F., 195, 203, 396, 411 Murray, E G D., 273 (see Breed), 28P (see Breed) Musgrave, R B., 48, 49, 53, 73 (see Chandler) Myers, H E., 187, 197, 198, 283, ,985 427 AUTHOR INDEX N Naftel, J A., 324, 330, 360 Nagelschmidt, G., 178, 203, 400, 411 Naumova, A N., 260,B (see Berezova) Neely, J W., 314, 319 Neller, J R., 256, 286, 394, 411 Nelson, L B., 94, 95, 164 Nelson, N T., 392 (see Anderson), 4OY (see Anderson) Nelson, R A., 178 (see Alexander), 185 (see Hendricks), 186 (see Hendricks), 200 (see Alexander), 802 (see Hendricks) Nelson, W L., 102 (see also Collins), 103 (see also Collins), 104, 163 (see Collins), 166, 370, 377, 388 Nemec, A., 369, 388 Nesom, G H., 48, 72 (see Alway) Neuweiler, E., 371, 388 Newcomb, G T., 64 (see King), 74 (see King) Newman, A S., 276, 286, 306, 313, 317 (see De Rose), 319 Newrzella, B., 365 (see Berber), 387 (see Berkner) Newton, J D., 280,986 Newton, R., 280, 286 Nicol, H., 279,281, 286, 287 (see Thornton) Nielsen, C S., 86, 166 Nikitina, N I., 279, 284 (see Krassilnikov) Nikolsky, N N., 263, 286 Nissley, C H., 64, 76 Nitzsch, W v., 188,195,203 Nixon, C L., 400 (see Nagelschmidt), (see Nagelschmidt) Nobbe, F., 279, 286 Noll, W., 179, 203 Nolla, J A B., 303, 308, 319 Norman, A G., 90, 92, 102, 104 (see also Englehorn), 105, 106, 140, 141, 163 (see Englehorn), 166, 198, 203, 250, 264, 267 (see Pearson), 276, 286 (see also Newman), 282 (see Broadbent), 286 (see Pearson), 306, 314, 319 Norton, F H., 173, 605 Norum, E B., 141, 166 Nugent, T J., 371, 887 (see Cook) Nutman, P S., 301, 306, $19 Obenschain, S S., 393, 411 (see Rich) O’Brien, D G., 327,342,349 (me Dennis) O’Brien, R E., 44, 47, 76 O’Connor, R T., 323, 324, 360 (see Melvin) Odland, T E., 60, 76 (see Rich), 124, 135, 163 (see Garber), 166, 365, $87 (see Cowie) Offord, H R., 293, 519 Ogasa, T., 24, 37 Ohlrogge, A J., 55 (see also Scarseth), 59 (see Scarseth), 76 (see also ScarSeth) Olmstead, L B., 198, 203 Olson, P J., 208, 210, 212, 214, 239 (see Jones, Lejeune), 240 (see Silversides) Olson, R V., 325, 330, 331, 333, 360 Orcel, M J., 173, $03 Orcutt, F S, 105, 166 Otis, C E., 379, 338 Oulton, T D., 182, $03 Overstreet, R., 192 (see also Jenny), 194 (see Martin), 208 (see Jenny), 803 (see Martin) P Page, J B., 178 (see Kelley), 194, 197, 198, 199, 602 (see Kelley), 203 (see also Kroth), 281,286,396 (see Laws), $10 (see Laws) Palmer, G., 44 (see MacIntire), 45 (see MacIntire), 74 (see MacIntire) Parberry, N H.,62, 76 Park, J B., 120 (see Wolfe), 167 (see Wolfe) Parker, E R., 07, 76, B91, 319 Parker, F W., 256, $86 Parker, M M., 388 Parker, M W.,86, 87 (see also Scully), 88, 89 (see also Heinre), 166 (see Borthwick), 163 (see Heinre), 166 (see also Soully) Parks, R Q., 331, 333, 339, 341, 360 Patel, P.L., 128, 129, 166 428 AUTHOB INDEX Pauline, L., 161, 170, 174, 803 Pavlychenko, T K., 291, 292, 295, 319 Payne, M G.,277, 286 Pearson, R W., 171, 178, 208, 267, 286, 407, 411 Peck, O., 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 220, 221, ,238 (see Bolton), 239 Pederson, C E., 222, 239 Peech, M.,192, $04, 388, 392, 411 Peele, T C.,198, 204, 263, 286' Peikert, F W., 65, 75 Peltier, G L., 232, 233 (see Kiesselbach), ,239 (see also Kiesselbach) Pennington, R P., 163 (see Jackson), 180 (see Jackson), 208 (see Jackson), 264 (see Jackson), B (see Jackson) Pepper, B B., 383, 384, 386, 587 (see Campbell), 388 Percival, G P., 102 (see Prince), 103 (see Prince), 156 (see Prince) Perkins, A T., 195, $04, 393, 394 (see Benne), 396, 410 (see Beme), 41 Perotti, R., 245, 246, 259,2880 Peters, G., 323, 349 (see Goldschmidt) Peterson, D F., Jr., 32 (see Reeve), 37 (see Reeve) Peterson, J B., 178, 197, 204 Peterson, M L., 231 (see Reitz), 232 (see Reitz), 235 (see also Reits), 236 (see also Reita), 237 (see Reits), $39 (see also Reits) Peterson, P P., 407, 411 Peterson, W., 19, 37 (see Stewart) Petty, M A., 108, 109, 166 Phillips, T G., 364 (see Prince), 589 (see Prince) Pickford, P T H., 370 (see Wallace), $89 (see Wallace) Pierre, W H., 94, 102, 103, 105, 141, 162 (see Bower), 166, 194, $04 (see Stanford), 255, 268, 286 Piland, J R., 218, 233, 329, 360 Pinck, L A., 104, 166, 250, 253 (see Allison), 259 (see Allison), M (see Allison), 286 Pinkerton, C., 45 (see Jacob), 74 (see Jacob) Piper, C S., 264, 286, 404, 421 Piper, C V., 79, 166, 208, 239 Pittman, D W., 22, 25, 32, 36 (see Harris) Plant, W., 316, 588 (see Jones) Pohlman, G G., 63, 76, 141, 142, 163 (see Dodd), 276, 286 Pole, G R., 48 (see Copson), 73 (see Copson) Poluektoff, N S., 325, 360 (see Komarovski) Poos, F W., 225, 839 Porter, J R., 287, 286 Porter, K B., 121, 166 Porter, R H., 108, 109, 166 (see also Robbins) Poschenreider, H., 246, 252, 886 Post, R L., 382, 389 Potter, R S.,407, 411 Powers, W L., 4, 24, 31, 3b (see Ahi), $7, 64, 68, 76 Prescott, J A., 260,286,401 (see Russell), 411 (see Russell) Presley, J T., 144, 166 Preston, C., 18, $7 (see Stewart) Priceb C W., Jr., 113, 166 Price, F E., 312, 319 Prince, A L., 66, 76, 333 (see Reeve), 334 (see Reeve), 360 (see Reeve), 392 (see Blair), 410 (see Blair) Prince, F S., 102, 103, 166, 364, 383 Pritzker, N Y., 263, 284 (see Kaniveta) Probst, A H., 98 (see Weiss), 99 (see Weiss), 104, 110 (see Weiss), 113, 119 (see Weiss), 120 (see We&), 135, 136 (see also Weiss), 166, 167 (see Weiss) Proebsting, E L., 63, 75 Pryor, M., 302, 313, 318 PulTer, R E., 292, 319 Purvis, E R., 329, 343, 360 Pushkinskaya, O., 263, 285 (see Mishustin) Quackenbush, F W., 106, 166 Quastel, J H., 301 (see Nutman), 306 (see Nutman), 319 (see Nutman) AUTHOR INDEX E Rademacher, B., 291, 319 Rader, L F., Jr., 45 (see Reynolds), 76 (see Reynolds) Radziewski, G G., 263, 286 Raleigh, G J., 17, 37, 66, 76, 308 (see Sweet), 319 (see Sweet), 820 (see Sweet) Raleigh, W P., 378 (see Schultz), 389 (see Schultz) Ramstad, P E., 107, 166 Raney, W A., 194, 20.4 Rasnizina, E A., 260, 282 (see Berezova) Ratner, E I., 9, 19,37 Ravikovitch, 8, 194, 204 Rawlins, W A., 384 (see Wolfenbarger), 385, 388 (see Gyrisko), 390 (see W olfenbarger) Rayner, D S., 64 (see Chapman), 67 (see Chapman), 73 (see Chapman) Rayner, M C., 247, 286 Raynor, R N., 291 (see Robbins), 292 (see Robbins), 293 (see also Robbins), 295 (see Crafts), 300, 305 (see Crafts), 307, 308 (see also Robbins), 309, 311 (see Hannesson), 312 (see Robbins), d l (see Crafts), 318 (see Hannesson), 319 Reddick, D., 355, 356, 388 Reeve, E., 332, 333, 334, 339, 340, 560 Reeve, R C., 20, 32, 36 (see Fireman), 87 Reiber, H G., 293, 294, 298, 307, 308, 309, 317 (see Crafts) Reisenauer, H M., 218 (see Piland), 239 (see Piland), 329 (see Piland), 360 (see Piland) Reitemeier, R F., 34, 87 (see Magistad), 196, 802 (see Jenny) Reitz, L T,231, 232, 235, 236, 239 Remsberg, R., 235, I39 Retzer, J L., 28, 87 Reynolds, D S., 45, 76 Rhoades, H F., 57, 76, 362 (see Lyons), 388 (see Lyons) Riccardo, S., 270 (see Rossi), I86 (see Rossi) Rice, E L., 296, 304, 319 429 Rich, A E., 60,76, 385, 387 (see Davidson) Rich, C I., 393, 411 Richards, B L.,235, 236, 23.9 Richards, L A., 13, 14, 37 Richardson, L T., 275, 276, 284 (see Katznelson) Iticker, P L., 78, 166 Riddle, C., 300, 318 (see Harvey) Riede, W., 81, 165 Rieman, G H., 372 (see MacVicar), 38% 386 (see Allen), 388 (see MacVicttr) Rigler, N E., 19, 36 (see Eaton), 261, 276, 283 (we Eaton) Ripley, P O., 279, 286 Roach, W A., 68, 76 Roark, R C., 385, 388 Robbins, C., 142, 167 (see Wiancko) Robbins, W A,, 108, 166 Robbins, W W., 291, 292, 293, 295, 308, 312, 318 (see Harvey), 319 Roberts, E., 260, 286 Roberts, G., 44, 76 Roberts, J L., 260, 274 (see Morrow), I86 (see Morrow), 2236 Robertson, D W., 107, 165, 233 (see Weihing), 2.40 (see Weihing) Robinson, D O., 171 (see Buehrer), 173 (see Buehrer), 178 (see Riiehrer), 201 (see Buehrer) Robinson, W O., 326 (see Whetstone), 327 (see Whetstone), 331 (see Whctstone), 361 (see Whetstone) Rogers, H T., 61, 76, 96, 165, 346, 347, 350 Itokitzkaya, A I., 252, 286 Roller, E M., 103 (see Adams), 162 (see Adams), 260, 283 (see Clark) Romine, D S., 395, 411 Rosendahl, R O.,257,285 (see Mitchell), 286 Rosene, H F., 25, 37 Ross, C S., 162, 204 Ross, W W., 61, 76 Rossi, G., 270, 286 Rost, C O., 60 (see Caldwell), 62 (see Caldwell), 73 (see Caldwell) Routien, J B., 259, 286 Rowland, R A,, 162, 173,202 (see Grim) Rubins, E J., 181, 195, 201 (see Dean), 430 AUTHOB INDEX 396 (see Dean), 403 (see Dean), 404 (see Dean), 410 (see Dean) Rubnev, V Z., 215, 240 Rudolfs, W., 21, 23, 37 Ruehle, G D., 08, 76, 385, 388 Ruhnke, G N., 393, &I2 (see Lobe) Ruprecht, R W., 313, 360 (see Purvis) Russel, J C., 362 (see Lyons), 388 (see Lyons) Russell, E J., 250, 286, 401, all Russell, E W., 197, 198, 204 Russell, M B., 137 (see Browning), 162 (see Browning), 178, 198 (see Johnston), $02 (see Johnston), 203 (see McHenry), 204, 280 (see Johnston), 284 (see Johnston) Ryzhikov, N., 80, 166 Sabanin, D A,, 269, 286 Sachs, J., 256, I Salmon, S C., 233, 240 Salmon, W D., 69, 74 (see Koehn) Salt, R W., 219, 940 Samuel, G., 254, 286, 379, 388 Sanford, G B., 248, 286 Savage, D A,, 304, 305, 319 Sayre, C B., 88, 69, 76 Scarseth, G D., 55 (see also Ohlrogge), 59, 76 (see also Ohlrogge), 104, 165 (see Drake), 194, 204, 332 (see also Drake), 3@ (see Drake), 360 (see Jones), 395 (see also Allison), 396, 397 (see also Bradfield), 401, 402, 410 (see Bradfield), 4ll Schachtschabel, P., 178, 191, 204 Scharrer, K., 323, 325, 360 Schermerhorn, L G., 65, 76 (see Tiedjens) Schmidt, E L., 247, 257, 259, 886 Schofield, C S., 327, 360 Schofield, R K., 181, 204 Scholl, J M., 224, $40 Scholl, W., 51, 76 Schollenberger, C J., 407, &I1 Schreiner, O., 260, 886 Schroeder, E W., 62, 76 Schroeder, R A., 371, 386, 389 Schroeder, W T,333 (see Walker), 361 (see Walker) Schropp, W., 341, 360 Schultz, E S., 356 (see Akeley), 378, 386 (see Akeley), 387 (see Bonde), 389 Schuphan, W., 17, 37 Schuster, C E., 326, 360 Scofield, C S., 29, 30, 31, 32, 33 34, 36 (see Kearney) Scripture, P N., 337, 341, 360 Scully, N J., 87, 88 (see also Parker), 166 (see also Parker) Sears, H., 90, 140, 166, 277, 279, 282 (see Appleman) Sedletzky, I D., 178, 204 Sekera, F., 263, 286 Selke, W., 369, 389 Sen, J., 254, 273, 286 Sexsmith, J J., 218, 225, 240 Sexton, W A., 301 (see Slade), 306 (see Slade), 310, 319, 320 (see Templeman) Shands, W A,, 381 (see Bronson), 387 (see Bronson) Shaw, B T., 180, 208 (see Humbert), 203 (see Marshall), 204, 331,360 (see Parks) Shaw, G W., 33, 37 Shaw, R.R., 303, $19 Shaw, J M., 312, 318 (see Moran) Shawl, R I., 115, 162 (see Bateman) Sheloumova, A., 252, Sherman, G D., 255, 261, 283 (me Fujimoto) Sherwin, H S., 108, 166 Sherwood, L V., 114, 166 Shive, J W., 21, 37, 96 (see Somers), 96, 164 (see Minarik), 166 (see Somers), 332, 336, 337, 339, 340, 360 (see a l ~ o Reeve, Marsh) Shollenberger, J H., 85, 166 Shorey, E., 260, 286 (see Schreiner), 411 Shute, R S., 163 (see Davidson), 201 (see Davidson) Sideri, D I., 178, 197, 199, so4 Sidorenko, A I., 252, ,986 Rieling, D H., 196, 204, 332 (see Drake), @!3 (see Drake) de Sigmond, A A J., 4, 16, 37 AUTHOR INDEX Silberstein, L., 344, 345, 3.49 (see Bertrand) Silversides, W H., 210, 212, 240, 319 Simonson, R M., 407 (see Pearson), 411 (see Pearson) Simpson, G W., 384 (and see Bronson), 387 (see Bronson) Sjogren, J W., 166 Skinner, J J., 369, 387 (see Collins) Skodvin, K., 69 (see Fisher), 73 (see Fisher) Skory, J., 226, 228, 9@ (see Wilsie) Slade, R E., 301, 306, 319 Sleesman, J P., 389, 390 (see Wilson) Slosson, E E., 21, 37 Small, T., 378, 3819 Smirnova, A., 260, 984 (see Isakova) Smith, A M., 64, 76 Smith, B V., 100 (see Gibson), 153 (see Gibson) Smith, D D., 105, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 166 Smith, E V., 71, 76 (see Swingle) Smith, F F., 384 (see also Bronson), 1587 (see Bronson) Smith, F W., 60, 75 Smith, G D., 182, 196, 202 (see Jenny) Smith, G S., 325, 339, 360 Smith, H S., 3119 Smith, M E., 338, 361 Smith, N R., 244, 266, 276, 278, 279, 284 (see Humfeld), 987 (see Thorn) Smith, O., 304, 319, 358, 359, 361, 362, 364, 366, 368, 370, 373, 376, 380, 387 (see Fernow), 388 (see McGoldrick), 589 Smith, R F., 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 240 Smith, W K., 234, 939 (see Jones) Snelling, R O., 149, 166 Snyder, E G., 385, 387 (see Bonde) Snyder, W E., 87, 166 Sohngen, N L., 254, 286 Somers, I I., 95, 166 Sommer, A I., 322, 361 Sorenson, C J., 214, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 239 (see Knowlton), $40 Sparks, W C., 376, 389 Spurr, W B., 11, 17, 25, 26, 27, 34, 36 (see Hayward) 431 Btahl, E., 259, 286 Stahler, L M., 303, 310, 312, 317 (see Derscheid), 319 Stanford, G., 194, SO4 Stanganelli, M., 270 (see Rossi), 286 (see Rossi) Starc, A., 273, 286 Starkey, R L., 244, 245, 249, 251, 252, 253, 254, 256, 265, 266, 267, 269, 270, 271, 273, 278, 284 (see Lipman), 286, 287 (see Waksman) Staten, G., 313, 319 Stauffer, R S., 137,156 (see Van Doren), 198, 204 Stearns, L A., 382, 388 (see Heuberger) Steckel, J E., 95, 103, 166, 162 (see Wear), 204 (see Wear) Steele, G J., 396, 397, 411 Steele, J G., 397 (see Bradfield), 410 (see Bradfield) Steinbauer, G P., 379, 389 Steinberg, R A,, 261, 287 Stephenson, R E., 326, 350 (see Schuster), 395, 411 Stevensen, E C., 276, 287 Stevenson, F J., 356 (see Akeley, Clark), 357 (see also Wheeler), 382, 386 (see Akeley), 387 (see Blodgett, Clark), 389 (see Sleesman, Wheeler) Stevenson, T M., 211, 227, 231, $40 Steward, F C., 18, 37 Stewart, G., 206, 231, 240 Stewart, J., 21, 23, 3Y Stewart, R., 19, 37, 251 (see Greaves), 283 (see Greaves) Stewart, R T., 119, 126, 166, 157 (see Wentz) Stiles, W., 322, 336, 337, 3661 Stille, B., 256, 287 Stitt, L L., 219, 220, 221, 224, $40 Stocker, 263 Stocking, C R., 296 (see Crafts), 304 (see Crafts), 3617 (see Crafts) Stockli, A., 287 Stoddard, D L., 107, 108, 109, 166 Stoklasa, J., 274, 287 Stout, P R., 195, 204, 396, 397, 402, 403, 4611 Strand, G G., 83, 156 Strong, D C., 14 (see Wadleigh), 32 432 AUTHOR INDEX (see Wadleigh), 33 (see Wadleigh), 38 (see Wadleigh) Strong, W F., 68, 74 (see MacLachlan) Struckmeyer, B E., 96, 164, 166 Strugger, S., 267, Struthers, D K., 115, 166' Stumbo, C R., 261, 265, 275, 287 Sullivan, W., 292,318 (see Johnston), 31.9 Sutherland, M L., 266, 284 (see Jzimes) Swaby, R J., 253, 284 (see Jensen) Swanson, C., 15 (see Lilleland), 28 (see Lilleland), 34 (see Lilleland), ST (see Lilleland) Swanson, C.P., 304 (see Ennis), 317 (see Ennis), 380 (see Ennis), 387 (see Ennis) Sweet, R D., 308, 309, 319, 320 Swingle, H S., 71, 76 Sykes, E T., 379, 387 (see Findlay) Sylwester, E P., 312, 320 Synerholm, M E., 302, 320 Syvorotkin, G S., 330, 349 (see Bobko) T Tagawa, T., 25, 87 Tahgi, M., 124, 166 Takahashi, N., 117,118,166 Tang, P S., 121, 166 Tate, H D., 213, 216, ,938 (see Crandall) Taylor, D L., 306, 320 Teakle, L J H., 361, 371, 389 Templeman, W G., 301 (see Slade), 306 (see Slade), 310, 319 (see Templeman), B O Terman, G L., 44, 76, 362, 389 Tervet, I W., 107, 108 (see also Allington), 109 (see Allington), 162 (see Allington), 168, 248, 287 Thatcher, L E., 102, 142, 143, 166, 167 (see Wiggans) Thexton, R H., 272, 284 (see Lochhead) Thimann, K V., 260, 287 Thorn, C., 244, 262, 265, 266, 271, 275 283 (see Clark), 282' Thomas, E E., 27, 35, 36 (see Kelley) Thompson, H S., 160, 204 Thompson, L M., 265, 260, 267, 987 Thomson, B F., 293 (see also Aveuy), 301 (see Avery), 316' (see A w r y ) Thomson, R H K., 332, 348 (see Askew), 840 (see Askew) Thorne, D W., 19, 87 Thornton, B J., 310 Thornton, G.D., 92, 166 Thornton, H G., 248, 287, 301 (see Nutman), 306 (see Nutman), 319 (see Nutman) Thorpe, J D., 277, 282 (see Carlyle) Thun, R., 368, 889 Thurston, H W., Jr., 386, 389 Tidmore, J W., 50 (see Volk), 76 (see Volk), 395 (see Scarseth), @1 (see Scarseth) Tiedjens, V A,, 65, 66, 76 (see also Prince) Timonin, M I., 244 (see Katznelson), 254, 262 (see also Lochhead), 265 (see also Lochhead), 266 (see also Katznelson), 268, 269, 270 (see Katznelson), 271 (see also Katznelson), 273 (see Lochhead), 275, 276, 284 (see Katznelson, Lochhead), 287 Timmons, F L., 291, 320 Ting, C L., 117, 118, 121, 129, 166 Tinsley, J D., 4, 37 Todd, F E., 208, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 9-40 (see Vansell) Todd, J R., 44 (see Karraker), 74 (see Karraker ) Toevs, J L., 48, 76 Toole, E H., 107, 168, 303 (see Marth), 318 (see Marth) Toole, V K., 107, 166, 303 (see Marth), 318 (see Marth) Toovey, F W., 235, 236, 240 Torrie, J H., 148, 164 (see Jones) Toth, S J., 15 (see Wallace), 38 (ser Wallace), 194, ,804, 367, 387 (see Bear), 395, 398 (see Bear), 402, 403, 410 (see Bear), 411 Tottingham, W E., 17,37,372 (see MacVicar), 388 (see MacVicar) Trelease, H M., 16, 87 Trelease, S F., 16, 37, 96, 164 Trotter, I P., 102, 166 Truffaut, G., 253, 287 Truog, E., 194, 200 (see Attoe), 256, 287, 325, 326, 328, 329 (see Kubota), 331, 333 (see Kubota), 342, 3@ (see 433 AUTHOR INDEX Berger), 350 (see Kuhota), 395, 398, (see Drosdoff), 411 Tucker, W B., 310, 320 Tukey, H B., 301, 305 517 (see Hsmner) T d i n , A S., 330, 351 Tullis, E C., 303, 313, 32U Turk, L M., 19, 35 (see Rower), 279, 282 (see Albrecht) Turnell, K., 64, 75 Turner, T., 385, 388 (see Horsfall) Turrentine, J W., 52, 76 Turton, A G., 371 (see Teakle), 589 (see Teakle) Tutton, S M., 303 (see Shaw), 319 Tyner, L E., 265, 287 Tysdal, H M., 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 217, 218, 219, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 232, 233, 234, 235, 238, 239 (see Peltier), 240 U Ufer, M., 207, 240 Uhvits, R., 17 (see Hayward), 18 (see Hayward), 23, 24, 27 (see Hayward, 33, 35 (see Hayward), 36 (see Hayward), 37 Umbreit, W W., 90, 105, 107, 166 Unrau, J., 229, $4 Uphof, J C., Th., 6, 26, 37 d’Urbal, R P., 293, 319 (see Offord) V Valentine, A T., (see Harris), 36 (see Harris) Valleau, W D., 235, 236, 239 (see Johnson), 280, 283 (see Diachun), 287 Van Delden, A., 252, 282 (see Beijerinck) Van Doren, C A., 107 (see Burlison), 110 (see Burlison), 137, 138, 155 (see Burlison), 156 Van Hallie, Th B., 19, 57 Van Overbeek, J., 292, 293, 295, 303, 305, 320 Vansell, G H., 208, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216,217, 239 (see Hare), 240 Vanselow, A P., 340 (see Chapman), 349 (see Chapman) Veatch, C., 126, 166 Veihmeyer, F J., 13, 35 (see Conrad), 36 (see Hendrickson) , 37 Velea, I., 292, 295, 303, 720 (see Van Overbeek) Velich, A., 273, $87 Verona, O., 255, 287 Viljoen, N J., 97, 98, 103, 110, 119, 120, 156 Villafane, A G., 303, 308,320 (see White) Virtanen, A I., 262, 287 Vittum, M T., 102, 103, 166 Vladykov, V., 253, 287 (see Trriffaut) Volk, G W., 47, 60, 63 76, 194, 204 Volk, N .J., 50, 54, 70 W Wadleigh, C H., 9, 11 (see Magistad), 12, 14, 15, 16, 17 (see also Magistad), 18, 25 (see Magistad), 27 (see Ayers), 28, 30, 31 (see Magistad), 32, 33, 36 (see Ayers, Bower), 36 (see Gauch), 37 (see also Magistad), 38 Wagner, R E., 51 (see Armiger), 73 (see Armiger) Wagoner, C E., 396 (see Perkins), 411 (see Perkins) Waksman, S A., 249, 254, 263, 286 (see Martin), 287 Walker, G P., 141 (see Wiancko), 142, 157 (see Wiancko) Walker, J C., 262 (see also Link, Angell), 282 (see Angell), 284 (see Link), 287, 333, 343, 361 Wallace, A., 15, 58 Wallace, H M., 51, 75 (see Scholl) Wallace, T., 370, 389 Wallace, W., 114, 156 Walrath, F J., 69, 76 Walsh, T., 16, 38 Walthall, J H., 45, 46, 76 Wang, C C., 119, 120, 154 (see King) Wang, S., 135, 166 Wang, Tsu Kao, 270 (see Rossi), ,986 (see Rossi) Ward, A S., 286 434 AUTHOR INUEX Ward, F N., 45 (see Jacob), 46 (see Hill), 73 (see Hill), 74 (see Jacob) Ware, L M., 363, 389 Warington, K., 322, 332, 336, 337, 349 (see Brenchley), 361 Warren, C., 141 (see Wiancko), 142, 167 (see Wiancko) Warren, G F., 308, 309, 320 Waterston, J M., 235 (see Toovey), 236 (see Toovey), S.40 (see Toovey) Way, J T., 160, 804 Waynick, 56, 57, 76 Wear, J I., 162, SO4 Weatherspoon, J H., 119, 128, 129, 166 Weaver, L R., 13, 14, 37 Weaver, R J., 97, 114, 166, 296, 304, 310 (see Allard), 316 (see Allard), 320 Weber, C R., 98 (see Weiss), 99 (see Weiss), 100 (see Kalton), 110 (see Weiss), 111, 112, 113, 114, 119 (see also Weiss), 120 (see also Weiss), 122, 126 (see Weiss), 127 (see Weiea), 128 (see Weiss), 129, 130 (see Weks), 135, 136 (see also Houseman, Weiss), 150 (see Weiss), 164 (see Houseman, Kalton), 166, 167 (see Weiss) Weber, G F., 343, 349 (see Foster) Weidemann, A G., 60, 76 Weihing, R M., 233, %#I Weimer, J L., 232, 233, 234, $40 Weise, E., 365 (see Berkner), 387 (see Berkner) Weiser, V L., 395, 403, 411 Weiss, M G., 95, 98, 99, 103, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 117, 119, 120, 121, 126, 127, 128, 130, 135, 136, 150, 165 (see Porter), 166 (see also Weber), 167 Welch, A W., 144, 167 Wellman, R H.,320 Wene, G.P., 385,388 (see Gyrialro) Wentr, J B., 119, 126, 166 (see Weatherspoon), 167 Weneel, M E , 276 (see Smith), 286 (see Smith) Werner, H O., 365, 389 West, E S., 296, West, P M., 260, 262 (see also Lochhead), 265 (see Lochhead), 271, 272, 273 (see Lochhead), 276, (see Lochhead), $87,288 Westgate, W A,, 307, 390 Westover, L L., 206, 225 (see Tysdal), 226 (see Tysdal), 227 (see Tysdal), 229 (see Tysdal), 230 (see Tysdal), 231 (see Tysdsl), 233, 8.40 (see TYPdal, Wilkins) Wexelson, H., 210, 214, 2.40 Wheeler, E J., 357, 389 Wheeler, H E., 248, 286 (see Lutman) Wheeting, L C., 46, 76 Whetstone, R R., 326, 327, 331, 361 White, D D., 303, 308, 3gO White, J L., 162 (RCP Wear), 177, 204 (see also Wear) White, W J., 207, 208, 210, 211, 228, 229, 238 (see Armstrong), 240 b e also Unrau) White-Stevens, R H., 333, 361, 367, 38.9 Whiting, A L., 279 (see Fred), 2885 Whitney, W T., 43, 76 Whiteside, E P., 178, ,904 Whitson, A R., 250,284 (see King) Whitt, D M., 138, 166 (see Smith) Whittaker, C W., 51, 76 Whyte, R O., 86, 164 (see MurnrPk) Wiancko, A T., 141, 142, lrir Wiegner, G., 170, 30.4 Wiggans, R G., 112, 135, 167 Wiklander, L., 191, 194, 904 Wilcox, L V., 323, 327, 349 (see Eaton), 360 (see Schofield), 361 Wilfarth, H., 243,274,884 (see Hellreigel) Wilkins, F R., 233, 840 Willard, C J., 102 (see Thatcher), 114, 142 (see Thatcher), 143, 166 (see (Thatcher), 167, 281, 286 (see Page) Willard, J C., 292, 303, 880 Williams, G.S., 118, 167 Williams, L F., 98 (see Weiss), Y9 (RW Weiss), 110 (see Weiss), 115, 118, 119 (see Weiss), 120 (see Weiss), 122, 138 (see Weiss), 167 (see also Weiss, Woodworth) Williams, R J., 260 (see McBurney), 286 (see McBurney) Williams, W R., 199, SO4 Willis, W H., 252, 288 Wilm, D., 161, 166 (see Hofmann), 186 (see Hofmann), $02 (see Hofmann) Wilsie, C P., 226, 228, $40 435 AUTHOR I N D E X Wilson, A R., 378, 389 Wilson, B D., 250 (see also Lyon), 251 (see Lyon), (see Lyon), ,988 Wilson, C A., 383 (see Pepper), 384 (see Pepper), 388 (see Pepper) Wilson, F., 292, 320 Wilson, H A., 198, 204, 280, 288 Wilson, J D., 382, 386 (see Thurston), 389 (see Thurston, Sleesman), 390 Wilson, J K., 250, 277, 988 Wilson, M C., 234,240 Wilson, P W., 92 (see Fred), 153 (see Fred), 248, 260, 288 (see West) Winterberg, S H., 44 (see MacIntire), 45 (see MacIntire), 74 (see MacIntire) Winters, J D., 369, 382, 390 Wittstein, A., 322, 336, 861 Wolf, B., 72, 76, 330, 361 Wolf, D E., 292, 311,316 (see Anderson), 3.20 Wolfe, A C., 120, 167 Wolfe, W C.,296 (see Mitchell), 305 (see Mitchell), 306 (see Mitchell), 318 (see Mitchell) Wolfenbarger, D O., 382, 384, 390 Wood, J W., 296 (see Mitchell), 305 (see Mitchell), 306 (see Mitchell), 318 (see Mitchell) Wood, L K., 68, 76 (see Powers), 194 (see also De Turk), ,901 (see De Turk), 204 Woodbridge, C G., 326, 329, 332, 361 Woodford, A O., 178 (see Kelley), 179, 202 (see Kelley) Woodhams, G E., 67, 76 Woodhouse, W W., Jr., 70, 76 Woodle, H A., 09, 76 Woodruff, C M., 198, S04, 280, 288 Woodworth, C M., 115, 117, 118, 124, 126, 167 Wrenshall, C L., 407, @0 (see Dyer), 411 Wright, L E., 328, 349 (see Ferguson) Wuhrmann, K., 26, 38 Wyatt, F A., 286 Wyss, O., 92 (see Fred), 163 (see Fred) Y Yarick, B E., 292, 319 (see Puffer), 320 Yearick, L G., 162, 170, 178, 202 (see Jeffries) Yee, J Y., 51 (see Ross), 52, 76 (see Ross), 76 Yoder, R E., 59,60,76 Yoshida, R K., 407, 409, 411 Youden, W J., 109,167 Young, H E.,257, 288 Young, R S., 280 (see Newton), 286 (see Newton) Yussupova, S., 178, ,904 (see Sedletzky) 2: Zahnley, J W., 111, 112, 167 Zimmerman, P W., 302, 32U (see also Synerholm) Zobel, C E., 315, 380 Zorkin, F P., 325, 361 Zukovskaya, P W., 266, ,988 Subject Index A Agrobacterium, 273 Alfalfa, bacterial wilt, 232-235 black stem, 235-237 breeding methods, 225-232 cross pollination, 208-215 diseases, 232-237 hybrid vigor, 237-229 injurious insects, 219-225 osmotic pressures of sap, role of bees in tripping, 212-217 seed setting, 206-225 self pollination, 208-209 synthetic varieties, 229 tripping, 207-208, 210-217 tripping by rain, 210 tripping insects, 212-217 Alkali soils, influence on plant growth, calcium-boron ratios, 332, 339 colorimetric determination, 324-326 cycle in nature, 334-335 determination in soils and plants, 323 determination by quinalizerin, 325-326 determination, spectroscopic, 323-324 determination, titrimetic, 323 fixation in soils, 330, 331 function in plants, 337-338 irrigation water, 327 leaching in soils, 329, 332-333 nitrogen-boron ratios, 341 potassium-boron ratios, 340 requirements of crop plants, 336-337, 344347 turmeric test, 324 Boron deficiency, 322, 329, 330, 342344 symptoms, 342-344 19-20 Alkali tolerance, physiological basis, 9-10 Alkalization, Amberlites, 10 Ammoniated superphosphate, 51 Ammonium nitrate, as fertilizer, 51 Anhydrous ammonia, 52, 56-59 Anion exchange, 402, 403, 404 Apatite, 392, 400 Ascochyta imperjecta, 235-237 Auxin, 304 Azotobacter, 252-254, 260, 273 Azotogen, 274 B Bacterial wilt, alfalfa, 232-235 Bacteriorrhiaae, 246, 247, 257-259 Base exchange, 242 Bees, alfalfa tripping, 212-217 Bentonite, 397 Benzene hexachloride, 383-384 Birdsfoot trefoil, salt tolerance, Bordeaux mixture, 385-386 Boron, availability in soils, 327 486 U Calcium cyanamid, 71, 311, 378 Calcium fluorphosphate, 400 Carbowax, 301 Cephalosporium gregatum, 144 Chlorite, 162, 178 Chlorophenols, 297, 307, 308 Clay minerals, 159-199 aggregation, 198 anion exchange, 194-195 cation exchange, 189-193 cation fixation, 193-194 crystal configuration, 180-184 crystal structure, 162-171 distribution in soils, 177-179 electron micrographs, 174 flocculation, 195-196 functions in soil, 196-199 identification, 171-177 interstratified, 170 ionic sorption reactions, 188-195 isomorphous replacement, 168, 175, 176 phosphorus fixation, 393-397 polar sorption, 184-188 437 SIJBJECT INDEX thermal dehydration, 173-174 X-ray diffraction, 174-177 Colloidal clay, 93 Commensalism, 248 Contact exchange theory, 192 Corn, yield responses t o nitrogen, 54 Corynebacteriuw insidiosum, 232-235 Cristohalit,e, 162 D D.D.T., as potato insecticide, 381-385 fate in soils, 277 lygus bug control, 217, 222-225 Diaporthe phaseolorum, 144 Dicalcum nitraphosphate, 50-51 Dinitro-secondary butyl phenol 297, 308 Dithane, 385, 386 H €hematite, 162 Halophytes, 6, 26 Herbicides, contact, 294, 298 selective, 299 translocated, 294, 295 Heterosis, in soybeans, 126-7 Histosphere, 246, 274 Hybridization, in soybeans, 1236 Hybrid vigor, alfalfa, 227-229 Hydrous mica, 161 Hydroxy apatite, 399 I Illite, 162, 171, 172, 174, 177, 178, 179, 188, 190, 191, 194, 196, 396 P cryPtal structure, 164, 168-169 Inositol phosphates, 409 Iron chlorosis, 16 Irrigated land, acreage of, Isomorphous replacement, 188, 175, 176 Isopropyl phenylcarbamate, 294,310 Fertilizer consuiiiption in US., 40 Fertilizers, application to irrigation water, K E Edaphosphere 245 63 defoliant, 71 farm-ponds, 71 foliage sprays 67 liquid, 63-66 mixed, 53 pasture applications, 61-63 69-71 phosphatic, 392 plow-sole placement, 59 potash, 52 requirements of soybeans, 102-105 starter solutions, 65-66 subsurfncp placement for sod crops, 6163 Flame cultivation, 314 Fungicidps, potato, 385-386 GYomerella glycines, 145 Glycine grasilis, 79, 121 Glycine max., 78, 121, 122, 129 Glycine soja, 78-9 Glycine Ussuriensis, 79, 121, 122, 129, 147 Kaolinite, 161, 169, 170, 172, 174, 177, 178, 179, 188, 190, 191, 194, 195, 196, 395, 396, 397, 399, 402 crystal structure, 169 L Limonite, 162, 395 LYYUS SW., 219-225 control by insecticides, 222-225 M Manganese oxidation, 254-255, 276 Medicago sativa, 205 Metaphosphates, 46-49 calcium, 46-48 potassium, 48-49 MetatheBia, 402 Methoxone, 306 Micas, 161 Montmorillonite, 161, 163, 164-168, 170, 174, 177, 178, 179, 180, 182, 185, 186, 438 SUBJECT INDEX 187, 190, 191, 194, 196, 396, 399, 402 crystal structure, 163, 164-168 sorption of water, 186 Mycorrhizae, 246, 247, 248, 257-9 N Nitrogen fixation, 252-254 symbiotic, 243, 248 Nitrogen mineralization, 250-252 Nitrophenols, 297, 307, 308 Nitraphosphate, dicalcium, 50-51 Nontronite, 170 Nucleic acids, 407-409 Oil, soybean, 85 Olivine, 45, 46 P Pentachlorphenol, 297, 308, 358 Phenol, dinitro-secondary butyl-, 297, 308 Phenoxyacetic acid, 2,4-dichloro-(2,4-D), 276, 277, 289, 294, 295, 300, 301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 306, 307, 308, 311, 312, 313, 358-360, 381 breakdown in soils, 313 , esters, 301, 302 injury to soybeans, 114 preemergence treatment, 294, 306, 307 transport, 304, 305 Phenoxyacetic acid, 2, 4, 5.-trichloro(2, 4, 5-T), 380, 381 Phenyl mercuric acetate, 311 Phymatotrichum root rot, 261 Phytin, 407-409 Phytophthora infestans, 356, 385, 386 Phosphate fertilizers, 41-51 Phosphate, diammonium, 50 Phosphate rock-magnesium silirate glass, 45 Phosphates, defluorinated, 43-45 Phosphorus, accumulation in soil, 392-393 immobilization, 255 organic in soils, 406-409 precipitation by oxides, 397-400 radioactive, 394, 405 Phosphorus fixation, 391-409 anion exchange, 402-406 adsorption, 400-402 biological, 406-409 Polyploidy, in soybeans, 121 Potassium cyanate, 311 Potato blight, 356 Potatoes, breeding and improvement, 355-357 chemical weed control, 357-360 fertilizer practices, 360-377 insect control, 381-385 killing vines, 377-381 minor element requirements, 371-372 nitrogen fertilization, 365-366 phosphorus fertilization, 366377 tuber composition, 374-377 potassium fertilization, 367-369 production in U.S.,353-354 virus diseases, 386 Potato leaf hopper, 382, 386 Potato scab, 355-357 Prochlors, 311 Quartz, 162 R Red clover, salt tolerance, Rhizobiurn japonicum, 105, 106 Rhizobia, 247, 273 Rhiroplane, 246,265, 266, 268, 271 Rhizosphere, 243-282 bacterial flora, 271-274 definition, 244 fungal flora, 271 growth substances in, 260 microbial counts, 266-268 soil aggregation, Q63,261 Root respiration, 256 a Saline soils, 5, 11-19 Salinization, 2, Salt tolerance, physiological basis, 5-9 relationship to stage of growth, 20-29 specificity, 29 Seed disinfectants, 108-109 Seed germination, saline conditions, 2024 Serpentine, 46 SUBJECT INDEX Sinox, 299, 307, 358, 378, 379, 380, 381 Sodium arsenite, 293, 295, 303 Soil aggregation, 198, 263-264 caused by soybeans, 137 role of micro-organisms, 198 Soils, alkali, 19-20 black alkali, boron availability, 327 clay minerals distribution, 177-179 distribution of clay minerals, 177-179 saline, 5, 11-19 Soil erosion, following soybeans, 137-40 Soil inoculation, 274 Soil sterilants, 294, 295, 305, 307, 308 Solanum demissum, 356 Solanum tuberosum, 353 Soybeans, acreage in U.S., 81-83 bacterial blight, 146-147 brown stem rot, 144-145 calcium requirements, 93-95 diseases, 143-148 effect on soils, 136-143 floral initiation, 85-90 genetics, 115-123 hail damage, 99-101 hybridization, 123-5 insect damage, 149 interspecific crosses, 121 micronutrient requirements, 95-97 nitrogen fixation, 91 nitrogen nutrition, 90-92 nodulation, 91, 109 oil, 85 planting rate and spacing, 111-113 response to fertilizers, 102-105 response to photoperiod, 86-88 439 seed composition, 97-99 seed inoculation, 105-107 seed viability, 107 simply inherited characters, 116-117 time of planting, 110 utilization in U.S., 83-85 variety improvement, 123-136 virus diseases, 145, 147 world production, 80 Stoddard solvent, 294, 300, 309, 379 Stove oil, 308, 309 Streptomyces scabies, 357 Sulphur deficiency, 43 Superphosphate, 366-367, 392, 393, 399, 400 ammoniated, 51 concentrated, 41, 42, 44 Symbiotism, 247 Synthetic varieties, alfalfa, 229 T Tobacco, chloride toxicity, 17 Tourmaline, 327, 328, 329 Trichloracetic acid, 310, 358 Trichoderma viride, 262 u Urea-form, 51 W Weathering, 160 Z Zeolites, 161 This Page Intentionally Left Blank .. .ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY VOLUME I This Page Intentionally Left Blank ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY Prepared under the Auspices of the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF AGRONOMY VOLUME I Edited by A... increasing concentrations of bicarbonate induced a pronounced depression in the intake of calcium, and an increase in intake of potassium I n beets, with their normally low calcium content, intake... improvement, their adaptation and utilization-is continually expanding It is becoming increasingly difficult for many of those involved in one way or another in the theory or practice of soil management
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Xem thêm: Advances in agronomy volume 01 , Advances in agronomy volume 01 , II. Characteristics of Saline and Alkali Soils, III. Physiological Basis of Salt Tolerance, V. How Saline and Alkali Soils Affect Plant Growth, VI. Salt Tolerance as Related to the Life Cycle of the Plant, VII. Specificity in Salt Tolerance, II. New and Improved Fertilizer Materials, III. Recent Developments in Fertilizer Use, IV. Physiology of the Soybean Plant, V. Effect of Climate and Location, VI. Effect of Cultural Practices, X. Disease and Insect Pests, XI. The Regional Approach to Soybean Research, III. Crystal Structure of the Clay Minerals in Soil Clays, IV. Qualitative Identification and Quantitative Estimation of the Clay Minerals, V. Distribution of the Clay Minerals in Soils, VI. The Configuration of the Clay Mineral Crystals as Related to their Properties, VII. The Physicochemical Reactions of the Clay Minerals, VIII. Functions of the Clay Minerals, II. Seed Setting and Production, III. Progress in Methods of Breeding, Chapter 6. Soil Microorganisms and Plant Roots, III. The Rhizosphere Microflora in Relation to the Growth of Higher Plants, IV. The Numbers of Microorganisms Associated with Plant Roots, V. The Kinds of Microorganisms Found on Plant Roots, VI. Modification of the Root Surface Microflora, VII. Influences of the Rhizosphere Flora on Succeeding or Associated Plants, II. Tillage, Cropping, and Competition in the Control of Weeds, IV. Principles of Chemical Weed Control, VII. Emulsions and Emulsion Stabilizers, XI. Nitro- and Chloro-substituted Phenols, XIII. Other Organic and Inorganic Chemicals, Chapter 8. Boron in Soils and Crops, III. Boron Availability in Soils, IV. Boron Requirement of Plants, II. Breeding and Improving Potato Varieties, IX. Effects of Magnesium, Liming, and Soil Reaction, XII. Relation of Yield and Tuber Composition to Plant and Soil Analyses, XIV. Recent Developments in Insect Control, XV. Recent Developments in Disease Control, III. Phosphorus Fixation by Soils, Clay Minerals, and Hydrous Oxides, V. Fixation of Phosphorus by Surface Reactions, VI. Biological Fixation of Phosphorus in Soils

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