(Advances in agronomy 117) donald l sparks (eds ) advances in agronomy 117 academic press, elsevier (2012)

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ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY Advisory Board PAUL M BERTSCH RONALD L PHILLIPS University of Kentucky University of Minnesota KATE M SCOW LARRY P WILDING University of California, Davis Texas A&M University Emeritus Advisory Board Members JOHN S BOYER KENNETH J FREY University of Delaware Iowa State University EUGENE J KAMPRATH MARTIN ALEXANDER North Carolina State, University Cornell University Prepared in cooperation with the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America Book and Multimedia Publishing Committee DAVID D BALTENSPERGER, CHAIR LISA K AL-AMOODI WARREN A DICK HARI B KRISHNAN SALLY D LOGSDON CRAIG A ROBERTS MARY C SAVIN APRIL L ULERY VOLUME ONE HUNDRED SEVENTEEN ADVANCES IN AGRONOMY EDITED BY DONALD L SPARKS Department of Plant and Soil Sciences University of Delaware Newark, Delaware, USA AMSTERDAM • BOSTON • HEIDELBERG • LONDON NEW YORK • OXFORD • PARIS • SAN DIEGO SAN FRANCISCO • SINGAPORE • SYDNEY • TOKYO Academic Press is an imprint of Elsevier Academic Press is an imprint of Elsevier 525 B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego, CA 92101-4495, USA 225 Wyman Street, Waltham, MA 02451, USA 32 Jamestown Road, London, NW1 7BY, UK The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford, OX51GB, UK Radarweg 29, PO Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, The Netherlands First edition 2012 Copyright Ó 2012 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publisher Permissions may be sought directly from Elsevier's Science & Technology Rights Department in Oxford, UK: phone (+44) (0) 1865 843830; fax (+44) (0) 1865 853333; email: permissions@elsevier.com Alternatively you can submit your request online by visiting the Elsevier web site at http://elsevier.com/locate/permissions, and selecting Obtaining permission to use Elsevier material Notice No responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions or ideas contained in the material herein Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, in particular, independent verification of diagnoses and drug dosages should be made ISBN: 978-0-12-394278-4 ISSN: 0065-2113 (series) For information on all Academic Press publications visit our website at store.elsevier.com Printed and bound in USA 12 13 14 15 10 CONTRIBUTORS Numbers in parantheses indicate the pages on which the authors’ contributions begin Virupax C Baligar (117) USDA-ARS – Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD, USA Catherine Bonin (1) The Ohio State University, School of Environment and Natural Resources, Carbon Management and Sequestration Center, Columbus, OH, USA Rufus L Chaney (51) Senior Research Agronomist, USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Environmental Management and Byproducts Utilization Lab, BARC-West Beltsville, MD, USA Bhagirath S Chauhan (315) International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Los Ba~ nos, Philippines Zhenli He (117) Indian River Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Fort Pierce, FL, USA Shanying He (117) Indian River Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Fort Pierce, FL, USA; College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou, China Ram A Jat* (191) International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India Mangi L Jat (315) International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), New Delhi, India Rattan Lal (1) The Ohio State University, School of Environment and Natural Resources, Carbon Management and Sequestration Center, Columbus, OH, USA Gulshan Mahajan (315) Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India S P Milroy (275) CSIRO Plant Industry, Wembley, Western Australia, Australia M L Poole (275) CSIRO Plant Industry, Wembley, Western Australia, Australia * Current address: Directorate of Groundnut Research, Junagdh, Gujarat, India ix x Contributors M M Roper (275) CSIRO Plant Industry, Wembley, Western Australia, Australia Kanwar L Sahrawat (191) International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India Virender Sardana (315) Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India Jagadish Timsina (315) International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Los Baños, Philippines Suhas P Wani (191) International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India Xiaoe Yang (117) Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Zijingang Campus, Hangzhou, China PREFACE Volume 117 contains six excellent reviews that focus on some of the most prominent global issues of our time- energy, environment, and food production Chapter is a timely and comprehensive review of the agronomic and ecological implications of biofuel production that includes impacts on land use, soil erosion and water quality, nutrient cycling, and biodiversity Chapter addresses food safety issues related to mineral and organic fertilizers with emphasis on the presence of trace metals Chapter reviews the mechanisms of nickel uptake and hyperaccumulation by plants, and impacts related to soil remediation Chapter deals with conservation agriculture in the semi-arid tropics, with respect to environmental, economic, and ecological opportunities and challenges Chapter is an overview of the use of green and brown manures in dryland wheat production systems in Mediterranean-type environments Chapter is focused on the benefits, disadvantages, and strategies for enhancing the productivity and sustainability of rice-wheat cropping systems in the IndoGangetic Plains region of the Indian subcontinent I am most grateful to the authors for their first-rate reviews DONALD L SPARKS Newark, Delaware, USA xi C H A P T E R O N E Agronomic and Ecological Implications of Biofuels Catherine Bonin and Rattan Lal Contents Introduction Ecosystem Functions and Services Land Use Change 3.1 Greenhouse gas emissions from land conversion 3.2 Using land enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program 3.3 Biofuels and restoration of degraded lands Soil Erosion and Water Quality 4.1 Use of agricultural residues Nitrogen Cycling 5.1 Nitrogen and litter/residue management 5.2 Nitrogen uptake and biomass removal 5.3 Gaseous emissions and volatilization Human Impacts on Biodiversity 6.1 Biodiversity in agroecosystems 6.2 Diverse perennial grasslands 6.3 Effects on wildlife 6.4 Diversity at the landscape level 6.5 Pests and biocontrol Biofuels and the Soil Carbon Budget 7.1 Land/soil preparation 7.2 Soil carbon budget Invasive Potential of Bioenergy Crop Species 8.1 Invasive species as feedstock Food versus Fuel 10 Conclusions 11 Future Challenges Acknowledgments References 10 12 13 16 17 19 20 21 22 22 23 24 25 26 28 28 29 30 32 32 34 36 37 37 The Ohio State University, School of Environment and Natural Resources, Carbon Management and Sequestration Center, Columbus, OH, USA Advances in Agronomy, Volume 117 ISSN 0065-2113, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-394278-4.00001-5 Ó 2012 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved Catherine Bonin and Rattan Lal Abstract Biofuels can be alternative energy sources which simultaneously reduce dependence on fossil fuels and mitigate climate change by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions In the US, over 50 billion liters of ethanol produced in 2010 is mandated to increase to 136 billion liters by 2022 Globally, approximately 33.3 million (Mha) of land under production of biofuels in 2008 may increase to as much as 82 Mha by 2020 Whereas data on the energy efficiency and GHG balances for biofuels are available, information on agronomic and ecological consequences of large-scale production of bioenergy crops is sparse Thus, this paper describes the potential effects that bioenergy production may have on ecosystems Conversion of land to biofuel crops may have significant impacts on ecosystem services such soil and water quality, GHG emissions, wildlife habitat, net primary productivity, and biological control, and plant diversity at both the landscape and the regional levels Production of exotic species for feedstock may increase the risk of escape from agriculture and invasion into natural ecosystems Several feedstocks, while suitable on the basis of energy and GHG assessments, may have negative ecosystem impacts (i.e., increased N export in the Gulf of Mexico) Bioenergy feedstock may compete with food crops for land, water, and nutrient resources, resulting in higher prices for food as well as potential increases in malnutrition and food insecurity Biofuels can be a sustainable and renewable source of energy, but assessments must include ecological impacts, economic costs, and energetic efficiencies Introduction Biofuels are widely considered as renewable and sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels They are touted as an energy production system that can have both a positive energy balance while offsetting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through carbon (C) sequestration The US set an auspicious goal of supplying the equivalent of 30% of the nation's petroleum use from biomass, requiring 900 M Mg (1 Mg ¼ 106 g ¼ metric ton) to billion Mg of feedstock, and predict that the generation of this extra biomass will be based on increases in crop yields and changes in land use (Perlack et al., 2005; Somerville, 2006) In terms of bioethanol production, corn (Zea mays L.) grain is presently the most common source in the US, with over 50 billion liters produced by 189 plants in 2010 (Fig 1; Renewable Fuels Association, 2011) However, corn grain will likely be only a temporary feedstock option due to land limitations: even if all corn produced in the US were used for ethanol production, it would only supply 12% of US gasoline needs (Hill et al., 2006) In addition, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA), which mandates that 136.3 billion liters of renewable fuels be produced annually by 2022, has capped contributions Agronomic and Ecological Implications of Biofuels 50000 200 Ethanol Produced Ethanol Plants 150 40000 30000 100 20000 Ethanol Plants Ethanol Produced (10 L) 60000 50 10000 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Year Figure United States ethanol production and ethanol plants Data modified from the Renewable Fuels Association (2011) from corn grain at 56.8 billion liters (Sissine, 2007) Therefore, a variety of other bioenergy feedstocks are also being promoted for the development of second generation biofuels such as perennial grasses, woody species, and agricultural residues (Table 1) In the decade ending in 2010, bioenergy feedstocks have undergone intense scrutiny and evaluation to determine the net energy yields and GHG balances through the use of life cycle assessment (LCA) Even though the primary goal of biofuels is to provide energy with a low C footprint, LCAs show that not all biofuels are created equally in terms of energy and GHG fluxes (Adler et al., 2007; Davis et al., 2009) These assessments suggest that the varying results in energy and GHG balances may be caused by differences in species attributes, crop production practices, land use changes, and conversion technologies (Fargione et al., 2008; Huang et al., 2009) Corn grain is a feedstock within the first generation of biofuels, which are fuels derived from plant sugars, starches and oils (Soetaert and Vandamme, 2009) Other first generation feedstocks include sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.), oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) Primary feedstock options vary by country: the US uses corn grain, Brazil relies on sugarcane, the European Union uses wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), while both China and Canada use wheat and corn grain (Balat and Balat, 2009) Examination of nine first generation feedstocks based on ecological, energy, and GHG emission parameters suggest that tropical species such as sugarcane and oil palm may be a better option than temperate species such as corn and wheat in terms Table Biofuel feedstock production and ecological summary a Stand persis- Fertilizer tence (years) need Stress tolerance Ecological concerns >20 low >20 invasive potential in western US low drought and flood drought >20? low 1e2 >10? medium drought and flood invasive 2e3 >10? medium saline soils invasive e high 3ỵ e >20 high low/ medium 1e2 high risk of soil erosion and N leaching 25 2e3 50 medium/ high medium plantations may cause deforestation plantations may cause deforestation may lower water quality flood drought may lower soil quality Oil palm yield in fresh fruit bunch weight (FFB); crude oil conversion ratio of 0.18 kg oil per kg FFB (Papong et al., 2010) Sources: Achten et al (2007); Achten et al (2008); Angelini et al (2009); Djomo et al (2011); Fillion et al, (2009); Hartemink (2008); Heaton et al (2008); Hoskinson et al (2007); Lewandowski et al (2003); Linderson et al (2007); Openshaw (2000); Papong et al (2010); Parrish and Fike (2005); Tilman et al (2006); USDA-NASS (2011); Whan et al (1976) Catherine Bonin and Rattan Lal Switchgrass 15 (Panicum virgatum) Native grass mix 3.6 (degraded) 6.0 (fertile) 29.6 Miscanthus (Miscanthus  giganteus) Reed canarygrass 9.0 (Phalaris arundinacea) Giant reed 37.7 (Arundo donax) Corn (grain) 9.3 (Zea mays) Corn (stover) 5.1 11.7 Woody species (Salix and Populus spp.) 82 Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) Oil palm (Elaeis 18.7a guineensis) Jatropha ( Jatropha 5.0 curcas) Time to establish (years) Bioenergy species Yield (Mg haL1) Rice-Wheat Sustainability in Indian Subcontinent 361 Hobbs, P R., and Morris, M (1996) Meeting South Asia’s Food Requirements from Rice-Wheat Cropping Systems: Priority Issues Facing Researchers in the Post-Green Revolution Era Natural Resource Group Paper 96e01 Mexico, D.F: CIMMYT Hobbs, P R., Sayre, K., and Gupta, R (2008) The role of conservation agriculture in sustainable agriculture Phil Trans Roy Soc B 363, 543e555 Humphreys, E., Kukal, S S., Christen, E W., Hira, G S., Singh, B., Yadav, S., and Sharma, R K (2010) Halting the groundwater decline in north-west India e Which crop technologies will be winners? 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Weed Sci 50, 700e712 Turner, F T., and Jund, M F (1991) Chlorophyll meter to predict nitrogen top dress requirement for semidwarf rice Agron J 83, 926e928 Vig, A C., and Singh, N T (1983) Yield and P uptake by wheat as affected by P fertilization and soil moisture regime Fert News 4, 21e29 Walia, U S., and Brar, L S (2007) Current status of Phalaris minor resistance against isoproturon and alternate herbicides in the rice-wheat cropping systems in Punjab Proceedings of the National Symposium on Herbicide Resistance in the Rice-Wheat Cropping Systems Hisar, India: CCS Haryana Agricultural University Walia, U S., and Kuar, A (2004) Competitive ability of wheat with Phalaris minor Retz and broad leaf weeds in relation to method and rate of N application J Res (Punjab Agricultural University) 41, 196e201 Wassmann, R., Buendia, L V., Lantin, R S., Bueno, C S., Lubigan, L A., Umali, A., Nocon, N N., Javellana, A M., and Neue, H U (2000) Mechanisms of crop management impact on methane emissions from rice fields in Los Baños, Philippines Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 58, 107e119 Wassmann, R., Jagadish, S V K., Sumfleth, K., Pathak, H., Howell, G., Ismael, A., Serraj, R., Redona, E., Singh, R K., and Heuer, S (2009) Regional vulnerability of climate change impact on Asian rice production and scope for adaptation Adv Agron 102, 91e133 Witt, C., Dobermann, A., Abdulrachman, S., Gines, H C., Wang, G H., Nagarajan, R., Satawathananont, S., Son, T T., Tan, P S., Tiem, L V., Simbahan, G C., and Olk, D C (1999) Internal nutrient efficiencies of irrigated lowland rice in tropical and subtropical Asia Field Crop Res 63, 113e138 Yadvinder-Singh, Bijay-Singh, Gupta, R K., Ladha, J K., Bains, J S., and Singh, J (2008a) Evaluation of press mud cake as a source of nitrogen and phosphorus for rice-wheat cropping system in the Indo-Gangetic Plains of India Biol Fertil Soils 45, 289e296 Yadvinder-Singh, Bijay-Singh, Ladha, J K., Khind, C S., Khera, T S., and Bueno, S S (2004) Effect of residue decomposition on productivity and soil fertility in rice-wheat rotation Soil Sci Soc Am J 68, 854e864 Yadvinder-Singh, Bijay-Singh, and Timsina, J (2005) Crop residue management for nutrient cycling and improving soil productivity in rice-based cropping systems in the tropics Adv Agron 85, 269e407 Yadvinder-Singh, Brar, N K., Humphreys, E., Bijay-Singh, and Timsina, J (2008b) Yield and N use efficiency of permanent bed rice-wheat systems in north-western India: Effect of N fertilisation, mulching and crop establishment method In E Humphreys, and C H Roth (Eds.), Permanent Beds and Rice-residue Management for Rice-wheat Systems in Indo-Gangetic Plains Ludhiana, India: PAU, ACIAR Proceedings No 127 Yadvinder-Singh, Gupta, R K., Thind, H S., Bijay-Singh, Varinderpal-Singh, GurpreetSingh, Jagmohan-Singh, and Ladha, J K (2009a) Poultry litter as nitrogen and phosphorus source for the rice-wheat cropping system Biol Fertil Soils 45, 701e710 Yadvinder-Singh, Humphreys, E., Kukal, S S., Singh, B., Amanpreet-Kaur, Thaman, S., Prashar, A., Yadav, S., Timsina, J., Dhillon, S S., Kaur, N., Smith, D J., and Gajri, P R (2009b) Crop performance in permanent raised bed rice-wheat cropping system in Punjab, India Field Crop Res 110, 1e20 Yadvinder-Singh, Khind, C S., and Bijay-Singh (1991) Efficient management of leguminous green manures in wetland rice Adv Agron 45, 135e189 Index Note: Page numbers followed by “f ” indicate figures, and “t” indicate tables A African Conservation Tillage Network, 248e249 Agricultural residues, use of, 16e17 Agroecosystems, biodiversity in, 22e23 Allelopathy, 244e245, 286e287, 289e290 Alternate wetting and drying (AWD), 344e345 1-Amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, 130e134 Amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase (AcdS), 134 APSIM, 251 Arsenic adverse effects on human health, 94e97 concentration, in organic fertilizers, 54t B Biocontrol, biodiversity effects on, 26e27 Biodiversity in agroecosystems, 22e23 conservation agriculture and, 231e233 in diverse perennial grasslands, 23e24 effects on pests, 26e27 effects on wildlife, 24e25 human impacts on, 22e27 impact on biocontrol, 26e27 at landscape level, 25e26 Bioenergy crop species, invasive potential of, 30e32 Biofuel cropping systems, nitrogen losses in, 20t Biofuel demand, ecological impacts of, 35f Biofuel feedstock production, 2e6, 4t Biofuels, agronomic and ecological implications of, 1e50 biodiversity in agroecosystems, 22e23 in diverse perennial grasslands, 23e24 effects on pests, 26e27 effects on wildlife, 24e25 human impacts on, 22e27 impact on biocontrol, 26e27 at landscape level, 25e26 bioenergy crop species, invasive potential of, 30e32 ecosystem functions and services, 6e8 food versus fuel, 32e34 future challenges to, 36e37 invasive species, as feedstock, 32 land/soil preparation, 28e29 land use change, 8e13 Conservation Reserve Program, land enrolled in, 10e11 degraded lands, restoration of, 12e13 greenhouse gas emissions, from land conversion, 9e10 nitrogen cycling, 17e22, 19f gaseous emissions, 21e22 litter decomposition, 19e20 nitrogen uptake and biomass removal, 20e21, 20t residue management, 19e20 soil carbon budget, 29e30 soil erosion, water quality effects on, 13e17 agricultural residues, use of, 16e17 volatilization, 21e22 Bio-fumigation, 289 Break crop, benefits of, 296e297 Brown manure, in Mediterranean-type cropping system See also Manure advantage, 279, 282t, 283e296 crop disease, 287e289 disadvantage, 279, 282t, 283e296 economics of, 301e304, 302t, 303t erosion control, 295e296 grain yield and quality, 283e284, 285f, 290 integration within farming system, 296e301 break crop versus manure crop, benefits of, 296e297 green versus brown manuring, comparisons of, 297e298 371 372 Index Brown manure, in Mediterranean-type cropping system (Cont.) manure crop versus break crop, benefits of, 296e297 other systems issues, 299e301 timing of manuring operation, 298e299 nutrition, 289e292 soil biology and function, 294e295 soil quality, 293e294 soil water content, 292e293 species option, 279e283, 282t survey of farmers, 278e279, 280t, 281t weed control, 284e287 C Cadmium accumulation by crops chloride effect on, 76e77 factors affecting, 66e69 long-term, 79e80 in by-product Zn fertilizers, 71e72 concentration in organic fertilizers, 54t in cropland, geogenic enrichment of, 80e81 from feedstuffs in livestock tissues, retention of, 77e79 fertilizer product, contamination of, 81e83 in phosphate fertilizers, 69e71 composition and limits for, 55te56t sheep kidney and liver, 79 in phosphate products, limits on, 72e75 phytotoxicity and foodechain risks associated with, 62e84 Carbon sequestration, 2, 23, 28e30, 34e35 conservation agriculture and, 209e214 See also Sequestration Cation exchange capacity (CEC), of soil, 153e154, 207e208 Cell engineering technology, 161 CENTURY model, 212 Cereal Systems Initiative for South Asia (CSISA) project, 340 Chelators exogenous, 155e158 role in nickel hyperaccumulation, 144e147 Chloride effect, on cadmium accumulation in crops, 76e77 Climate change conservation agriculture and, 227e231, 228f adaptation, 229e231 mitigation, 227e229 and rice-wheat sustainability opportunities and strategies, 352e354 problems associated with, 328e330 Cobalt, phytotoxicity and foodechain risks associated with, 61e62 Compartmentation, 134e135 Composts, 159, 352 Conservation agriculture (CA), 202f, 330e338, 332t defined, 195e196 challenges to, 200e201 opportunities of, 200e201 as part of solution, 194 perspectives of, 200e201 principles of, 195 in semi-arid tropics, 191e273 and biodiversity, 231e233 and carbon sequestration, 209e214 and climate change, 227e231, 228f and crop productivity, 214e217 crop residues, competitive uses of, 236e237 and farm profitability, 234e235 and inset-pests, 223e227, 243 lower crop yields, 239e240 new implements and required operating skills, 240e241 nutrient immobilization, 241e242 and nutrient use efficiency, 217e218 and off-site environmental benefits, 233e234 and rain water use efficiency, 218e222 SAT farmers, low investment capacity of, 244 and soil conservation, 202e205 and soil quality, 205e209 sufficient research, lack of, 244e245 up scaling, 245e251 weed preponderance, 237e239 worldwide adoption of, 196e200 Conservation Agriculture in Africa Case Study Project, 248 Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), 21 land enrolled in, 9e11 Conservation tillage, 195, 222e223 See also Tillage Crop disease, 287e289 bio-fumigation, 289 biologically based disease suppression, 288e289 non-host species, 287e288 373 Index Crop diversification, 341e342 Crop productivity, conservation agriculture and, 214e217 Crop residues competitive uses of, 236e237 disposal of, 324e326 management of, 338e340 trans-1, 2-Cyclohexanediaminetetraacetic acid (CDTA), 155e156 D Degraded lands, restoration of, 12e13 Detoxification, of Ni-hyperaccumulator plants, 141e149 Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), 155e158 Direct-seeded rice (DSR), 335e338, 337f Disc tillage equipment, 208 Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), 154 Dissolved organic matter (DOM), 129, 154 Diverse perennial grasslands, biodiversity in, 23e24 Double knockdown technique, 286 DSSAT, 200e201, 251e252 CERES-Wheat model, 345 E Ecosystem, functions and services of, 6e8, 7t Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA), 2e3 Erosion control, 233e245, 295e296 Ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS), 155, 157e158 Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), 155e158 European Conservation Agriculture Federation (ECAF), 196e200 Exogenous chelates, in soil, 155e158 F Farm profitability, conservation agriculture and, 234e235 Fertilizers, 152e153 by-product Zn fertilizers, cadmium in, 71e72 organic risk assessment pathways for, 57 trace elements concentration in, 53e57, 54t phosphate, cadmium in, 69e71 composition and limits for, 55te56t sheep kidney and liver, 79 radionuclides in, adverse effects of, 92e93 Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 31e32 Fluoride, phytotoxicity and foodechain risks associated with, 89e92 Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008, 11 Food versus fuel, 32e34 Furrow-irrigated raised-bed system (FIRBS), 334e335 G Gaseous emissions, during nitrogen cycling, 21e22 Grain yield benefit, 283e284, 285f, 290 Green manures, in Mediterranean-type cropping system, 276e278 See also Manure advantage, 279, 282t, 283e296 crop disease, 287e289 disadvantage, 279, 282t, 283e296 economics of, 301e304, 302t, 303t erosion control, 295e296 grain yield and quality, 283e284, 285f, 290 integration within farming system, 296e301 break crop versus manure crop, benefits of, 296e297 green versus brown manuring, comparisons of, 297e298 manure crop versus break crop, benefits of, 296e297 other systems issues, 299e301 timing of manuring operation, 298e299 nutrition, 289e292 soil biology and function, 294e295 soil quality, 293e294 soil water content, 292e293 species option, 279e283, 282t survey of farmers, 278e279, 280t, 281t weed control, 284e287 Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, from land conversion, 9e10 Green Revolution technology, 318 Groundwater pollution, 321e322 Gypsum, phytotoxicity and foodechain risks associated with, 86e87 H Herbicides, 223 resistance, 326e328 Human impacts, on biodiversity, 22e27 N-(2-Hydroxyethy1)-thylenediaminetetraacetic acid (HEDTA), 155e156 374 Index Hyperaccumulation of nickel, 126e149, 128f See also Nickel detoxification, 141e149 root uptake, 129e135 bioactivation in rhizosphere, 130e134 compartmentation, 134e135 root absorption, 134e135 root-to-shoot transport, 135e138 organic acids, role of, 136e137 proteins, role of, 137e138 sequestration, 141e149 spatial distribution, 138e141 Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), 200 Inset-pests, conservation agriculture and, 223e227 Integrated weed management (IWM), 284e287 Invasive species, as feedstock, 32 L Land leveling, 340e341 laser, 341, 345 precision, 340e341 Landscape level, biodiversity at, 25e26 Land/soil preparation, 28e29 Land use change (LUC), 8e13 Conservation Reserve Program, land enrolled in, 9e11 degraded lands, restoration of, 12e13 greenhouse gas emissions, from land conversion, 9e10 Laser land leveling, 341, 345 See also Land leveling Lead, phytotoxicity and foodechain risks associated with, 83e84 Lead arsenate pesticide, 83e84 Life cycle assessment (LCA), Limestone, phytotoxicity and foodechain risks associated with, 85e86 Litter decomposition, 19e20 M Manure benefits of, 296e297 Brown See Brown manure, in Mediterranean-type cropping system Green See Green manures, in Mediterraneantype cropping system phytotoxicity and foodechain risks associated with, 84e85 Microbe enhancement, 159e161 MIDAS (Model of an Integrated Dryland Agricultural System) bioeconomic model, 299e300 Molybdenum, phytotoxicity and foodechain risks associated with, 60e61 N National agricultural research and extension systems (NARES), 247 Nickel, 117e189 bioactivation in rhizosphere, 130e134 effects on plants, 121e126 essentiality, 121e123 toxicity, 123e126 hyperaccumulation See Hyperaccumulation hyperaccumulator plants, 126e128 phytoremediation, 149e164 biological factors, 159e164 phytoextraction, 149e150 phytomining, 149e150 soil management practices, optimizing, 150e159 in soils, status of, 120e121 Nitrogen, 289e291, 290f cycling, 17e22, 19f gaseous emissions, 21e22 litter decomposition, 19e20 nitrogen uptake and biomass removal, 20e21, 20t residue management, 19e20 volatilization, 21e22 uptake and biomass removal, 20e21, 20t Nitrolenetriacetic acid (NTA), 155e157 Non-host species, 287e288 No-till system, 331e334 Nutrient immobilization, 241e242 Nutrient use efficiency, conservation agriculture and, 217e218 Nutrition, 289e292 nitrogen, 289e291, 290f other nutrients, 291e292 soil nutrient management, 343e344 O Off-site environmental benefits, conservation agriculture and, 233e234 Organic acids, role in root-to-shoot transport, 136e137 Organic fertilizers See also Fertilizers risk assessment pathways for, 57 trace elements concentration in, 53e57, 54t 375 Index P Pests, biodiversity effects on, 26e27 See also Inset-pests, conservation agriculture and pH, 151e152 Phosphate fertilizers, cadmium in, 69e71 See also Fertilizers composition and limits for, 55te56t sheep kidney and liver, 79 Phytoextraction, 68e69, 119e120, 130, 149e153, 155, 157e162 Phytomining, 119, 149e150 Phytoremediation, 118e119 biological factors, 159e164 of nickel, 131te133t phytoextraction, 149e150 phytomining, 149e150 soil management practices, optimizing, 150e159 Phytostabilization, 119 Phytovolatilization, 119 Precision land leveling, 340e341 See also Land leveling Proteins overexpression and nickel detoxification, 147e149 role in root-to-shoot transport, 137e138 Puddling process, 335e336 furrow-irrigated raised-bed system, 334e335 no-till system, 331e334 precision land leveling, 340e341 soil nutrient management, 343e344 water requirements, reduction of, 344e346 weed management, 346e352, 348f, 348t, 349t, 350f problems associated with, 319e330 climate change, 328e330 crop residues, disposal of, 324e326 diverse agronomy, 320e321 groundwater pollution, 321e322 herbicide resistance, 326e328 soil health, deterioration of, 322e324 water availability, declination of, 321e322 weed flora shifts, 326e328 Root absorption, 134e135 Root-to-shoot transport, 135e138 organic acids, role of, 136e137 proteins, role of, 137e138 Root uptake, 129e135 bioactivation in rhizosphere, 130e134 root absorption, 134e135 compartmentation, 134e135 RothC model, 212 R S Radionuclides in fertilizers, adverse effects of, 92e93 Rain water use efficiency, conservation agriculture and, 218e222 Reactive oxygen species (ROS), 125e126, 145e146 Residue management, during nitrogen cycling, 19e20 Rhizofiltration, 119 Rhizosphere, nickel bioactivation in, 130e134 Rice-Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic Plains, 200 Riceewheat (RW) cropping system, in Indo-Gangetic Plains, 316e319 area under, 317t climate change, 352e354 Green Revolution technology, 318 opportunities and strategies, 330e354 conservation agriculture, 330e338, 332t crop diversification, 341e342 crop residue management, 338e340 direct-seeded rice, 335e338, 337f SAT farmers, low investment capacity of, 244 Selenium, phytotoxicity and foodechain risks associated with, 59e60 Selian Agricultural Research Institute, 236e237 Semi-arid tropics (SAT), conservation agriculture in, 191e273 challenges to, 200e201 defined, 195e196 opportunities of, 200e201 as part of solution, 194 perspectives of, 200e201 principles of, 195 in semi-arid tropics, 191e273 and biodiversity, 231e233 and carbon sequestration, 209e214 and climate change, 227e231, 228f and crop productivity, 214e217 crop residues, competitive uses of, 236e237 and farm profitability, 234e235 and inset-pests, 223e227, 243 376 Semi-arid tropics (SAT), conservation agriculture in (Cont.) lower crop yields, 239e240 new implements and required operating skills, 240e241 nutrient immobilization, 241e242 and nutrient use efficiency, 217e218 and off-site environmental benefits, 233e234 and rain water use efficiency, 218e222 SAT farmers, low investment capacity of, 244 and soil conservation, 202e205 and soil quality, 205e209 sufficient research, lack of, 244e245 up scaling, 245e251 weed preponderance, 237e239 worldwide adoption of, 196e200 Sequestration, 141e149 carbon, 209e214 vacuolar, 142e144 Short-rotation woody crops (SRWC), 12, 15e16, 24 Soil amendments composition, regulatory enforcement need for, 98e99 biology and function, 294e295 carbon budget, 29e30 cation exchange capacity of, 153e154, 207e208 conservation, conservation agriculture and, 202e205 cover, 195, 200e201, 204e205, 217e224, 231, 234, 330e331 erosion, water quality effects on, 13e17 agricultural residues, use of, 16e17 health, deterioration of, 322e324 management practices, optimizing, 150e159 moisture, 154e155 nutrient management, 343e344 quality, 293e294 conservation agriculture and, 205e209 redox, 68e69 water content, 292e293 Soil microbial biomass (SMB), 231e232 Soil organic carbon (SOC), 12, 16e17, 21, 28e30, 205, 209e214, 227, 241e242, 323e324, 338 decline in, 202e203 soil management system, effect of, 212 Index Soil organic matter (SOM), 154, 202e207, 209e210, 212e213, 216e221, 227e229 Spatial distribution and nickel localization, 138e141 Steel production fume waste, phytotoxicity and foodechain risks associated with, 86 Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) of 1977, 12e13 T Tillage conservation, 195, 222e223 disc, 208 zero/minimum, 195e199, 202e203, 205e210, 218e222, 224e234, 238, 240, 250e251 Trace elements concentration in organic fertilizers, 53e57 in mineral fertilizers, monitoring and control of, 97e98 in soil amendments, 84e87 in soils, long-term reactions of, 87e88 transfer from soil to plants, natural controls on, 58e59 V Vacuolar sequestration, 142e144 See also Sequestration Vegetation, 155 Volatilization, 21e22 W Water availability, declination of, 321e322 Water requirements, reduction of, 344e346 Weed control, 223e227, 284e287 flora shifts, 326e328 management, 346e352, 348f, 348t, 349t, 350f Weed Risk Assessment (WRA), 31e32 Wildlife, biodiversity effects on, 24e25 Z Zero/minimum tillage (ZT) technique, 195e199, 202e203, 205e210, 218e222, 224e234, 238, 240, 250e251 See also Tillage Zn fertilizers, by-product, cadmium in, 71e72 See also Fertilizers ... (200 6); Lemus et al (200 8); Maskina et al (199 3); McIsaac et al (201 0); McLaughlin et al (200 2); Mortensen et al (199 8); Partala et al (200 1); Randall et al (199 7); Thornton et al (199 8); Tom... from multiple sources, uncertainty in calculations, and uncalculated N translocation and storage in roots Data from Adler et al (200 7); Bransby et al (199 8); Liebig et al (200 6); Marshall et al (199 9); ... quality, as well as litter N and lignin concentrations (Fog, 1988; Melillo et al., 198 2) Litter rich in N and low in lignin content tend to decompose more quickly and may make N available for plant
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