(Advances in agronomy 77) donald l sparks (eds ) advances in agronomy elsevier, academic press (2002)

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Agronomy D V A N C E S I N VOLUME 77 Advisory Board Martin Alexander Ronald Phillips Cornell University University of Minnesota Kenneth J Frey Kate M Scow Iowa State University University of California, Davis Larry P Wilding Texas A&M University Prepared in cooperation with the American Society of Agronomy Monographs Committee Lisa K Al-Almoodi David D Baltensperger Warren A Dick Jerry L Hatfield John L Kovar Diane E Stott, Chairman David M Kral Jennifer W MacAdam Matthew J Morra Gary A Pederson John E Rechcigl Diane H Rickerl Wayne F Robarge Richard Shibles Jeffrey Volenec Richard E Zartman Agronomy DVANCES IN VOLUME 77 Edited by Donald L Sparks Department of Plant and Soil Sciences University of Delaware Newark, Delaware Amsterdam Boston London New York Oxford Paris San Diego San Francisco Singapore Sydney Tokyo This book is printed on acid-free paper Copyright C ∞ 2002, Elsevier Science (USA) All Rights Reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the Publisher The appearance of the code at the bottom of the first page of a chapter in this book indicates the Publisher’s consent that copies of the chapter may be made for personal or internal use of specific clients This consent is given on the condition, however, that the copier pay the stated per copy fee through the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc (222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, Massachusetts 01923), for copying beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the U.S Copyright Law This consent does not extend to other kinds of copying, such as copying for general distribution, for advertising or promotional purposes, for creating new collective works, or for resale Copy fees for pre-2002 chapters are as shown on the title pages If no fee code appears on the title page, the copy fee is the same as for current chapters 0065-2113/2002 $35.00 Explicit permission from Academic Press is not required to reproduce a maximum of two figures or tables from an Academic Press chapter in another scientific or research publication provided that the material has not been credited to another source and that full credit to the Academic Press chapter is given Academic Press An Elsevier Science Imprint 525 B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego, California 92101-4495, USA http://www.academicpress.com Academic Press 32 Jamestown Road, London NW1 7BY, UK http://www.academicpress.com International Standard Book Number: 0-12-000795-9 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 02 03 04 05 06 07 SB Contents CONTRIBUTORS PREFACE ix xi DESERTIFICATION AND ITS RELATION TO CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CHANGE Daniel Hillel and Cynthia Rosenzweig I II III IV V VI VII Introduction Concepts and Definitions Processes Case Study: The Sahel Monitoring Desertification Future Climatic Variability and Change Prospects References 16 20 21 31 35 FATE AND TRANSPORT OF VIRUSES IN POROUS MEDIA Yan Jin and Markus Flury I Introduction II Characteristics of Viruses Relevant for Subsurface Fate and Transport III Virus Sorption IV Protein Sorption and Denaturation V Virus Survival VI The Role of the Gas–Liquid Interface in Protein/ Virus Inactivation VII Transport of Viruses in Porous Media VIII Indicators for Human Enteroviruses IX Concluding Remarks References v 40 43 45 57 64 67 70 86 88 91 vi CONTENTS CURRENT CAPABILITIES AND FUTURE NEEDS OF ROOT WATER AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE MODELING Jan W Hopmans and Keith L Bristow I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI Introduction Water Transport in Plants Linking Plant Transpiration with Assimilation Transport of Water and Nutrients in the Plant Root Nutrient Uptake Mechanisms Flow and Transport Modeling in Soils Root Water Uptake Nutrient Uptake Coupled Root Water and Nutrient Uptake Comprehensive Example Prognosis References 104 109 115 120 126 132 135 145 152 162 169 175 MICRONUTRIENTS IN CROP PRODUCTION N K Fageria, V C Baligar, and R B Clark I II III IV V VI Introduction Status in World Soils Soil Factors Affecting Availability Factors Associated with Supply and Acquisition Improving Supply and Acquisition Conclusion References 186 188 195 206 227 246 247 SOIL SCIENCE IN TROPICAL AND TEMPERATE REGIONS—SOME DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES Alfred E Hartemink I II III IV V VI Introduction Soil Science in Temperate Regions Soil Science in Tropical Regions Diametrically Opposite Interests Impact of Soil Science Concluding Remarks References 270 271 274 282 285 286 287 CONTENTS vii RESPONSES OF AGRICULTURAL CROPS TO FREE-AIR CO2 ENRICHMENT B A Kimball, K Kobayashi, and M Bindi I II III IV V Introduction Methodology Results and Discussion of Crop Responses to Elevated CO2 Compendium and Conclusions Summary References 294 295 326 350 359 360 THE AGRONOMIC AND ECONOMIC POTENTIAL OF BREAK CROPS FOR LEY/ARABLE ROTATIONS IN TEMPERATE ORGANIC AGRICULTURE M C Robson, S M Fowler, N H Lampkin, C Leifert, M Leitch, D Robinson, C A Watson, and A M Litterick I Introduction II Crop Rotations as the Central Management Tool in Organic Farming III Break Crops for Nutrient Management IV Break Crops for Improving Soil Structure V Break Crops for Weed Management VI Break Crops for Pest and Disease Management VII Conclusions References 370 371 391 403 409 411 416 417 INDEX 429 This Page Intentionally Left Blank Contributors Numbers in parentheses indicate the pages on which the authors’ contributions begin V C BALIGAR (185), Alternate Crops and Systems Research Laboratory, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, USDA-ARS, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 M BINDI (293), Department of Agronomy and Land Management, University of Florence, 50144 Florence, Italy K L BRISTOW (103), CSIRO Land and Water/CRC Sugar, Townsville Qld 4814, Australia R B CLARK (185), Appalachian Farming Systems Research Center, USDA-ARS, Beaver, West Virginia 25813 N K FAGERIA (185), National Rice and Bean Research Center of EMBRAPA, Santo Antˆonio de Goi´as-GO, 75375-000, Brazil M FLURY (39), Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 S M FOWLER (369), Welsh Institute of Rural Studies, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, SY23 3AL, United Kingdom A E HARTEMINK (269), International Soil Reference and Information Center (ISRIC), 6700 AJ Wageningen, The Netherlands D HILLEL (1), Columbia University Center for Climate Systems Research and NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, New York 10025 J W HOPMANS (103), Hydrology Program, Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, California 95616 Y JIN (39), Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19717 B A KIMBALL (293), U.S Water Conservation Laboratory, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Phoenix, Arizona 85040 K KOBAYASHI (293), National Institute of Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604, Japan N H LAMPKIN (369), Welsh Institute of Rural Studies, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, SY23 3AL, United Kingdom C LEIFERT (369), Tesco Centre for Organic Agriculture, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, United Kingdom M LEITCH (369), Welsh Institute of Rural Studies, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, SY23 3AL, United Kingdom A M LITTERICK (369), Land Management Department, SAC, Craibstone Estate, Bucksburn, Aberdeen AB21 9YA United Kingdom ix 424 ROBSON et al Powlson, D S (2000) Tackling nitrate from agriculture Soil Use Manag 16, 141 Prew, R D., and Dyke, G V (1979) Experiments comparing ‘break crops’ as a preparation for winter wheat followed by spring barley J Agric Sci Cambs 92, 189–201 Purvis, C E (1990) Differential response of wheat to retained crop stubbles I Effect of stubble type and degree of decomposition Aust J Agric Res 41, 225–242 Putnam, A R., DeFrank, J., and Barnes, J P (1983) Exploitation of allelopathy for weed control in annual and perennial cropping systems J Chem 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Potato Crop A Scientific Basis For Improvement.” (P M harris, Ed.), 2nd edition, pp 570–607 Chapman and Hall, London Wibberley, E J (1989) “Cereal Husbandry.” Farming Press Books, Ipswich Wijnands, F G (1999) Crop rotation in organic farming: theory and practice In “Designing and Testing Crop Rotations for Organic Farming.” Proceedings from an international workshop (J E Olesen, R Eltun, M J Gooding, E S Jensen, and U Kăopke, Eds.), pp 2135 Danish Research Centre for Organic Farming, Foulum, Denmark Wilson, D (1997) Spring Beans New Farmer Grower AGRONOMIC AND ECONOMICAL POTENTIAL 427 Winner, C (1993) History of the crop In “The Sugar Beet Crop.” (D A Cooke and R K Scott, Eds.), pp 1–36 Chapman and Hall, London Wiseman, A J L., Finch, H J S., and Samuel, A M (1993) “Lockhart and Wiseman’s Crop Husbandry including Grassland,” 7th edition Pergamon Press, Oxford Wolfe, M S (1985) The current status and prospects of multiline and variety mixtures for disease resistance Annu Rev Phytopathol 23, 251–273 Workneh, F., and van Bruggen, A H C (1994) Suppression of corky root of tomatoes in soils from organic farms, associated with soil microbial activity and nitrogen status of soil and tomato tissue Phytopathology 84, 688–694 Wynen, E., and Fritz, S (1987) Sustainable agriculture: A viable alternative National Association for Sustainable Agriculture, Australia (Ltd) Discussion Paper No 1, Sydney Zettel, E (1995) “Thoughts on Crops.” Ecological Farmers Association of Ontario, Canada http://eap.mcgill.ca/magrack/efa/ef%5F95%5Fe%5F6.htm This Page Intentionally Left Blank Index A Active transport passive nutrient uptake comparison, 126–130 passive transport partitioning, 166–167 Aggregation, virus sorption modeling, 53–57 Agricultural yield, crop response to CO2, FACE, 337–339 Agroecosystem, definition, Air–water interface protein/virus inactivation, 67–70 virus transport modeling, 84–86 AMF, see Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Anions, virus transport in porous media, 76 Apoplastic pathways symplastic pathway comparison, 122–125 water and nutrients in roots, 121–122 Aquifer systems, virus removal, 40–42 Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, crop plants, 218–219 Arid regions, see Desertification Atmospheric dust desertification process, effect on radiation balance, 10 AWI, see Air–water interface soil and foliar fertilization, 230–231 supply and uptake, 214 pH effect, 196–197 soil concentrations, 190–192 soil organic matter, 200 temperature and moisture, 203 Brassica napus subsp oleifera, soil structure enhancement, 406–408 Brassica napus var napobrassica, pest and disease management, 412–413 Break crops crop rotations in organic farming, 386–391 nutrient management beans, 391–398 lupins, 398–401 soybean, 401–403 pest and disease management carrot, 411–412 linola, 415–416 sugar beet, 413–415 swede, 412–413 soil structure hemp, 403–406 oilseed rape, 406–408 weed management, potatoes, 409–411 Brownian motion, virus sorption modeling, 54 B C Beans, nutrient management, 391–398 Beta vulgaris, pest and disease management, 413–415 Biomass accumulation, crop response to CO2, FACE agricultural yield, 337–339 roots, 335–337 shoots, 332–335 Boron, crop plants growth, 187 micronutrient supply and acquisition deficiency and toxicity, 207 disease and insect resistance, 245 element interactions, 221–222 plant improvement, 236–237 Cannabis sativa, soil structure enhancement, 403–406 Canopy, temperature, crop response to CO2, FACE, 328–329 Capillary forces, water potential, 112–113 Carbohydrates, crop response to CO2, FACE, 343–344 Carbon, crop plant micronutrients, 220 Carbon dioxide crop response, see Crop response, CO2, FACE transpiration coefficient, 118–119 Carbon sequestration, soil, crop response to CO2, FACE, 349–350 Carrot, pest and disease management, 411–412 429 430 INDEX Carrying capacity, desertification, 10–12 Casparian band, apoplastic vs symplastic pathway, 124 Cations virus sorption, 45, 50 virus transport in porous media, 76 Cavitation, water transport in plants, 114–115 CDE, see Convection–dispersion equation Cell walls, water and nutrients in roots, 122 Cereal bean crop effect, 397–398 potato crop effects, 410 Chlorine, crop plants availability factors soil organic matter, 200 temperature and moisture, 203 micronutrient supply and acquisition deficiency and toxicity, 207–208 disease and insect resistance, 245 element interactions, 222 plant improvement, 237–238 pH effect, 197 plant growth, 186–187 soil concentrations, 192 soil and foliar fertilization, 231–233 Climate change, semiarid ecosystems, 29–35 Cobalt, crop plants micronutrient supply and acquisition, element interactions, 227 plant growth, 186 Cohesion theory, water transport in plants, 110 Collision efficiency, virus sorption modeling, 56–57 Colloids, virus transport in porous media, 81–82 Composite root conductance, root water uptake, 142 Computer models, root water and nutrient uptake, 107–108 Conductance, stomatal, crop response to CO2, FACE, 327–328 Convection–dispersion equation nutrient transport, 163–164 plant root–soil interfaces, 134 Copper, crop plants availability factors soil organic matter, 200–201 temperature, 203 micronutrient supply and acquisition deficiency and toxicity, 208 disease and insect resistance, 245 element interactions, 222–223 plant improvement, 238–239 rhizosphere, 220 supply and uptake, 214 pH effect, 197 soil concentrations, 192 supply and acquisition, soil and foliar fertilization, 233 Crop plants, micronutrients availability organic matter, 200–202 pH, 195–199 temperature, moisture, and light, 202–206 deficiency, 187 supply and acquisition boron, 221–222 chlorine, 222 cobalt, 227 copper, 222–223 deficiencies and toxicities, 206–211 disease and insect resistance, 244–246 iron, 223–224 manganese, 224–225 microbial associations, 243–244 molybdenum, 225 nickel, 227 oxidation–reduction reactions, 216–218 plant improvement, 236–243 rhizosphere, 218–220 soil improvement, 227–229 supply and uptake, 211–216 zinc, 225–227 supply and acquisition, soil and foliar fertilization deficiency correction, 230–235 overview, 229–230 residual effects, 235–236 Crop response, CO2, FACE biomass accumulation agricultural yield, 337–339 roots, 335–337 shoots, 332–335 canopy temperature, 328–329 carbohydrates, 343–344 compendium of relative changes, 350–358 evapotranspiration, 329–330 nitrogen concentration, 340–342 nitrogen yield, 342–343 431 INDEX peak leaf area index, 331 phenology, 344 photosynthesis, 326–327 radiation-use efficiency, 339 soil changes microbiology, 345–347 soil carbon sequestration, 349–350 soil respiration, 347–348 trace gas emission/consumption, 348 specific leaf area, 339–340 stomatal conductance, 327–328 water potential, 330–331 Crop rotations, organic farming break crop functions, 386–391 disease management, 385–386 organic arable rotations overview, 372–374 stocked rotations, 374–375 stockless rotations, 375–377 overview, 371–372 pest management, 383–385 soil fertility N fixation, 378 nutrient cycling and SOM effects, 378–379 nutrient loss reduction, 379 overview, 377–378 soil physical characteristics, 379–381 weed management, 381–383 CT, see Cohesion theory water resources, 13–16 Diffusion, crop plant micronutrients, 212 Disease, crop plant micronutrients, 244–246 Disease management carrot, 411–412 crop rotations in organic farming, 385–386 linola, 415–416 sugar beet, 413–415 swede, 412–413 Disjoining pressure, water potential, 113–114 Drinking-water resources, protection, 42 Drought desertification process, 6–7 Sahel region, 18, 25 Dryness, virus inactivation, 64 E Electrochemical gradients, active vs passive nutrient uptake, 130 El Ni˜no/Southern Oscillation, desertification process, ENSO, see El Ni˜no/Southern Oscillation Equilibrium protein sorption modeling, 60 virus sorption modeling, 50–52 Essential nutrients, definition, 186 Evapotranspiration crop response to CO2, FACE, 329–330 soil water flow models, 117–118 D F Daucus carota, pest and disease management, 411–412 Denudation, land–surface changes, Desertification arid ecosystems overview, basic definition, 3–4 carrying capacity, 10–12 climate change prospects, 29–35 drought atmospheric dust, land–surface changes, 8–10 ocean–atmosphere dynamics, 7–8 overview, 6–7 monitoring, 20–21 primary production, 10–12 Sahel region, 16–19 social factors, 16 soil degradation, 12–13 FACE, see Free-air carbon dioxide enrichment Film-straining theory, virus transport in porous media, 77 Filtration theory for virus transport, 82–84 virus sorption modeling, 53–57 Flooding, crop plants, micronutrient oxidation and reduction, 217 Foliar fertilization, crop plant soil improvement overview, 229–230 soil and foliar fertilization, 230–235 Free-air carbon dioxide enrichment, crop response to CO2 biomass accumulation agricultural yield, 337–339 roots, 335–337 shoots, 332–335 432 INDEX Free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (continued) canopy temperature, 328–329 carbohydrates, 343–344 compendium of relative changes, 350–358 evapotranspiration, 329–330 experimental protocols, 295–326 nitrogen concentration, 340–342 nitrogen yield, 342–343 peak leaf area index, 331 phenology, 344 photosynthesis, 326–327 radiation-use efficiency, 339 soil changes microbiology, 345–347 soil carbon sequestration, 349–350 soil respiration, 347–348 trace gas emission/consumption, 348 specific leaf area, 339–340 stomatal conductance, 327–328 water potential, 330–331 G Gas–liquid interface, role in protein/virus inactivation, 67–70 GCMs, see Global climate models GG, see Greenhouse gases Global climate models, semiarid regions global climate overview, 21–22 IPCC working groups, 23 model types, 23–29 region instability, 22–23 Glycine max, nutrient management, 401–403 Grain legumes, nitrogen fixation, 396–397 Gravity, water potential, 112 Greenhouse gases, global climate models, 24–25 H Hemp, soil structure enhancement, 403–406 HEV, see Human enteroviruses Human enteroviruses, indicators, 86–88 I Inorganic fertilizer, soil science in tropical regions, 276–278 Insect resistance, crop plants, 244–246 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, semiarid regions, 23 Intertropical convergence zone, desertification process, Ion channels, active vs passive nutrient uptake, 127–129 Ionic strength solution, virus inactivation, 70 virus transport in porous media, 75–76 IPCC, see Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Iron, crop plants availability factors soil organic matter, 201 temperature and moisture, 204 micronutrient supply and acquisition deficiency and toxicity, 209–210 disease and insect resistance, 245 element interactions, 223–224 oxidation and reduction, 217 plant improvement, 240–241 rhizosphere, 220 soil and foliar fertilization, 233–234 supply and uptake, 215 pH effect, 197–198 soil concentrations, 192–193 Irrigation, desertification, 13–15 ITCZ, see Intertropical convergence zone K Kinetics Michaelis–Menten-type, root nutrient uptake, 130–131 protein sorption modeling, 60–64 virus sorption modeling, 52–53 L LAI, see Leaf area index Land degradation, desertification definition, 4–5 Land–surface changes, desertification process, 8–10 Langmuir model, protein sorption, 60–61 Leaf area index, peak, crop response to CO2, FACE, 331 Light, crop plant micronutrients, 202–206 Liming, crop plant soil improvement, 229 Linola, pest and disease management, 415–416 Linum usitatissimum, pest and disease management, 415–416 INDEX Lupins, see Lupinus albus Lupinus albus, nutrient management, 398–401 M Macronutrients, plants, micronutrient comparison, 186 Macroscopic water uptake, root water uptake, 136–138 Manganese, crop plants availability factors soil organic matter, 201–202 temperature and light, 204–205 micronutrient supply and acquisition deficiency and toxicity, 210–211 disease and insect resistance, 245–246 element interactions, 224–225 oxidation and reduction, 217 plant improvement, 241–242 rhizosphere, 220 soil and foliar fertilization, 234 supply and uptake, 216 pH effect, 198 soil concentrations, 193–194 Mass flow, crop plant micronutrients, 212 Metals, virus inactivation, 65 Michaelis–Menten-type kinetics, nutrient uptake in root, 130–131 Microbes, crop plant micronutrients, 243–244 Microbiology, crop response to CO2, FACE, 345–347 Micronutrients, crop plants availability factors organic matter, 200–202 pH, 195–199 temperature, moisture, and light, 202–206 bioavailability, soil pH and SOM effects, 187–188 deficiency, 187 macronutrient comparison, 186 soil concentrations amounts and distribution, 188–190 boron, 190–192 chlorine, 192 copper, 192 iron, 192–193 manganese, 193–194 molybdenum, 194 serpentine soils, 195 zinc, 194 433 supply and acquisition boron, 221–222 chlorine, 222 copper, 222–223 deficiencies and toxicities, 206–211 disease and insect resistance, 244–246 iron, 223–224 manganese, 224–225 microbial associations, 243–244 molybdenum, 225 nickel, 227 oxidation–reduction reactions, 216–218 plant improvement, 236–243 rhizosphere, 218–220 soil improvement, 227–229 supply and uptake, 211–216 zinc, 225–227 supply and acquisition, soil and foliar fertilization deficiency correction, 230–235 overview, 229–230 residual effects, 235–236 Mineral flux, crop plant micronutrients, 213 MM-type kinetics, see Michaelis–Menten-type kinetics Models plant root–soil interfaces, 132–134 protein sorption, 60–64 root water–nutrient uptake mechanisms, 152–154 model considerations, 152–154 multidimensional approach, 155–161 virus inactivation, 65–66 virus sorption aggregation and filtering, 53–57 equilibrium, 50–52 kinetics, 52–53 virus transport, 82–86 Moisture crop plant micronutrients, 202–206 virus inactivation, 64 Molybdenum, crop plants availability factors soil organic matter, 202 temperature, 205 micronutrient supply and acquisition deficiency and toxicity, 211 disease and insect resistance, 246 element interactions, 225 oxidation and reduction, 218 434 INDEX Molybdenum, crop plants (continued) plant improvement, 241 soil and foliar fertilization, 234–235 supply and uptake, 216 pH effect, 198–199 soil concentrations, 194 MS-2 behavior at TPB, 69–70 transport in porous media, 78–80 N NDVI, see Normalized difference vegetation index Nickel, crop plants micronutrient supply and acquisition element interactions, 227 soil and foliar fertilization, 235 pH effect, 199 plant growth, 186 Nitrate concentration effect on root growth, 167 nutrient transport, 150–151 Nitrogen, crop response to CO2, FACE concentration, 340–342 yield, 342–343 Nitrogen fixation grain legumes, 396–397 soil fertility, 378 Normalized difference vegetation index, desertification monitoring, 20–21 Norwalk virus, indicators, 88 Numerical models, virus transport, 84 Nutrient management, break crops beans, 391–398 lupins, 398–401 soybean, 401–403 Nutrients essential, definition, 186 hemp requirements, 405 micronutrients, see Micronutrients plant, macronutrients vs micronutrients, 186 soil, temperate and tropical regions, 284–285 soil fertility, 378–379 Nutrient transport convection–dispersion equation, 163–164 nitrate uptake, 150–151 plant root active vs passive uptake, 126–130 apoplastic vs symplastic pathway, 122–125 Michaelis–Menten-type kinetics, 130–131 plant root structure, 120–122 soils, 145–146 NV, see Norwalk virus O Ocean–atmosphere dynamics, desertification process, 7–8 Ohm-type root water uptake, basic formulation, 143 Oilseed rape, soil structure enhancement, 406–408 Organic arable rotations overview, 372–374 stocked rotations, 374–375 stockless rotations, 375–377 Organic farming, crop rotations break crop functions, 386–391 disease management, 385–386 organic arable rotations overview, 372–374 stocked rotations, 374–375 stockless rotations, 375–377 overview, 371–372 pest management, 383–385 soil fertility N fixation, 378 nutrient cycling and SOM effects, 378–379 nutrient loss reduction, 379 overview, 377–378 soil physical characteristics, 379–381 weed management, 381–383 Osmosis, water potential, 112 Oxidation–reduction reactions, crop plant micronutrients, 216–218 P Palmer Drought Stress Index, Sahelian region drought prediction, 26–29 Passive transport active nutrient uptake comparison, 126–130 active transport partitioning, 166–167 Pathogens, drinking water contamination, 42 PDSI, see Palmer Drought Stress Index Permeability, plant root, 125 Pest management carrot, 411–412 crop rotations in organic farming, 383–385 435 INDEX linola, 415–416 oilseed rape, 407–408 sugar beet, 413–415 swede, 412–413 PET, see Potential evaporation pH crop plant micronutrients availability, 195–199 bioavailability, 187–188 supply and acquisition, rhizosphere, 219 virus transport in porous media, 75 Phenology, crop response to CO2, FACE, 344 Photosynthesis, crop response to CO2, FACE, 326–327 Plant root nutrient uptake active vs passive uptake, 126–130 Michaelis–Menten-type kinetics, 130–131 water and nutrient transport apoplastic vs symplastic pathway, 122–125 plant root structure, 120–122 Plant root–soil interfaces soil water flow modeling, 132–133 solute transport, 134 Plant transpiration, linking with assimilation root uptake process integration, 115–118 transpiration coefficient, 118–119 Plant water transport cavitation, 114–115 driving forces, 108 soil–plant–atmosphere continuum, 109–110 water potential, 110–114 Pollution indicator, human enteroviruses, 87–88 Porous media, virus transport, mechanisms colloid-facilitated transport, 81–82 size exclusion, 80–81 soil properties, 71 soil water content, 76–78 solution chemistry, 75–76 virus type, 78–80 Potatoes, weed management, 409–411 Potential evaporation, Sahelian region drought prediction, 26–29 Primary production, desertification, 10–12 Protein inactivation, gas–liquid interface role, 67–70 Protein sorption equilibrium modeling, 60 kinetics modeling, 60–64 mechanisms, 57–60 Proton pump, active vs passive nutrient uptake, 129 R Radial pathways, water and nutrients in roots, 121 Radiation balance, effect of atmospheric dust, 10 Radiation-use efficiency, crop response to CO2, FACE, 339 Rainfall, Sahel region, 18 Random sequential adsorption theory, protein sorption, 62–64 RDF, see Root distribution function Recombinant Norwalk virus indicators, 88 transport in porous media, 78–80 RED, see Reduction factor Reduction factor, macroscopic root water uptake, 136–137 rNV, see Recombinant Norwalk virus Root distribution function, macroscopic root water uptake, 137 Root nutrient uptake basic understanding, 104–105 computer models, 107–108 equations, 166 system, 147–150 Roots crop response to CO2, FACE, 335–337 growth NO3–N concentration effect, 167 simulation, 165 interception, crop plant micronutrients, 212–213 uptake process integration, 115–118 Root water–nutrient uptake mechanisms, 152–154 model considerations, 154–155 multidimensional approach example, 159–161 overview, 155–159 Root water uptake basic understanding, 104–105 biophysical mechanisms, 143–144 computer models, 107–108 flow paths, 141–143 macroscopic water uptake, 136–138 Ohm-type formulation, 143 overview, 135–136 436 INDEX Root water uptake (continued) physiology studies, 105–106 site distribution, 166 soil salinity, 141 types I and II, 138–140 RSA, see Random sequential adsorption theory RUE, see Radiation-use efficiency S Sahel region destruction and resilience, 19 development efforts, 18–19 drought, 18, 25 geographic area, 16–17 human history, 17 human population, 19 mean annual temperature, 17 rainfall, 18 soils, 17 weather conditions, 18 Sea–surface temperatures, desertification process, 7–8 Semiarid regions global climate change instability, 22–23 IPCC working groups, 23 models, 23–29 overview, 21–22 overview, Serpentine soils, metal concentrations, 195 Shoots, crop response to CO2, FACE, 332–335 Silicon, plant growth, 186–187 Single-collector efficiency, virus sorption modeling, 55 Size exclusion, virus transport in porous media, 80–81 SLA, see Specific leaf area Social factors, semiarid ecosystems, 16 Soil acidity, temperate and tropical regions, 283–284 Soil degradation, desertification, 12–13 Soil fertility, crop rotations in organic farming N fixation, 378 nutrient cycling and SOM effects, 378–379 nutrient loss reduction, 379 overview, 377–378 Soil nutrients, temperate and tropical regions, 284–285 Soil organic matter crop plants micronutrient bioavailability, 187–188, 200–202 soil improvement, 228–229 soil fertility, 378–379 Soil–plant–atmosphere continuum root water uptake, 135 water potential, 111 water transport in plants, 109–110 Soil respiration, crop response to CO2, FACE, 347–348 Soils crop plant micronutrients amounts and distribution, 188–190 boron, 190–192 chlorine, 192 copper, 192 improvement for supply and acquisition, 227–229 iron, 192–193 manganese, 193–194 molybdenum, 194 pH, 187–188 serpentine soils, 195 zinc, 194 crop response to CO2, FACE microbiology, 345–347 respiration, 347–348 soil carbon sequestration, 349–350 trace gas emission/consumption, 348 crop rotations in organic farming, 379–381 nutrient transport, 145–146 Sahel region, 17 virus removal, 40–42 virus transport in porous media, 71 Soil salinity, root water uptake, 141 Soil science research impact, 285–286 scientists, tropical regions, 279–281 temperate regions funding and scope, 274 overview, 271–272 post-World War II, 272–274 soil acidity, 283–284 soil nutrients, 284–285 tropical regions first theories, 275 important themes, 278–279 inorganic fertilizer use, 276–278 journal publications and scientists, 279–281 437 INDEX overview, 274–275 post-World War II, 276 soil acidity, 283–284 soil myths, 281–282 soil nutrients, 284–285 Soil structure, break crops hemp, 403–406 oilseed rape, 406–408 Soil water flow plant roots, 164–165 plant root–soil interfaces, 132–133 virus transport in porous media, 76–78 Soil–water uptake, convection–dispersion equation, 163–164 Soil weathering, crop plant micronutrients, 213 Solanum tuberosum, weed management, 409–411 Solid surface, virus survival, 64–65 Solute transport, plant root–soil interfaces, 134 Solution chemistry, virus transport in porous media, 75–76 SOM, see Soil organic matter Soybean, nutrient management, 401–403 SPAC, see Soil–plant–atmosphere continuum Specific leaf area, crop response to CO2, FACE, 339–340 SSTs, see Sea–surface temperatures Stomatal conductance, crop response to CO2, FACE, 327–328 Stress response function, root water uptake, 140 Subsurface fate, virus characteristics, 43–45 Sugar beet, pest and disease management, 413–415 Sulfate aerosols, global climate models, 24–25 Swede, pest and disease management, 412–413 Symplastic pathway, apoplastic pathway comparison, 122–125 crop plant micronutrients, 202–206 Sahel region, 17 Toxicity, crop plant micronutrient supply and acquisition, 206–211 TPB, see Triple-phase boundary Trace gas, emission/consumption in crop response to CO2, FACE, 348 Transpiration coefficient, linking with assimilation, 118–119 Transport active, passive transport partitioning, 166–167 active vs passive nutrient uptake, 126–130 nutrient, see Nutrient transport solute, plant root–soil interfaces, 134 virus, see Virus transport water, see Water transport Transport indicator, human enteroviruses, 87–88 TRC, see Transpiration coefficient Tree density, Sahel region, 19 Triple-phase boundary, virus inactivation, 69 Tropical regions, soil science first theories, 275 important themes, 278–279 inorganic fertilizer use, 276–278 journal publications and scientists, 279–281 overview, 274–275 post-World War II, 276 soil acidity, 283–284 soil myths, 281–282 soil nutrients, 284–285 T V Temperate regions, soil science funding and scope, 274 overview, 271–272 post-World War II, 272–274 soil acidity, 283–284 soil nutrients, 284–285 Temperature canopy, crop response to CO2, FACE, 328–329 U Ultramafic soils, metal concentrations, 195 Ultraviolet radiation, virus inactivation, 65 UNCOD, see United Nations Conference on Desertification United Nations Conference on Desertification, Vicia faba, nutrient management, 391–398 Viruses composition, 42–43 groundwater contamination, 40 removal from soil, 40–42 subsurface fate, 43–45 Virus inactivation gas–liquid interface role, 67–70 modeling, 65–66 438 INDEX Virus sorption human enteroviruses, 86–88 mechanisms, 45, 50 modeling aggregation and filtering, 53–57 equilibrium, 50–52 kinetics, 52–53 Virus survival, affecting factors, 64–65 Virus transport air–water interface modeling, 84–86 characteristics, 43–45 filtration theory, 82–84 human enteroviruses, 86–88 numerical models, 84 porous media characteristics, 43–45 colloid-facilitated transport, 81–82 size exclusion, 80–81 soil properties, 71 soil water content, 76–78 solution chemistry, 75–76 virus type, 78–80 W Water potential crop response to CO2, FACE, 330–331 water transport in plants, 110–114 Water resources, desertification, 13–16 Water transport, plants apoplastic vs symplastic pathway, 122–125 cavitation, 114–115 driving forces, 108 plant root structure, 120–122 soil–plant–atmosphere continuum, 109–110 water potential, 110–114 Water uptake macroscopic, root water uptake, 136–138 Ohm-type root, basic formulation, 143 root, see Root water uptake soil, convection–dispersion equation, 163–164 Water use, crop response to CO2, FACE, 329–330 Weather, Sahel region, 18 Weed management break crops, potatoes, 409–411 crop rotations in organic farming, 381–383 World War II, post-war soil science temperature regions, 272–274 tropical regions, 276 X X174 behavior at TPB, 69–70 transport in porous media, 78–80 Z Zinc, crop plants availability factors soil organic matter, 202 temperature and moisture, 205–206 micronutrient supply and acquisition deficiency and toxicity, 211 element interactions, 225–227 oxidation and reduction, 218 plant improvement, 242–243 soil and foliar fertilization, 235 supply and uptake, 216 pH effect, 199 soil concentrations, 194 ... of Sahel rainfall with the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) is quite variable Hunt (200 0) proposes a mechanism by which tropical Pacific SSTs in uence Sahel rainfall by modulating HILLEL AND ROSENZWEIG... topsoil and often cuts into the soil to produce deep gullies During fallow periods, rainfall may also leach away soluble nutrients The net result can be an overall reduction in biological productivity... diverse interdependent forms of life Integrated ecosystems may thus play a vital role in controlling global warming and in absorbing and neutralizing pollutants that might otherwise accumulate to
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Xem thêm: (Advances in agronomy 77) donald l sparks (eds ) advances in agronomy elsevier, academic press (2002) , (Advances in agronomy 77) donald l sparks (eds ) advances in agronomy elsevier, academic press (2002) , Chapter 1. Desertification and It's Relation to Climate Variability and Change, IV. Case Study The Sahel, VI. Future Climatic Variability and Change, Chapter 2. Fate and Transport of Viruses in Porous Media, II. Characteristics of Viruses Relevant for Subsurface Fate and Transport, IV. Protein Sorption and Denaturation, VI. The Role of the Gas–Liquid Interface in Protein Virus Inactivation, VII. Transport of Viruses in Porous Media, VIII. Indicators for Human Enteroviruses, Chapter 3. Current Capabilities and Future Needs of Root Water and Nutrient Uptake Modeling, II. Water Transport in Plants, III. Linking Plant Transpiration with Assimilation, IV. Transport of Water and Nutrients in the Plant Root, VI. Flow and Transport Modeling in Soils, IX. Coupled Root Water and Nutrient Uptake, Chapter 4. Micronutrients in Crop Production, II. Status in World Soils, III. Soil Factors Affecting Availability, IV. Factors Associated with Supply and Acquisition, V. Improving Supply and Acquisition, II. Soil Science in Temperate Regions, III. Soil Science in Tropical Regions, V. Impact of Soil Science, Chapter 6. Responses of Agricultural Crops to Free-Air CO2 Enrichment, III. Results and Discussion of Crop Responses to Elevated CO2, II. Crop Rotations as the Central Management Tool in Organic Farming, III. Break Crops for Nutrient Management, IV. Break Crops for Improving Soil Structure, VI. Break Crops for Pest and Disease Management

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