(Advances in agronomy 59) donald l sparks (eds ) advances in agronomy elsevier, academic press (1997)

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V O L U M5 9E Advisory Board Martin Alexander Eugene J Kamprath Cornell University North Carolina State University Kenneth J Frey Lany P Wilding Iowa State University Texas A&M University Prepared in cooperation with the American Society of Agronomy Monograpbs Committee William T Frankenberger, Jr., Chairman P S Baenziger David H Kral Dennis E Rolston Diane E Storr Jon Bartels Sarah E Lingle Jerry M Bigham Kenneth J Moore Joseph W Stucki M B Kirkham Gary A Peterson DVANCES IN Edited by Donald L Sparks Department of Plant and Soil Sciences University of Delaware Newark, Delaware ACADEMIC PRESS San Diego London Boston New York Sydney Tokyo Toronto \ This book is printed on acid-free paper @ Copyright 1997 by ACADEMIC PRESS All Rights Reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher Academic Press, Inc 525 B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego, California 92101-4495, USA http://www.apnet.com Academic Press Limited 24-28 Oval Road, London NWI 7DX, UK http://www.hbuk.co.uWap/ International Standard Serial Number: 0065-2 I I3 International Standard Book Number: 0-12-000759-2 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 96 97 9 00 01 BB Contents CONTRIBUTORS PREFACE ix xi QUANTITATIVE GENETICS AND PLANT BREEDING John W Dudley I Introduction I1 History I11 Tools of Quantitative Genetics Iv Application of Quantitative Genetics to Plant Breeding V Future Role of Quantitative Genetics in Plant Breeding References 19 19 USEOF ORGANOCLAYS IN POLLUTION ABATEMENT Shihe Xu Guangyao Sheng and Stephen A Boyd I I1 I11 N V Introduction Synthesis and Chemical Stability of Organoclays Sorptive Properties of Organoclays In Sitzl Modification Biodegradation of Contaminants in Modified Soils References 25 28 36 44 54 57 PHENOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AND GROWTH OF THEWHEAT(TRITZCUMAESTWCM L.) SHOOT APEX: A &VIEW Gregory S McMaster I Introduction I1 General Patterns of Grass Shoot Apex Development I11 Morphological Nomenclatures Iv Shoot Apex Developmental Sequence V Conclusion References V 63 64 64 67 101 102 CONTENTS v1 APPLICATIONSOF MICROMORPHOLOGY OF RELEVANCE TO AGRONOMY Rienk Miedema I Introduction 11 Methods Used in Micromorphology I11 Soil Structure in Relation to Land Use IV Conclusions and Future Research Needs References 119 123 128 157 159 PHYSIOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF PERENNIAL FORAGES TO STRESS Matt A Sanderson David W Stair and Mark A Hussey I htroduction I1 Water Deficit I11 Defoliation Stress Low Light v Nutrient Stress VI Low-Temperature Stress VII Salt Stress VIII Plant Breeding for Abiotic Stress Tolerance References rv 172 173 179 183 187 191 199 203 208 CROPMODELING AND APPLICATIONS: A COTTON EXAMPLE K Raja Reddy Harry F Hodges and James M McKinion I Introduction I1 Phen o1ogy 111 Growth of Individual Organs Iv Partitioning Biomass v High-Temperature Effects on Fruiting Structures VI Nitrogen-Deficit Effects VII Water-Deficit Effects VIII Model Development IX Model Calibration and Validation X Model Applications and Bridging Technologies XI Summary and Conclusions References 226 231 240 253 255 257 265 267 273 275 281 282 CONTENTS vii THEVALUEOF LONG-TERMFIELDEXPERIMENTS IN AGRICULTURAL ECOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH A Edward Johnston I I1 111 W V Inaoduction The Rothamsted Experiments The Agricultural Value of Long-Term Experiments Ecological Research and Long-Term Experiments Long-Term Experiments and Environmental Concerns VI The Need for Long-Term Experiments VII Approaches to New Long-Term Experiments References 291 293 294 313 319 325 327 329 INDEX 335 This Page Intentionally Left Blank contributors Numbers in parentheses indicate the pages on which the authors’contributions begin STEPHEN A BOYD (2 S), Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Michigan State University,East Lansing, Michigan 48824 JOHN W DUDLEY (I), Department o f Crop Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana,Illinois 61 801 HARRY F HODGES (229, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762 MARK A HUSSEY (17 I), Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas A&M University,College Station, Texas 77843 A EDWARD JOHNSTON (291), MCR Rothamsted, Harpenden, Herts A L ZJQ, United Kingdom JAMES M MCKINION (226), USDA-ARS Crop Simulation Research Unit, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762 GREGORY S MCMASTER (63), USDA-ARS, Great Plains Systm Research, Fort Collins,Colorado 80522 RIENK MIEDEMA (1 19), Department of Soil Science and Geology, Wageningen Agricultural University,6700 AA Wageningen,The Netherlands K RAJA REDDY (22S), Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Mississippi State University,Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762 MATT A SANDERSON (17 l), Texas A&M UniversityAgricllltural, Research and Extension Centq Stephenville, Texas 76401 GUANGYAO SHENG (2 S), Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 DAVID W STAIR (1 l), Department ofsoil and Crop Sciences, TexasA&M University, College Station, Texas 77843 SHIHE XU (2 ) , Health and Environmental Sciences, Dow Corning Corporation, Midland, Michigan 48640 ix 332 A EDWARD JOHNSTON Jones, K C., Johnston, A E., and McGrath, S P (1994) Historical monitoring of organic contaminants in soils In “Long-TermExperiments in Agricultural and Ecological Sciences” (R A Leigh, and A E Johnston, eds.), pp 147-163 CAB International, Wallingford, UK Kjeller, L.-0 Jones, K.C., Johnston, A E., and Rappe, C (1991) Increases in the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and -furan content of soils and vegetation since the 1840s Environ Sci Technol 25,1619-1627 Lawes, J B., and Gilbert, J H (1859) Report of experiments with different manures on permanent meadow land J.R Agric SOC.England, Part I, 19, 552-573 Part II, 20, 228-246, Part 111, 20, 246-272, Part N,2 , Lawes, J B., and Gilbert, J H (1863) The effect of different manures on the mixed herbage of grassland J R Agric SOC.England 24, Part I, 1-36 Lawes, J B., and Gilbert, J H ( I 880) Agricultural, botanical and chemical results of experiments on the mixed herbage of permanent meadow, conducted for more than twenty years in succession on the same land Part I The agricultural results fhilos Trans R SOC.171, 139-210 Lawes, J B., Gilbert, J H., and Masters, M T (1882) Agricultural, botanical and chemical results of experiments on the mixed herbage of permanent meadow, conducted for more than twenty years in succession on the same land Part II The botanical results fhilos Trans R SOC 173, 1181-1413 Leigh, R A., and Johnston, A E (Eds.) (1994) “Long-Term Experiments in Agricultural and Ecological Sciences” pp 448 CAB International, Wallingford, UK Liebig, H (1872) Soil statics and soil analyses J Chem SOC.25,318,837 [English abstract] McGrath, S P., and Lane, P W (1989) An explanation for the apparent losses of metals in a long-term experiment with sewage sludge Environ follur 60,235-256 McGrath, S P., Brwkes, P C., and Giller, K E (1988) Effects of potentially toxic metals in soil derived from past applications of sewage sludge on nitrogen fixation by Trifolium repens L Soil Biol Biochem 20,415-424 Powlson, D S., and Johnston, A E (1994) Long-term field experiments: Their importance in understanding sustainable land use In “Soil Resilience and Sustainable Land Use” (D Greenland, and I Szabolcs, eds.), pp 367-393 CAB International, Wallingford, UK Powlson, D S., Pruden, G.,Johnston, A E., and Jenkinson, D S (1986) The nitrogen cycle in the Broadbalk Wheat Experiment-recovery and losses of 15N-labelled fertilizer applied in spring and inputs of nitrogen from the atmosphere J Agric Sci (Cambridge) 107,591-609 Powlson, D S., Poulton, P R., Addiscott, T M., and McCann, D S (1989) Leaching of nitrate from soils receiving organic or inorganic fertilizers continuously for 135 years In “Nitrogen in Organic Wastes Applied to Soils ” (I A Hansen, and K Henriksen, eds.),pp 334-345 Academic Press, London Powlson, D S., Hart, P B S., Poulton, P R., Johnston, A E., and Jenkinson, D S (1992) Influence of soil type, crop management and weather on the recovery of ‘SN-labelled fertilizer applied to winter wheat in spring J Agric Sci (Cambridge) 118,83-100 Rothamsted Experimental Station (1955) “Results of the Field Experiments 1955,” p 55 Lawes Agricultural Trust, Harpenden, UK Sanders, G.,Jones, K C., Hamilton-Taylor, J., and Dorr, H ( 1993) Concentrations and deposition fluxes of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the dated sediments of a rural English lake Environ Toxicol Chem 12, 1567-1581 Shen, S M., Hart, P B S., Powlson, D S., and Jenkinson, D.S (1989) The nitrogen cycle in the Broadbalk Wheat Experiment: ’SN-labelled fertilizer residues in the soil and in the soil microbial biomass Soil Biol Biochem 21,529-533 Sibbesen, E.,Andersen, C E., Andersen, S., and Flensted-Jensen, M (1985) Soil movement in longterm field experiments as a result of soil cultivation I A model for approximating soil movement in one horizontal dimension by repeated tillage Exp Agric 21, 101-107 THE VALUE OF LONG-TERM FIELD EXPERIMENTS 333 Silvertown, J (1987) Ecological stability: A test case Am Nuturulisr 130,807-810 Silvertown, J W (1980) The dynamics of a grassland ecosystem: Botanical equilibrium in the Park Grass Experiment J Appl Ecol 17,491-504 Smith, L P (1960) The relation between weather and meadow hay yields in England J BI: Grassland SOC.15,203-208 Snaydon, R W (1970) Rapid population differentiation in a mosaic environment I Response of Anthoxanthum odorarum to soils Evolution 24,257-269 Snaydon, R W., and Davies, M S (1972) Rapid population differentiation in a mosaic environment 11 Morphological variation in Anthoxanrhum odoratum L Evolution 26,390405 Swaine, M D (1994) Long-term studies in tropical forest dynamics In “Long-Term Experiments in Agricultural and Ecological Sciences (R A Leigh, and A E Johnston, eds.), pp 305-320 CAB International, Wallingford, UK Sylvester-Bradley, R., Addiscott, T M., Vaidyanathan, L V., Murray, A W A,, and Whitmore, A P ( 1987) Nitrogen advice for cereals: present realities and future possibilities In “Proceedings No 263 The Ferfiliser Society,” pp 3-36 Peterborough, UK Thurston, J M (1969) The effect of liming and fertilizers on the botanical composition of permanent grassland, and on the yield of hay In “Ecological Aspects of the Mineral Nutrition of Plants ’’ (I Rorison, ed.), pp 3-10 Blackwell, Oxford Tilman, D ( 1982) “Resource Comperirion and Community Structure.” Princeton Univ Press, Princeton, NJ Tilman, D (1986) Resources, competition and the dynamics of plant communities In “Plant Ecology,” (M J Crawley, ed.), pp 51-75 Blackwell, Oxford Tilman, D., Dodd, M E., Silvertown, J., Poulton, P R., Johnston, A E., and Crawley, M J (1994) The Park Grass experiment: Insights from the most long-term ecological study In “Long-Term Experiments in Agriculrural and Ecological Science ” (R A Leigh and A E Johnston, eds.), pp 287-303 CAB International, Wallingford, UK Warren, R G., and Johnston, A E (1964) The Park Grass experiment Rothamsred Exp Sturion Rep 1963 240-262 Warren, R G and Johnst0n.A E (1967) Hoosfield Continuous Barley Rothamsred Exp Sration Rep 1966, 32CL338 Wild, S R., and Jones, K C (1992) Organic chemicals entering agricultural soils in sewage sludges: Screening for their potential to transfer to crop plants and livestock Sci Toral Environ 119, 85-1 19 Wild, S R., and Jones, K C (1993) Biological and abiotic losses of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soils freshly amended with sewage sludge Environ Toxicol Chem 12,5-12 Wild, S R., and Jones, K C (1995) Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in the United Kingdom environment: A preliminary source inventory and budget Environ Polluf 88,91-108 Wild, S R., Waterhouse, K S., McGrath, S P., and Jones, K C (1990) Organic contaminants in an agricultural soil with a known history of sewage sludge amendments: Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons Environ Sci Technol 24, 1706-171 Williams, E D (1978) “Botanical Composition of the Park Grass Plots at Rothamsted 1856-1976.” Lawes Agricultural Trust, Harpenden, UK Woiwood, I P., and Harrington, R (1994) Flying in the face of change: The Rothamsted Insect Survey In “Long-Term Experiments in Agricultural and Ecological Sciences” (R A Leigh and A E Johnston, eds.), pp 287-303 CAB International, Wallingford, UK Yates, F ( 1969) Investigations into the effects of weather on yield Rothamsred Exp Sfarion Rep 1968, Part , ” This Page Intentionally Left Blank Index A Anthropogenic activity evaluation, 292-293 and organic pollutant trends, 320-324 Apical dominance, differences in genetic lines, 86 Aquifer materials, modification in situ, 27 Avoidance mechanisms, perennial forages, 173-1 74 Awns, wheat, development, 88 Abortion floret, 87 tiller primordium, 79-82 Abscisic acid, induced freezing tolerance, 194 197-1 98 Abscission flower or fruit, and root growth, 249 modeling, 255 Acidity, soil and aluminum toxicity, 190 effect on crop yields, 297-299 Adsorption cationic surfactant, modeling, 49-52 organic modifiers by clay minerals, 30-35 QACS, 28-35,52-54 kinetics, 47-49 Adsorption isotherms, organophilic clays, 39-40 Aggregates, see also Macroaggregates hierarchy, 142-145 rainfall-induced breakdown, 140- I41 Aggregation face-to-face, clay layers, 34-35,48 processes favoring, 134 Agricultural Research Service, 276-277 Agriculture, site-specific, for farm management, 280-281 Alfalfa freezing tolerance, 192-195 grazing tolerance, 204-205 phosphorus deficiency effect, 189-190 taproots, carbon and nitrogen remobilization, 181-183 Alleles favorable, 10-1 I , 15-17 substitution, Aluminum toxicity, and acid soils, 190 Ammonium sulfate, treated Park Grass plots, 315 Anther, initiation, 88 Anthesis, wheat, 91-92 B Backcrossing, in choosing parents, 10 Bacteria in metal-contaminated soil, 324 QAC toxicity, 54-56 Barley, yield, fertilizer effects, 307-309 Beet root, sucrose concentration, selection for, Belowground processes, in GOSSYM, 270-271 Bentonite, complex with TMPA, 43-44 Benzo[a]pyrene, temporal trend, 320-324 Best linear unbiased prediction, 10-13 Bioavailability, sorbed contaminants, 56-57 Biodegradation, contaminants in modified soils, 54-57 Biological changes, effects on sustainability, 294-297 Biomass microbial, in metal-contaminated soil, 324 partitioning, 253-255 Biopores, creation in soil, 131-132 Bioturbation, micromorphological approach, 131 Boll, cotton growth, 250-252 maturation period, 235-236 Booting, initiation in wheat, 68 Branches, fruiting, leaf unfolding rates, 236-239 Broadbalk experiment cereal disease study, 304-306 at Rothamsted, 299-302 335 Advanref m Agmnmny Volume I9 Copyright 1997 by Academic Press,Inc All rights of reproduction in any form reserved 36 INDEX C Cadmium, soil burden, trends at Rothamsted, 324-325 Calibration, cotton simulation model, 273 Canopy air temperature, and apical meristem temperature, 83 base, red:far-red ratio, 187 Carbohydrates deficits, and leaf formation, 238-239 nonstructural, accumulation, 246-247 relationship to floret death, 87 remobilization in grasses, 181-183 reserves in stem, 101 Carbon available for root growth, 254 fixation, and chilling stress, 191 isotope discrimination, 205-206 remobilization, defoliation effect, 181-183 Carbon dioxide atmospheric, Hawaii, 229 high conditions in future, 276-277 increase, effect on plant growth, 18 Carbon exchange rate, in response to shade, 184 Cation exchange in adsorption of organic modifiers, 30-34 modeling, 50-52 Cellular adjustments, to growth at low temperatures, 194-195 Cereals, diseases, study at Broadbalk, 304-306 Chaff, growth in wheat, 91 Chemical changes, effects on sustainability, 294-297 Chemical stability, organoclays, 28-36 Chilling, and carbon fixation, 191 Chlorosis, iron-deficiency, and calcareous soils, 190-191 Classes of loci, in choice of parents, 1 Clay surface interaction with water, 33-34 QAC adsorption effect, 53-54 Coleoptile leaf, in seedling emergence, 79 Combining ability, testing for, 15-17 Competition intraplant, for resources, 265 as selection criterion, 204 Computer technology, in crop management, 275-276 Contaminants biodegradation in modified soils, 54-57 hydrophobic organic immobilization, 26-28 sorption by organoclays, 36-41 transport, sorption effect, 43-44 Correlated response equation, Cotton commercial varieties, 230 fruiting structures, high-temperature effects, 255-257 individual organs, growth, 240-253 model development, 267-273 nitrogen deficit and water deficit effects, 257-267 partitioning biomass, 253-255 phenology, 231-240 Cracks, formation in clay soils, 128-129 Crop management, 275-280,3 14 Crops modeling and applications, 225-282 self- and cross-pollinated and choice of parents, 9-13 recurrent selection, 17-18 yield soil acidity effect, 297-299 and soil morphology, 158 Crowns, freezing tolerance, 193 Crusts cryptogamic, 142- 45 structural and sedimentary, 140-142 CT scanning in analysis of hydraulic functioning, 150-156 in soil science, 127 Culms, plant density effect, 81-82 Cultivars annual crops, availability, 299-303 cotton, phenology, 23 1-240 hybrid, choice of parents, 11-12 synthetic, 13 wheat development patterns, 82-83 kernel growth variations, 96 tillering variation, 80 vernalization requirements, 72-73 Cultivation, effect on porosity, 137 D Decision support systems, cotton crop management, 278 INDEX Defoliation and remobilization of carbon and nitrogen, 181-183 tolerance, breeding for, 204-205 whole-plant responses, 179-181 Degradation, soil structure, 150-15 I Dehardening forage grasses, 192-194 and gene expression, 198-199 Denitrification, losses through, 149 Density rooting, 150-151 stand, relationship to tiller number, 81-82 Desiccation damage, protection by sugars, 196 tolerance, in freezing stress, 198-199 Desorption, QAC in subsoils, 35 Development cotton and leaf unfolding, 236-239 temperature effects, 234-235 leaf area, whole plant, 252-253 model, for crops, 267-273 shoot apex, sequence, 67-101 vegetative to reproductive switch, 82-83 Differentiation floret, 88-89 spikelet, 85-87 Diffusion, particle slow rate, 48 Digestibility forage stems and leaf blades, 176 shade effects, 185-1 86 Diseases, cereals, study at Broadbalk, 304-306 Dodecyl sulfonate adsorption on modified laponite, 41 exchange with anions, 50 Drainage, micromorphological imaging, 150-151 Drought tolerance, grasses, breeding for, 205-206 E Earthworm, activity in Oxic Paleustalfs, 145 Ecological functioning soil microstructure, 147-150 soil structure, modeling, 157 Ecological research, and long-term experiments, 13-3 19 Electrolyte leakage, by supercooling, 194-195 Elongation 337 cotton leaf internode, duration and rate, 239-243 grass leaf in response to shade, 184-185 leaf primordium, 74-79 stem, and leaf nitrogen, 262 subcoleoptile internode, 177-179 tiller primordium, 79-82 Endophyte, tall fescue infected with, 175-1 76 Endosperm, wheat, development, 93-94 Environmental variation, description, 5-6 Enzymes photorespiratory, salt effects, 202 stability at low temperatures, 195 Epoxy resin, impregnated soil, 124 Equations correlated response, describing processes for specific leaf weight, 241 predicted gain, 6-7 prediction, for recurrent selection, 17-18 rate parameters for leaf and internode, 242-243 Exhaustion Land, experiment at Rothamsted, 307-309 Expert systems, COMAX and WHIMS, 271-273 F Fanning conventional and integrated systems, 147 system, effect on organic matter, 313 Farm management, site-specific agriculture for, 280-281 Fertilization effect on yield, 136-137 kleistogamous, 92 residues, effect on soil, 307-308 Fertilizers nitrogen, 301-303,305-306.309-311 treatment of Park Grass plots, 314-319 Field experiments, long-term, 291-329 Floret differentiation, 88-89 initiation and abortion, 85-87 Flowchart, GOSSYh4.270-271 Forages, perennial, responses to stress, 17 1-208 Fractal analysis, soil structure functioning, 156 Freezing tolerance development in forages, 191-195 and gene expression, 197-199 338 INDEX Fruiting structures, cotton, high-temperature effects, 251,255-257 Funding, long-term experiments, 327-328 Fungus, buildup in acidic soil, 298 FYM manure application to Park Grass plots, 314 increased soil organic matter, 301-303 G Gene expression in low-temperature stress, 197-199 in salt stress, 202-203 Generation mean analysis, 8-9 Genetics, quantitative, and plant breeding, 1-19 Genotype-environment interaction, 5-6 Genotypes for classes of loci, 12 low-temperature hardening, 193 potential growth and developmental rates, 227 Geographic Information Systems, 279 Geographic Positioning System, 278-279 Germination, salt tolerance during, 200 Gibbs free energy, and van der Waals interactions, Global circulation model, 229 Grain-filling, during kernel growth, 93-101 Grasses carbon and nitrogen remobilization, 181-183 dehardening, 192-194 seedling and adult, responses to salt stress, 200-202 establishment, 176-179 shoot apex, developmental patterns, 64 treated and untreated, at Park Grass, 315-316 Growing degree-days model, 70-73 phyllochron linear with, 75-76 Growth, see also Regrowth cotton, individual organs, 240-253 grasses at low temperatures, 192-195 responses to salinity, 201 Growth stages anthesis, wheat spike, 90 phenological, 67-73 Growth staging system, 65 H Haploids, doubled, in inbreeding, 14 Hardening, forage grasses, 191-194 HDTMA, see Hexadecyltrimethylammonium Hemimicellization, model of anionic surfactant adsorption, 50 Heritability, trait and marker, 18 Hexadecyltrimethylammonium adsorption, 29-32,42 in aquifer box model, 45-47 complex with smectites, 40-41, 55-57 loading on exchange sites, sorption and desorption, 48 History plant breeding, quantitative genetics, Humus accumulation in fertilized soils, 310-31 formation, 132-134 Hybrids, choice of parents, 11-12 Hydraulic conductivity, modified soil, 52-54 Hydraulic functioning, micromorphological imaging, 150-156 Hydrophilicity, surface of montmorillonite, 32-34 Hydrophobic bonding in adsorption of organic modifiers, 34-35 submodel to cationic surfactant adsorption model, 51-52 I Image analysis, porosity in thin sections, 125-126 Immobilization, coupled with biodegradation, 54-57 Inbreeding, selection during, 13- 17 Infection potato with nematode, 295-297 tall fescue with endophyte, 175-176 Inference engine, in expert system COMAX, 27 1-272 Insect control, addressed by WHIMS, 272-273 Insect survey, at Rothamsted, 319 Intelligent implements, in crop management, 279-280 Internode elongation duration and rate, 239-243 length at leaf unfolding, 243-245 339 INDEX mass, accumulation rate 247-248 potential growth rate, 268 Ions, sorption by organoclays, 41-43 Iron-deficiency chlorosis, and calcareous soils, 190-191 K Kernel, growth in wheat, 92-101 Kinetics, QAC adsorption, 47-49 L Land use, soil structure in relation to, 128-157 Layers cationic-rich, segregation, 1-32 clay, face-to-face aggregation, 34-35.48 Lead, herbage concentrations at Rothamsted, 326-327 Leaf area development, whole plant, 252-253 expansion, and internode elongation, 240-243 at leaf unfolding, 243-245 ratios, in response to shade, 184 Leaf nitrogen and leaf and stem expansion, 260-262 and phenology, 259-260 and photosynthesis and transpiration, 263-264 Leaf primordium elongation, 74-79 initiation, 73-74 Leaf water potential, midday, 266-267 Leaves, see also Specific leaf weight coleoptile, in seedling emergence, 79 cotton expansion and internode elongation, 239-240 unfolding interval rates, 236-239 and leaf area, 243-245 forage grasses, water deficit effects, 173-174 as photosynthate source during grain filling, 100 temperature, and air temperature, 228 Light effect on kernel growth, 98-99 low intensity effect on spikelet initiation, 84-85 responses of perennial forages, 183-187 Light quality (red:far-red ratio) changes, effects on forages, 186-187 correlation with phyllochron, 77,79 Line per se performance, in inbreeding, 14, 16 Long-term experiments agricultural value, 294-3 13 ecological research related to 13-3 19 environmental concerns, 19-325 need for, 325-321 Rothamsted, 293-294 Lucerne, depletion of potassium reserves, 295-297 M Macroaggregates formation, 128-129 fungal hyphae role 144 Macrostructure, soil, 123 Mainstem growth stage, and tiller appearance, 80-8 leaf unfolding rates, 236-239 Manures FYM application to Park Grass plots, 314 increased soil organic matter, 301-303 organic, nitrogen fate in, 311-313 P and K accumulation in soils, 306-309 Mating design in estimating genetic components of variance, 4-5 Maturation period, cotton square and boll, 235-236 Maturity, wheat kernel, 95-96 Mendel’s laws, rediscovery, 2-3 Meristem, grasses, defoliation effect, 18 Micromorphology in analysis of hydraulic functioning, 150-156 approach to bioturbation, 13 methods, 123-127 Microradiography, soil pore system, 126 Microstructure, soil, 147-150 Mineralization nitrogen, 149-150 organic matter, 310 Modeling cationic surfactant adsorption, 49-52 deficits effects nitrogen, 264-265 water, 267 functioning of soil structure, 156-159 340 INDEX Models aquifer box, 45-47 cotton crop applications, 275-28 calibration and validation, 273-275 development, 267-273 expert systems COMAX and WHIMS, 271-273 GOSSYM, 234,269-271 for predicting phenological growth stages, 70-73 Moisture retention, micromorphological analysis, 151-156 Molecular markers in choosing parents, I3 for selection, 8, 18-19 Montmorillonite, surface hydrophilicity, 32-34 Morphology, nomenclatures, 64-67 Ontogeny, wheat seed, 93-95 Organic matter in aggregate stabilization, 144 biochemical transformation, 132-134 effects of soil type and farming system, 31 increase with FYM application, 301-303 Organic modifiers abiotic decomposition, 35-36 adsorption by clay minerals, 30-35 Organic reserves, and low-temperature stress, 195-196 Organoclays production and use, 26-28 sorptive properties, 36-44 synthesis and chemical stability, 28-36 Organophilic clays, adsorption isotherms, 39-40 Osmotic adjustment, perennial forages, 174 N P Naphthalene, sorbed to HDTMA-smectite, bioavailability, 57 Nematode infection, potatoes, 295-297 Nitrate leaching, reduction, 151 Nitrogen, see also Leaf nitrogen deficiency effects on cotton, 257-265 in forage plants, 187-188 effects kernel growth, 97-98 leaf developmental rates, 76 spikelet initiation, 85 fate in organic manures, 11-3 13 fertilizer, 301-303.305-306.309-31 I fixation and remobilization, defoliation effect, 180-183 mineralization, 149-150 retranslocation, 174 Nomenclatures, morphological, 64-67 Nonpolar organic compounds, sorption, 37-41 Number of calendar days model, 70-73 Nutrients availability, role in wheat phenology, 71-72 organs receiving, priority, 253-255 stress, in forage plants, 187-191, 206-207 Parents, choosing for breeding programs, 9-13 Park Grass, long-term ecological study, 13-3 19 Particle diffusion, slow rate, 48 Partitioning, biomass, 253-255 Pathogens, soil-borne, effect on crops, 304-306 Peduncle, growth in wheat, 91 Pentachlorophenol, van der Waals contact area, 42 PH Park Grass plots, 314-319 soil, effect on crop yields, 297-299 Phenanthrene, temporal trend, 320-324 Phenology cotton cultivars, 231-240 and leaf nitrogen, 259-260 shoot apex, 67-73 Phosphorus accumulation in soil, 306-309 deficiency in forage plants, 188-190 Photoperiod, correlation with phyllochron, 78-79 Photosynthesis compensatory, 180 and leaf nitrogen, 263 water deficit effect, 174175.267 Photothermal units model, 70-73 Phyllochron in estimating time between growth stages, 72-73 intervals, 239 Object-oriented simulation, crop modeling, 276-278 341 INDEX linear with growing degree-days, 75-76 prediction, 78-79 water stress effect, 76-77 Physical functioning, soil structure, modeling, 156-157 Plant breeding for abiotic stress tolerance, 203-208 history, quantitative genetics, 3,9-18 Plastochron, and leaf primordium initiation, 73-74 Plot size, and soil movement, 303-304 Pollen grains, production per wheat plant, 88-89 Pollination, self and cross, and choice of parents, 9-13 Pollutants, organic and inorganic, long-term experiments, 19-325 Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, temporal trend, 320-324 Populations base, formation, 11 segregating, in choosing parents, 9-10 Pore system, image analysis, 125-126 Porosity interpedal and intradpedal, 132-1 34 tillage effect, 136-138 Potassium accumulation in soil, 306-309 reserves, depletion in lucerne, 295-297 retranslocation, 201-202 Potato, nematode infection, 295-297 Precision agriculture, 280-282 Predicted gain equation, 6-7 Process-level simulation model, 230 Propylbenzene, sorption by organosmectite,38-39 Q QACs, see Quaternary ammonium compounds Quantitative genetics in plant breeding, 3,9-18 tools, 4-9 Quaternary ammonium compounds addition to subsoils, 44-54 adsorption chemistry, 28-35 toxicity to bacteria, 54-56 R Rachis, internode extension, 89-90 Raindrop impact, disaggregation by, 140-141 Reconstructions, 3-D, in micromorphology, 126-127 Regrowth, grasses, and carbohydrate remobilization, 182-183 Relative internode elongation rate, 240-243 Relative leaf expansion rate, 240-243.262 Remediation, environmental, use of surfactants, 25-28 Remobilization carbon and nitrogen, 181-183 Reproduction, cotton, initiation, 232-235 Research, value of long-term field experiments, 291-329 Residues, from fertilizations, effect on soil, 307-308 Resilience, soil structure, 139-140 Rhine soils, moisture deficits, 152-156 Rhizomes freezing tolerance, 193 tall fescue, selection for, 205 Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase, water deficit effects, 175 Ridge, single and double, commencement in wheat, 69 Ripening, soil, 129-130 Roots adventitious and seminal, grass seedlings, 177-178 cotton, growth, 248-250.254255 development phosphorus deficiency effect, 189 and porosity, 149 role in soil biology, 131-132 as sink during grain filling, 100 Rotations, 5-year in long-term field experiments, 295-297 Rothamsted, England insect survey, 19 long-term field experiments, 293-329 S Salt stress, in grasses, 199-203 tolerance, breeding for, 207-208 Seedlings emergence, and phyllochron, 77-79 grasses establishment, 176-1 79 responses to salt stress, 200-202 Seeds, wheat, ontogeny, 93-95 42 Selection criterion, competition as, 204 gain from, predicting, 6-7 during inbreeding, 13-17 for quantitative traits, history, recurrent, 17-18 for rhizomes in tall fescue, 205 use of molecular markers, 8, 18-19 Shade responses, forage grasses, 184-1 86 Shoot apex developmental events, 73-101 phenology, 67-73 Shrinking, clay soils, 128-130 Sigmoidal pattern, kernel growth, 92-93 Single-seed descent, in inbreeding, 14 Sinks, during kernel growth, 100-101 Site tenure, long-term experiments, 327-328 Smectite-HDTMA, 40-41.55-57 Smectite-TMPA, adsorption capacity, 38-39 Soils acidity and aluminum toxicity, 190 effect on crop yields, 297-299 biological processes, 13 1-134 calcareous, and iron-deficiency chlorosis, 190-191 macrostructure, 123 management practices, 134-1 39 microstructure, 147-150 modified contaminant biodegradation, 54-57 hydraulic conductivity, 52-54 movement, and plot size, 303-304 physical processes, 128-130 pohtion, long-term experiments, 19-325 quality, 158-159 Rhine, moisture deficits, 152-156 type,effect on organic matter, 313 Sorption effect on contaminant transport, 43-44 hydrophobic organic contaminants by organoclays, 36-41 ions by organoclays, 41-43 Sorptive zone, 27-28.35.47.52-54 Sources, translocation to sinks, effect on grain filling, 99-101 Species composition, in treated and untreated plots, 315-319 Specific leaf weight in response to shade, 184 and starch accumulation, 245-247 Spikelet differentiation, 85-87 kernel growth within or among, 95-96 naming scheme, 67 primordium initiation, 83-85 terminal, formation, 89 Square, cotton formation, 233-235,243-244 growth, 250-252 maturation period, 235-236 Stability aggregate, 145-147 enzyme, at low temperatures, 195 soil structure, 139-147 Starch accumulation, and specific leaf weight, 245-247 granules, in wheat kernels, 94 Stems carbohydrate reserves, I01 expansion, and leaf nitrogen, 260-262 Stereology, in 3-D reconstructions, 127 Stomata, nitrogen-deficient cotton plants, 258 Stress defoliation, whole-plant responses, 179-1 low-temperature, 191-199 nutrient, in forage plants, 187-191 salt, 199-203 tolerance, plant breeding for, 203-208 water, effect on phyllochron, 76-77 Subcoleoptile internode, elongation, 177-1 79 Submicroscopy, soils, 124-125 Subsoils HDTMA-treated, 44 modification in siru, 27 QAC desorption, 35 Sugars, protection of desiccation damage, 196 Superoxide dismutase role in freezing stress, 195 water deficit effects, 175 Superphosphate, applications at Park Grass, 18-3 19 Surfactants cationic, adsorption modeling, 49-52 in environmental remediation, 25-28 Survival grass seedlings, 178-179 plants mycorrhizal hyphae effects, 189 in Park Grass plots, 316-318 winter, and rhizome production, 205 INDEX Sustainability, assessment in long-term experiments, 294-304 Swelling, clay soils, 128-130 Synthesis, organoclays, 28-36 T Take-all, pathogen-induced, study at Broadbalk, 304-306 Tall fescue development stages, 74-75 infection with endophyte, 175-176 selection for rhizomes, 205 Taproots, alfalfa, remobilization of carbon and nitrogen, 181-183 2.3.7.8-TCCD temporal trend, 320-324 Temperature canopy and apical meristem, correlation, 83 controlling leaf appearance, 76-77 dayhight, and specific leaf weight, 245-247 effects cotton fruit, 25 cultivar vernalization response, 72 development rate, 234-235 kernel growth, 97 spikelet initiation, 84-85 high, effects on fruiting structures, 255-257 long-term, in crop modeling, 227-23 low, acclimation to 191-195 Testing for combining ability, 15-17 cotton simulation models, 274-275 for yield, 14 Thin sections, preparation, 123-124 Tillage effects on soil structure, 134-138 minimum, and yield, 146-147 Tillers bud initiation, 74 naming system, 66-67 primordium elongation and abortion, 79-82 Tissue culture in low-temperature stress, 197-199 in salt stress, 202-203 Tissue expansion, water deficit effect, 266 TMPA, see Trimethylphenylammonium Tolerance freezing, 191-195, 197-1 99 salt, 199-203 stress, plant breeding for, 203-208 343 Toxicity aluminum, and acid soils, 190 QACs to bacteria, 54-56 Traits, multiple, selection index, 7-8 Transformation organic matter, 132-134 in plant breeding, 19 Transmission electron microscopy, sectioning for, 125 Transpiration, and leaf nitrogen, 263-264 Transplantation, back to native plot, 316-318 Transport, contaminants, sorption effect, 43-44 Trimethylpheny lammonium complex with bentonite, 43-44 complex with smectite, adsorption capacity, 38-39 U Unfolding, cotton leaf, interval rates, 236-239 V Validation, cotton simulation model, 273-274 Van der Waals interactions, and Gibbs free energy 31 Variation environmental, description, 5-6 genetic estimations, 4-5 for stress tolerance, 204-208 Vascular connections, within spike, 99-100 Vernalization increase of stem length, 82 requirements of wheat cultivars, 72-73 Vertisols, structural restoration, 137 Vesicles below sedimentary crusts, 141 on grass leaf, regulation of salt content, 201 Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae, and phosphorus uptake, 189 W Washing/flushing, with surfactants, 25-26 Water effects on kernel growth, 98 interaction with clay surface 33-34 potable, nitrate levels, 309-310 role in wheat phenology, stress, effect on phyllochron, 76-77 344 Water deficit effects cotton, 265-267 forage quality, 176 photosynthesis, 174-1 75 and grass seedling establishment, 176-179 Rhine soils, 152-156 tall fescue and endophyte, 175-176 whole-plant responses, 173-174 Water use efficiency, and carbon isotope discrimination, 206 Weeds, in long-term field experiments, 299 Wheat shoot apex, growth and phenology, 63-101 winter, FYM effect, 302-303 Whole-plant responses defoliation stress, 179-18 water deficit, 173-174 INDEX Woburn Ley Arable, long-term field experiment, 294-297 Y Yield agronomic plots, fertilization effect, 136-137 crop soil acidity effect, 297-299 and soil morphology, 158 herbage dry matter, 18 and minimum tillage, 146-147 spring barley, fertilizer effects, 307-309 testing for, 14 This Page Intentionally Left Blank ... selecting parents from which selfed lines will be derived using a pedigree system, single-seed descent, or some other method of deriving inbreds In self-pollinated species, these lines usually... effective in selecting crosses that would produce superior lines in soybeans (Glycine m a L. , Merrill) Panter and Allen (199 5) suggested using best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) methods to... applies here as well as in development of inbreds for use as lines, per se Jenkins (193 5) and Sprague (194 6) concluded that high-combining lines could be identified by testing early in the inbreeding
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