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THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES TRUONG THI KIM NHI USING ROLE PLAY TO DEVELOP SPEAKING SKILL FOR STUDENTS IN HUNG SON PRIMARY SCHOOL (Sử dụng hoạt động đóng vai để phát triển kĩ nói cho học sinh trường tiểu học Hùng Sơn) M.A THESIS (APPLICATION ORIENTATION) Field: English Linguistics Code: 8220201 Supervisor: Dr Nguyen Thi Viet Nga THAI NGUYEN – 2018 i DECLARATION -***** I certify that the minor thesis entitled “Using role play to develop speaking skill for students in Hung Son primary school” is my own study in the fulfillment of the requirement for the Degree of Master of Arts at Foreign Language Faculty, Thai Nguyen University Signature: Truong Thi Kim Nhi Thai Nguyen, 2018 ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS During the process of completing this graduation paper, I have been fortunate to receive much support, assistance, guidance encouragement from many people First of all, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my supervisor – Mrs Nguyen Thi Viet Nga, Ph.D who has kindly given me constructive comments, criticism, suggestions In addition, my thanks also are sent to all the teachers of College of Foreign Languages at Thai Nguyen University who have taught me with all their heart in unforgettable two years They have directly and indirectly contributed to the completion of this research I also wish to give my deepest thanks to my family who has been wholeheartedly supporting me They are always beside and motivate me in my study and my life Finally, I also would like to thank all my friends for their discussions, opinions and encouragements Without their instructive contributions, my research could have been finished Moreover, the shortcomings in this study are unavoidable Therefore, I hope to receive the sympathy from teachers and friends Thai Nguyen, 2018 Truong Thi Kim Nhi TABLE OF CONTENTS DECLARATION……………………………………………………………….… i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS………………………………………………….… ii TABLE OF CONTENTS……………………………………………… ……… iii ABSTRACT…………………………………………………….… vi LIST OF FIGURES, ABBREVIATIONS, TABLES AND CHARTS ……….….viii CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Rationale 1.2 Aims of the study 1.3 Research questions .2 1.4 Scope of the study 1.5 Significance of the research 1.6 Structure of the thesis CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Speaking 2.1.1 Definition of speaking .4 2.1.2 Elements of speaking 2.1.3 Types of speaking 2.2 Teaching speaking for primary students 2.2.1 Teaching speaking 2.2.2 How to teach speaking for primary students 2.3 Using role-playing activities teaching speaking for primary students 2.3.1 Role- play 2.3.2 Types of role play 10 2.3.3 The organization of a role - play activity 10 2.3.4 The teacher’s and student’s role in role play activity 11 2.3.5 The advantages of role play activity 12 2.3.6 The disadvantages of role play activity 13 2.4 Review of Related Studies 14 CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 16 3.1 Research questions .16 3.2 Participants 16 3.3 Data collection instrument 16 3.3.1 Observation 17 3.3.2 Interview 17 3.3.3 Test .18 3.4 Research procedure 20 3.5 Data analysis 23 CHAPTER 4: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 25 4.1 Findings of the Observation 25 4.1.1 The result of pre observation .25 4.1.2 The result of observation after implementing the Class Action Research 25 4.2 Findings of the Interview 26 4.3 The result of the test 28 4.3.1 The result of pre – test 28 4.3.1 Findings of the first cycle .28 4.3.2 Findings of the second cycle .34 4.4.3 Findings of the Test Results .38 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS 46 5.1 Recapitulation 46 5.2 Suggestions 46 5.2.1 For teachers 46 5.2.2 For students .47 5.2.3 For the researchers: 48 5.3 Limitations: 48 REFERENCES 49 APPENDIXES I ABSTRACT The aim of this research is to enhance students’ activity in learning speaking skill, to check whether role play is efective learning technique, to know advantages and disadvantages of role play The research subject is fifth grade students of Hung Son Primary School which is located in Hung Son town, Dai Tu district, Thai Nguyen province This research was classroom action research that conducted into two cycles In each cycle was consisted of plan, action, observation, and reflection Data collection techniques used are interviews, observations and tests In this research, the researcher acted as the practitioner The tests were in the form of pre- test conducted in the pre-research and post-tests conducted at the end of every cycle These tests were conducted to know how well students speak English by using role play in teaching English The results of this research showed that the use of role-play can improve the students’ speaking competence, role play is an effective technique of learning, and there are some advantages besides the disadvantages From the observations, it can be seen that the students could speak well and improve their vocabularies and grammatical structure Using role play in speaking class could increase the student’s scores in learning speaking It can be proved by the improvement of motivation of students There were students or 11.67 % of students in the class who achieved the minimal mastery level criterion or KKM (65) in the pre – test In the result of post – test in cycle 1, there were 22 or 36.67 % of the students who achieved KKM In the result of post –test in cycle 2, there were 53 or 88.33 % of the students who achieved KKM, and it means this action research is successful Based on the research finding above, at the end of this research, the researcher wants to propose some suggestions to English teachers First, before conducting the instructional process especially in speaking class, choosing the most suitable way of improving the students’ motivation in learning speaking is important because this is the key of the success in teaching-learning process Besides, it is necessary to create an interesting and enjoyable atmosphere in the teaching learning process in order to make the students easier in improving their speaking competence vii are 38 students whose score still under KKM The students’ improvements which pass the KKM are 25% (36.67% - 11.67%) However, it is still needed more improvement because it could not achieve the target yet of success CAR, that is 75% from the class percentage That is why the writer and the teacher continue to the second cycle Based on the result of post – test 2, it can be interpreted that the mean of students’ posttest was: X2 = scores Σx = n 4375 = 72.92 60 From this data, the researcher calculates students’ pre - test score with students’ post - test score by using this formula below to find the improvement of students score in the form of percentage, it will be as follow: P= y1 - y x 100% = y 72.65- 57.1 57.1 x 100% = 27.23% After finding the improvement of students’ score, then the researcher tried to find the class percentage of the whole students who able to pass the KKM as follow: P2 = F n X 100% = 53 60 x 100% = 88.33 % In the second cycle, the writer also calculates the mean score of the class which is 44 72.92 It showed the students’ improvement score 8.17 (72.92 – 64.75) from the posttest (64.75) Meanwhile, the class percentage which passed KKM is 88.33% This class percentage shows some improvement 76.66% (88.33% - 11.67%) from 45 the pretest (11.67%) or 51.66% (88.33% - 36.67%) from the posttest (36.67%) in the class percentage The writer obtained that there are 27.23 % of students score had improved within the second cycle, or 53 of 60 students are passed the KKM while the other students are still below the KKM The posttest of cycle has fulfilled the target of CAR success, that is above 75% students could pass the KKM It can be said that CAR is success and the cycle of CAR is not continued From all the calculation above, the researcher could interpret the result after the implementation of Classroom Action Research from cycle I up to cycle II It could be seen from the result of pre-test, post-test I and post-test II Here the writer describes the result from pre-test, post-test I and post-test II through diagram below: Chart 1: The Students’ Score Mean Improvement NB: Pretest = 57.1 Post - test I = 64.75 Post - test II = 72.92 Chart 2: The Students’ Score Class Percentage (pre - test, post - test I, post – test II) NB: pre – test: 11.67 % Post – test 1: 36.67% Post – test 2: 88.33% After being taught by using role play, most students got better achievement except seven students who got the lowest score Her lower score was caused by her inadequate knowledge even after he was involved in the treatments The result of data analysis revealed that the students’ scores of speaking taught by implementing role play was better The highest score of pre - test was 68 and the lowest one was 50 The highest score of post - test was 76 and the lowest one was 58 Meanwhile, the highest score of post - test was 80 and the lowest one was 63 The mean score of the class in the second cycle was 72.92, whereas the mean score before the implementation of role play technique was 57.1 It can be concluded that the students was a significant improvement, which can be seen from the score that got higher from pre – test, post – test 1, and post – test CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS 5.1 Recapitulaton The study “Using role play to develop speaking skill for students in Hung Son primary school” used Classroom Action Research (CAR) method in which to identify the problem on students’ speaking ability It was applied for students in grade at Hung Son Primary school, which is considered as the class whose speaking ability is quite low The amount of students of that class was 60 In this CAR, the research was conducted in two cycles which followed the Kurt Lewin’s design It consisted of four phases: Planning, Acting, Observing and Reflecting Meanwhile, the data is derived from the test, interview and observation Based on the result of this study “Using role play to develop speaking skill for students in Hung Son primary school”, which was conducted in Grade at Hung Son Primary School, the writer concluded that role play activity can develop students’ speaking skill showed by the score they got Moreover, by observing the students’ participation in the class conversation, discussions, perform in front of the class, it showed that the students were more creative, active, confident and independent in express what they have known Furthermore, thanks to the result of interview and observation during implementing the Class Action Research., it also indicated the advantages and advantages of role play activity in teaching speaking English for primary students Although there are some disadvantages such as wasting time, causing embarrassment, losing control during the lesson, role play is an activity which helps the students improve their speaking English skill Role play activity provides students with the opportunity to practice the language in different real – life situations Thus, role play activity adds interest to speaking English classes and motivates students to learn the language, increasing their vocabulary, intonation, fluency and pronunciation 5.2 Suggestons In this part, the writer would like to recommend some suggestions for English teacher, students and other researcher The suggestions are as follows: 5.2.1 For teachers Firstly, role play is a helpful technique which is used to improve students’ speaking ability; therefore, the teacher needs to maintain applying role play activity as alternative activity of the teaching process in grade students of Hung Son Primary school Secondly, the teacher should learn the characteristics of the students, including the psychological condition before conducting the teaching learning process Moreover, teacher should have good preparations A various materials for lessons with pictures and information should be prepared carefully They should create a good atmosphere for students to take part in role play activity Thirdly, the teacher’s attitude toward students during the time of conducting role play activity will decide the success of the lesson such as: observe, listen and how to help students, encouragement and even giving feedback When giving feedback, the teachers should give feedback on both form and content It is advisable that teachers should encourage students to self- correct Giving feedback and correcting errors is also a good way to motivate students as it is a useful comprehension for students and it shows that the teachers really listen to what they say However, the teacher only gives feedback and correct errors after students already finish their performance Furthermore, the teacher should give clear explanation and instruction in directing the students using role play Before assigning the role play to the students, the teacher should make sure that the students have fully understood and have the information they need Lastly, the teacher should control the students’ activities One of the issues that may reduce the efectiveness of role – play activities is students’ Vietnamese use They may use Vietnamese during discussion or even chat with each other The best way to keep students speaking English is that the teachers should try their best to put an eye on all groups, remind students, model them the language use and provide their students with vocabulary or grammatical structures that may help them to solve the tasks When students have enough background knowledge, they not have the need to use mother tongue – Vietnamese 5.2.2 For students First, the students are hoped to be active in learning and teaching process Next, the students are expected to use English when they practice role play activity although it is a bit dificult for them for the first time In addition, the students not feel shy if they make mistakes in pronunciation and grammatical errors but try to keep speaking well 5.2.3 For the researchers The result of the study can be used as an additional reference or further research with diferent discussion Each researcher not easily satisfied with the research that has been done, but must continue to be developed so that it can continue to work and innovate for the advancement of education in Viet Nam 5.3 Limitatons Although the research was carefully prepared and obtained it aims, I am still aware of some unavoidable limitations and shortcomings of the research First of all, the research was conducted only on a small size of population, only sixty students who were in Grade at Hung Son Primary school and might not represent the majority of the students of the level Second, the research was conducted in a short period of time Because the students had to be part of the research and to attend to their regular classes, the teacher could not apply many techniques and strategies within the ten weeks’ time Therefore, the data gained might be insufficient to come to appropriate conclusions Thirdly, the lack of basic vocabulary, incorrect pronunciation, poor intonation and fluency as well as shyness in the majority of students made role-play activities difficult to perform at the beginning of the intervention Finally, because the pre – test and post – test were assessed by the writer herself, it is unavoidable that the degree of subjectivity can be found REFERENCES Anas Sudijono (2009), Pengantar Statstik Pendidikan, (Jakarta: P.T Raja Grafindo Persada),p.43 Arikunto, Suharsimi (2009), Penelitan Tindakan Kelas Jakarta: Bumi Aksara Bailey, K.M & Nunan, D (2005), Practcal English language teaching speaking NewYork : MecGraw-Hill Education Barkley, Elizabeth F., K.Patricia Cross, and Claire Howell Major (2005), Collaboratve Learning Techniques A handbook for College Faculty San Fransisco: Jossey-Bass Publisher Brown, H Douglas (2001), Language Assesment Principles and Classroom Practses New York: Longman Brown, Douglas (2000), Principles of language learning and teaching San Francisco: State University Byrne, Donn (1996), Teaching Oral English: Longman Handbooks for English Teacher Singapore: Longman Groups Candace Matthews (1994), Speaking Soluton: Interaction, Presentaton, Listening, and Pronunciaton Skills, (New Jersey: Prentice – Hall Inc), p.111 Carol Livingstone (1983), Role Play in Langauge Learning, (Burnt Mill: Longman Group Limited), p.30 David E Meltzer (2008), The Relatonship between mathematcs Preparaton and Conceptual Learning Gains in Physics: A Possible Hidden Variable in Diagnostc Pretest Scores, (lowa: Department of Physics and Astronomy) , p.3 Departemen Pendidikan Nasional (2009), Model Pembelajaran yang Efektf, (Jakarta: Dekdiknas), p.4 Gower, Roger and Diane Philips, Steve Walters (1995), Teaching Practce Handbook, Oxford: Heinemann English Language Teaching Heaton, J.B (1990), Classroom Testng: Longman Keys to Language Teaching, New York: Longman James H Mcmillan and Sally Schumacher (2006), Research Education: Evidence – Based Inquiry, (New York: Pearson Education, ), p.194 JO Mc Donough and Christopher Shaw (2003), Materials and Methods in ELT, (Melbourner: Blackwell Publishing,), p.134 Kayi, Hayriye (2006), Teaching Speaking: Actvites to Promote Speaking in a Second Language The Internet TESL Journal,12 (1), accessed on December 2010 Ladousse, Gillian Porter (1995), Role Play: Resources Book for the Teacher Series New York: Oxford University Press Luoma, Sari (2004), Assesing speaking Cambridge: Cambridge university press McKay, P (2006) Assessing young language learners Cambridge: CUP Mustafa, N (2011), Teaching language functions by implementing communicative activities, English Educaton Journal, (1), p 65-77 Nurmaida (2011) Implementation of key word tasks using cooperative stad in speaking class, English Educaton Journal, (1), 78-95 Richards, Jack C., Theodore S Rodgers (1986), Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching A Descripton and Analysis Cambridge University Richards, J C., & Renandya, W A (Eds.) (2002) Methodology in language teaching Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Richards, J C (2005), Communicatve Language Teaching Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Language Center Richards, J C (2008) Teaching Listening and Speaking Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Sarah Lynne Bowman (2010), The Functon of Role-Playing Games, (Britain: Mc Farland & Company, Inc Publisher), p 49-50 Ur, Penny (1981), Discussions that work: Task-Centered Fluency Practce Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Ur, Penny (1996), A Course in Language Teaching Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Victoria Fromkin and Robert Rodman (1998), An Introducton to Language, (New York: Harcourt Brace College Publishers), p.14 W James Popham, Educatonal Statstc, (New York, Harper & Row Publishers), p 21 - 18 APPENDIXES Appendix The Questions of Pre - test (Interview) What is your name? How you spell your name? How are you today? How old are you? Can you speak English? Do you like speaking English? What you do? How many people are there in your family? Who are they? Where did you go for last summer? 10 What did you there? Appendix The Questions of Post – test 1, 2(Role playing) Situation 1: Image you are a waiter in “Family Restaurant” A customer wants to order food and drink Help her/ him order Situation 2: Image you are a journalist You have to write an article which tells about a good student Interview about his her background Situation 3: Image you go to the supermarket You have to help your mother buy something Situation 4: Image your family are planning for the summer holiday Talk about the plan Appendix The procedures of the test: Pre – test: The test was done in front of the teacher desk It means the students faced the teacher - The teacher called students one by one and asked students the questions - The students answered what the teacher had asked Post – test: - The teacher gave the instruction of the post – test - The teacher showed some envelopes, which contained some role cards - The student took one role card - The student acted out as role play together with teacher based on the role card ... time to practice their English because they only practiced their English at school, and after they returned home from school they did not use English anymore Moreover, the students just have an... develop speaking skill for students in Hung Son primary school” is made The researcher hopes that this study will provide the teachers of primary school a suitable method to teach speaking for primary... competence of students at Hung Son primary school - To find out the advantages and disadvantages while applying role-play to students at Hung Son primary school 1.3 Research questons - How efective
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