TOEIC structure

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1 GRAMMAR NOUN Countable Noun Singular >< Plural Uncountable Noun without a/an/ -s a /an/the Regular Irregular Noun –s/ es Note a means/series/species – means a child – children a foot – feet a tooth – teeth a louse – lice a person – people a goose – geese a mouse – mice a man – men a woman – women on ox - oxen a fish - fish a carp – carp a cod – cod a salmon – salmon a deer – deer a sheep - sheep a crisis – crises a thesis – theses a diagnosis - diagnoses a hypothesis – hypotheses a parenthesis - parentheses an axis - axes an oasis - oases a phenomenon – phenomena a criterion - criteria a memorandum – memoranda a curriculum – curricula a bacterium - bacteria a syllabus – syllabi a cactus – cacti a fungus – fungi a stimulus – stimuli a radius – radii an appendix – appendices an index – indices Note 2: Twelve nouns ending in f or fe drop the f or fe and ad ves a calf - calves a life – lives a shelf - shelves a half - halves a loaf - loaves a thief - thieves a knife - knives -self - -selves a wife - wives a leaf - leaves a sheaf - sheaves a wolf –wolves a hoof – hooves/hoofs a roof – roofs a cliff – cliffs a safe – safes a handkerchief – handkerchiefs a belief- beliefs But: NOUN 2: Compound Nouns Normally the last word is made plural boyfriends river banks November fogs travel agents city streets church bells shop windows corner shops college libraries hitch-hikers street markets driving licenses traffic wardens spring flowers But when man and woman is prefixed both parts are made plural men drivers women drivers The first word is made plural with compounds formed of verb + er or compounds composed of noun + preposition + noun lookers-on runners-up sisters-in-law NOUN 3: Quantifiers Many/several/various/numerous/diverse >< Much A number of/numbers of >< An amount of/amounts of (A) few >< (A) little Fewer/ the fewest >< Less/ the least NOUN 4: Numbers a /two/three… hundred/thousand/million/billion/trillion + Noun hundreds/thousands/millions/billions + OF + Noun Compound adjectives A three-year-old boy A 16,000-page book one/two/three percent (no –s) of Noun ; but a/the percentage of Noun VERB (1) Subject _ Verb Agreement (2) Tenses (3) Active >< Passive V + No Object /Prepositional phrase (by, in, with…) Transitive V + Obj (4) Form a After modal verb + Bare inf (can, could, may, might, shall, should, must, will, would, would rather, had better, have to, ought to, be to, be supposed to) V- ing ( active/ continuous tenses) b After ‘be’ P P (passive) c After ‘have’ + P P (perfect tenses) d Gerund >< Infinitive e Finite Verb >< Participle ( Present Participle >< Past participle) PARALLEL STRUCTURE , and but or either …or neither… nor not only… but also both … and rather than 10 whether … or 11 as well as PRONOUN Pronoun/Noun Agreement they >< it/he/she/we their >< its/his/her/our them>< it/him/her/us themselves>< which that (of ) >< those (of) (plural) Which type? a Subjective Pronouns (I/You/He/She/It/ We/You/They) - Subject of a Verb - After ‘Be’ b Objective Pronouns (me/you/him/her/it/us/you/them) - Object of a Verb - Object of a Preposition c Possessive Adjectives (my/your/his/her/its/our/your/their) - Before a Noun - Before a Gerund: We are surprised by their nesting in such harsh conditions d Possessive Pronouns (mine/yours/his/hers/ours/yours/theirs) e Reflexive Pro (myself/yourself/himself/herself/itself/ourselves/yourselves/themselves) Wrong spelling ( hisself/ theirselves/ ourself/ themself) The >< Possessive Adjective Ex: His snake is a reptile He devoted the life to science Double subject/object Ex: Black Island in Long Island Sound it is surrounded by cold, dangerous waters Unnecessary relative pronoun >< Necessary relative pronoun Ex: Certain types of turtles that may live as long as 100 years The woman lives next door is too nosy WORD FORM Adjectives a Before nouns Ex: an important meeting b After ‗be‘ and other linking verbs - be/become - look/seem/appear/sound - taste/feel/smell - stay/remain ( = continue to be) - turn/get/grow/go (= become) - prove/find Ex: She looks angry c Some adjectives end in –ly: friendly/costly/cowardly/lovely/lively/ lonely/likely/ugly/early/monthly/weekly/daily/hourly/nightly/year ly/quarterly/timely/scholarly/womanly/manly/motherly/fatherly/ kindly Adverbs a Modify verbs: Ex: Ann eagerly accepted the challenge b Modify adjectives Ex: Ted seemed extremely curious about that topic c Modify participles Ex: A rapidly changing situation / A brightly colored dress d Modify prepositions/ clause markers: soon after / immediately after/ long before/ shortly before e Modify adverbs: f Ex: The accident occurred incredibly quickly Modify the whole sentence - general >< generally - possible >< possibly - basic >< basically - probable >< probably - particular >< particularly - usual >< usually - original >< originally - innate >< Ex: Generally, I like my class innately Note a fast (adj)  fast (adv) b long (adj)  long (adv) c hard (adj)  hard >< hardly d high (adj)  high >< highly (figurative meaning) e early (adj)  early (adv) f good (adj)  well (adv) VERB NOUN ADJECTIVE VERB NOUN ADJECTIVE Differ Difference Different Restrict Restriction Restrictive Invent Invention Inventive Cultivate Culture Cultural Compete Competition Competitive Agriculture Agricultural Fertilize Fertilizer/fertility Fertile Power Powerful Decide Decision Decisive Importance Important Prohibit Prohibition Prohibitive Significance Significant Prevent Prevention Preventive Analyze Analysis Analytical Beautify Beauty Beautiful Familiarize Familiarity Familiar Originate Origin Original Popularize Popularity Popular Emphasize Emphasis Emphatic Classify Classification Classifiable Glorify Glory Glorious Categorize category Categorical Mystify Mystery Mysterious Absent Absence Absent Socialize Society Social Interest Interest Interesting Generalize Generalization General Bore Boredom Boring Simplify Simplicity Simple Fascinate Fascination Fascinating Free Freedom Free Produce Production Productive Construct Construction Constructive Necessitate Necessity Necessary Live Life Live/living Collect Collection Collective Empower FIELD PERSON FIELD Music Musician Surgery Poetry Poet Administration Administrator PERSON Surgeon FIELD PERSON Dentistry Dentist Architecture Architect Engineering Engineer Farming Farmer Finance Financier Photography Photographer Biology Biologist Physics Physicist Athletics Athlete Theory Theorist Science Scientist Philosophy Philosopher Chemistry Chemist Invention Inventor Creation Creator Politics Politician Crime/criminology Criminal Law Lawyer Humor Humorist Mathematics mathematician History Historian Biography Biographer Manufacture Manufacturer Editing Editor Writing Writer Acting Actor/actress Magic Magician Geography Geographer Collection Collector Forecast Forecaster Hunting Hunter Employment Employee/er Training Trainer Dance Dancer Competition Competitor Contest Contestant Beauty Beautician Labor Laborer Discovery Discoverer Carpentry Carpenter NOUN VERB ADJECTIVE NOUN VERB ADJECTIVE Strength Strengthen Strong Heat Heat Hot Hardness Harden Hard Light Lighten Light Softness Soften Soft Brightness Brighten Bright/brilliant Depth Deepen Deep Thickness Thicken Thick Ripeness Ripen Ripe Richness Enrich Rich Solidity Solidify Solid Humidity Humidify Humid Length Lengthen Long Flatness/flat Flatten Flat Shortness Shorten Short Height Heighten High Weight Weigh Weighty/weightless Darkness/dark Darken Dark Blackness Blacken Black White/whiteness Whiten White Fat Fatten Fat Largeness Large Nouns: hearing/sight/smell/taste/touch Verbs: hear/see/smell/taste/touch Enlarge WORD CHOICE Wrong choice of MAKE or DO 1) MAKE an agreement/ an announcement/ an attempt/an effort/ a decision/a discovery/ an offer/a profit/ a promise/ advances in/ a comparison/ a contribution/ a distinction/ a forecast/ a law/ a point/ an investment/ a plan/ a prediction/ a sound/ noise/use of/ a choice/ a loan/an appointment 2) MAKE UP OF (= be composed of ); MAKE UP (= compose) 3) DO an assignment/the dishes/ the washing-up/the shopping/ the ironing/the cooking/a favor/homework/the laundry/ a paper//research/ a job/ one’s work/ business with/ justice to/ wrong/ a kindness/one’s duty/harm/one’s best/a service/damage/ wonder Wrong choice of like/ alike/like or as 1) Like/Unlike A, B + Verb 2) A, like/unlike B, + Verb 3) A is like/unlike B 4) A and B are alike 5) Like + Noun Ex: My results were much like Paul‘s 6) As + Subject +Verb Ex: I did my experiment just as Paul did 7) As + Noun (=in the role of) 8) serve as/ function as/ use sth as/ be used as/ be thought of as/ be referred to as 9) regard/consider/name/choose/elect/select/designate/appoint/declare/ nominate/proclaim/announce s.o/sth (as) s.o/sth 10 Wrong choice of so, such, too 1) so + adjective/adverb + that Subject + Verb 2) so + many/few + Noun (c) that Subject + Verb + much/little + Noun (u) that Subject + Verb 3) so + adjective + a/an + Noun (c, singular) that Subject + Verb 4) such + (a/an) + Adj + Noun that Subject + Verb 5) too adjective + (for someone) + to something 6) enough + noun +( for someone) to something 7) adjective/adverb + enough + (for someone) to something Wrong choice of because or because of; although or in spite of /despite; when/while or during Adverb clause markers + S+ V Preposition + Noun/NP  because  because of/ due to/ on account of  although/though/even though  in spite of/ despite  when/while/as  during Wrong choice of ANOTHER or OTHER Another  Adjective another + Noun (singular) Other  other + Noun (plural)  Determiner (the, some, any, every, one, no) + other + Noun (sing)  another (an additional one) Pronoun Ex: Give me another  the other/the others Ex: Of the two teachers, one is experienced, and the other is not Note: each other / one another from one … to another 44 Identifying a thing, an action or idea Words you might hear in the questions Words you might hear in the answers - What …? What kind/type of  Something (…)  I don‘t know - What you think I should wear to the party What is the fine for overdue books? What was that loud noise I just heard? What kind of work does Ms Garcia do? What kind of novel you like? What’s the name of the travel agency this company uses? What are your total production figures for this factory? What you plan to when school is finished? What you estimate your firm‘s profit will be in December? - A suit and a tie It’s ten cents a day I don’t know She‘s a computer programmer I prefer adventure stories I think it’s called All Points Travel - Over 1000 units a week - Work for my father - Optimistically speaking, about 20 percent - Identifying an opinion Words you might hear in the questions Words you might hear in the answers - How What‘s your opinion of …? Do you think Tom will ….? What you think of ….?  Adjectives: great/ good/ terrific/ excellent / wonderful/ happy/ busy/ terrible/ boring…  Verbs: love/like/enjoy/prefer/believe/  Expressions: It‘s a good/great idea - How did you like that new movie? What you think of Scott Graham‘s latest novel? What you think of your new supervisor? - I enjoyed it, but my husband didn‘t It‘s terrific - I don’t know her well enough to say - 45 Identifying a choice Words you might hear in the questions - Words you might hear in the answers … A or B? … prefer? … like better?  A/B will be repeated in the answer choice  Neither one/Both, please  Either one Note: The speaker can offer a third option - Which does that artist produce more of – paintings or sculptures? Will you arrive in the morning or the evening? Do you want milk or sugar in your coffee? Should I wait here at the counter or follow you back to the warehouse? What you think, plain or patterned carpet in the waiting room? Will the conference be held here or at the headquarters? Should they move the file cabinet to the right or over by the copy machine? Shall I put this file on your desk or back in the filing cabinet? Can you locate the files on the merger, or should I ask Mr Chan to it? - Lately, she has been doing a lot of paintings In the morning, I think - Neither one Oh, come with me please - Either one is fine with me - It‘s scheduled for this building - I think it looks good where it is - I’ll take it - I’ll have them ready for you in a minute Identifying an invitation, offer, request Words you might hear in the questions - - - Why don‘t we …? Why don‘t you…? Don‘t you want to ? I was wondering if you‘d like to … Let‘s … What/How about ….? Shouldn‘t we/ Shall we …? Would/Wouldn‘t you like me to ….? Can I…? Couldn‘t you …? Would you like to join us for a game of tennis? Would you like to order a calendar for next year? Shall we send you a reminder for your Words you might hear in the answers           - OK I‘d love to! Of course Sure That sounds like fun/ That‘s a good idea/ Great, … Yes, please (accept the offer) No, thanks … (turn down the offer) Thank you, but …( turn down the offer) Sorry, I‘ve already made plans/ I have other plans …( turn down the offer) Sorry, but ……( turn down the offer) We’d love to – thanks! - Thanks, but I already have one - Yes, that would be helpful 46 - next dental appointment? Why don’t we go out this evening? Why don’t we take the earlier train home? How about a movie when we finish up here? Would you mind opening you bag so I can inspect it, sir? Don’t you want to go to the reception for Miss Gunther? I was wondering if you’d like to join us for dinner this evening? Couldn’t you stop at the post office today? What about visiting the flower show over the weekend? - Sorry, I‘ve already made plans - Great, I‘m exhausted - That’s a good idea - Not at all - Sorry, but I‘m not feeling well - Sorry, I have other plans - I might have time after lunch - Wednesday afternoon would be better for me - Identifying a reason Words you might hear in the questions - - - Why Why is this train running late? Why didn’t you let us know you‘d be late? Why did the board of directors change its policy? Why did the meeting begin so early? Why didn’t Mr Danforth bring the situation to the attention of his supervisor? Why didn’t you get to work on time? Why does Ms Ortiz want to see the invoices? Words you might hear in the answers  To sth  Because/ Because of Note: An implied reason ( usually a certain problem) can be given - I think there are mechanical problems - I couldn’t find a phone - There had been too many complaints - Everyone was in a hurry - He though he could handle it himself - The traffic was terrible - There‘s a problem with the shipment 47 Identifying a description Words you might hear in the questions - Words you might hear in the answers What is … like? What does ….look like? What are your new co-workers like? What’s the weather like here in the winter? - an adjective or adjectives - They seem very pleasant It‘s cool and often rainy Identifying manner or a method Words you might hear in the questions Words you might hear in the answers - How will/can ? - By ( a means of transport …) With … - How will you get to work tomorrow? How can we be sure that the order will arrive on time? How can I get more letterhead and envelopes? How you handle inquiries? - I‘ll get my car back from the mechanic Express service is very reliable - Contact Ms McKay in the stockroom - I send out this pamphlet - 10 Identifying a location Words you might hear in the questions Words you might hear in the answers - Where…? - - How far …? - Where should we meet so we can all go to the game together? Where are you staying ion Paris? Where did Maria leave the Oceanview contract? How far would you say Conrad Park is from here? - Names of the places Prepositions of places (in/ next to/ near/ beside/ under/ over/ on/ on top of/ at/ from/ behind/ right/ left/ downtown / at the end of… … minutes away/ walk/drive … km Let‘s meet at the stadium entrance - At the Grand Hotel She put it in Ms Garcia‘s mailbox - It‘s about 10-minute walk - 48 11 Yes/No Questions & Tag Questions Words you might hear in the questions - Do/Does/Did/ Have….? - Don‘t/ Doesn‘t/ Didn‘t …? - Words you might hear in the answers - Yes /No/ Not Have they delivered our lunch yet? - Yes, it‘s here - Has the director already left? - Yes, he had an appointment - Didn’t anyone train the new employee to use - Mike showed him everything works the copier? - Did you ask them what time their flight would - No, I didn‘t think of it arrive? - Your managing director resigned yesterday, - Yes, it was quite a surprise didn’t he? - Wilma gets reimbursed for the cost of driving - Yes, but she has to submit a claim form her car to the meting, doesn’t she? - This new product should sell well, shouldn’t - Yes, it is priced fairly it? - You want me to retype this document, don’t - I would appreciate it you? - You don‘t want to start a new project this late in the day, you? - I still have time 49 Part 3: Short Conversations I Strategies Between each question is an eight-second pause That means there are twenty-four seconds between each conversation You can accomplish quite a bit during this time You need to mark your answers for the three questions and then preview the next three questions and answer choices They tell you what to listen for While listening to each conversation, keep your eyes on the corresponding set of three questions and answer choices Don't close your eyes or look away Try to evaluate the four choices as you are listening Remember that distractors are sometimes mentioned in the conversations but are not answers to the question Don't choose an answer just because you hear a word or two from the answer in the conversation If the correct answer is not obvious, try to eliminate answer choices that seem to be incorrect If more than one answer choice is left, take a guess Mark your answers as quickly as possible so that you can preview the next item Never leave any answers blank If you are not sure, always guess II Question types A Overview questions B Detail questions C Inference question A Overview Questions Types of over view questions Question Words Questions about locations Where ? Questions about occupations Who…? Questions about activities What …doing? Questions about topic What…talking about? 50 Questions about locations Tactics Questions  Where are they? Examples  Where are the speakers? Listen for vocabulary that is associated M: We don‘t have any with a certain location reservations Is it still  Where is the man/woman? - Terminal /carousel/check-in/departure  Where is the conversation taking place? possible for us to get a lounge/ gate/ hangar /run-way  table for two? Airport F: You‘re in luck — a party - Rolls/cake/bread  Bakery of two just canceled their - Stage/cast/scene/box office/  Theater reservations We can - Chain/ring/necklace/bracelet  Jewelry seat you in about fifteen or store - Menu/terminal/keyboard  Computer store - Bulldozer/hard hat/crane  twenty minutes M: Great! I was worried, but I guess this is our lucky night! Construction site - Dryer/hangars/detergent  Laundromat - Pen/envelopes/letterhead/postcard  Post office - Account/balance/statement /checkbook / deposit/credit/loan/ interest rates  Bank - Surf/towel/umbrella/wave/sunbathe  Beach - Lawyer/judge/witness/defendant/plaintiff/ jury  Courtroom - Spectators/ cheer/ clap/ match/ player  Stadium - Lane/driver/exit  Freeway - Suite/front desk/reservation/ room/ receptionist/room service/ housekeeper  Hotel - Waiter/waitress/bill/menu/order/table/ seat/ reservation  Restaurant Where are they? A At a theater B At a party C At an airport D At a restaurant 51 Questions about occupations Tactics Questions Examples  Who is the man/woman? Listen for vocabulary that is associated M1: There‘s something  Who are they? with a certain occupation wrong with this switch  What is he/she? - Kitchen/pot/knife  Cook Can you fix it?  What are they? - Parking tickets/law/illegal/fine  M2: It‘s not just the switch,  What is the man/woman‘s profession / occupation/jon? Police officer I‘m afraid This whole - Class/exam/student  Teacher building needs rewiring - Software/keyboard/monitor  M1: But that will cost a Computer programmer - Money/deposit/withdrawal  Bank teller - Order/tip/guests  Waiter fortune! Who is the second speaker? A An electrician - Runner/training/game  Athlete B A banker - Medicine/nurse/hospital/patient  C An engineer Doctor D A jeweler - Instrument/orchestra/note  Musician - Stage/drama/theater  Actor F: I want to put a new - Passenger/Fare/Tip  Taxi driver deck on the back of my - Cash register/change/receipt  Sales house Do you know clerk - Newspaper/write/report/article  Journalist anyone who does that kind of work? M: Why don‘t you ask - Switch/rewiring/ fix  Electrician Thomas? He did a great - Pipe/sink/faucet/leak/drip/fix  job repairing the wooden Plumber - Wood/furniture/ saw/ plane/ chisels/ hammer/nail  Carpenter stairway in my house F: I asked him, but he‘s working on a new construction job Who is Tomas? A A sailor B A mechanic C A plumber D A carpenter 52 Questions about activities Tactics Examples  What are they doing? Listen for vocabulary that is associated M: I‘ve been waiting here  What is happening now? with a certain activity 15 minutes How often  What is the man doing? - Drinking coffee: cup, spoon, sugar, the buses come? Questions  What is going to happen? cream, coffee break - Watching a movie: film, screen, theater, popcorn - Going to the post office: mail, stamps, W: One stops here every twenty minutes M: Good, we only have five minutes to wait, then postal clerk, letter, package - Reading a book: novel, pages, cover, character - Making a telephone call: number, receiver, dial, answer, hang up - Using a computer: keyboard, monitor, screen, software, crash - Ordering food at a restaurant: menu, waiter, waitress, table, drink - Buying clothes: suit, pants, dress, skirt, jeans, dressing room - Eating dinner: - Waiting for a bus: - Moving furniture: - Buying a plane ticket: - Parking a car: - Driving a car: What are the speakers doing? A Getting on a bus B Waiting for a bus C Taking a taxi D Paying a fare 53 Questions about topics Tactics Questions  What/ whom are they discussing? -  What are they referring to?  What is the topic Listen for vocabulary that is associated of Examples with a certain topic the - W: Is there a dress code at your company? M: No, but most of the The answer choices will be men wear coats and  What are they talking about? four plausible topics Incorrect ties, and the women  What is the conversation about? answers may include details wear dresses or suits that are mentioned in the W: Oh, it‘s pretty formal conversation?  What is the conversation subject of the conversation but that are not the main conversation subject of then the What are they discussing A A new outfit that the woman is wearing B How people dress at the man‘s company C Where to buy clothes for work D A social event that the man attended 54 B Detail Questions Types of over view Question Words Examples questions Questions about time  When….? When does Claudia want to go  How often…? to the play?  At what time…? A Monday  How long…? B Wednesday C Thursday D Saturday W1: I need to call the theater to order tickets for Wednesday W2: Why don‘t you see the play over the weekend Claudia? W1: It runs only Monday through Thursday Questions about  Why did … happen…? Why is Mrs Sompong leaving? reasons  Why is the man/woman going A To join another company to…? B To start her own business  Why does the man/woman want to…?  Why is C To enter a race D To the man/woman upset/ happy/ puzzled…? have a break from working M: Do you hear about Mrs Sompong‘s resignation?  Why did … not happen?  Why does the man/woman W: Yes Our competitors made her an offer she couldn‘t resist not want to…? M: I‘ll wonder if they‘ll appoint her as their new marketing manager? Questions about plans  What is the man/woman What is the woman going to do? A Sell the camera planning/going to do?  What does the man/woman C Fill out a form plan to next?  What plan suggested? B Pay by check has been D Write her name on the card  What does the man/woman M: And how would you like to pay for the camera? plan to do? W: Could I write you a check? M: Certainly I‘ll need some form 55 of identification or a major credit card Questions about  What is the matter with …? What is Ms Kim worried about? problems  What is the problem here? A Whether she has enough  What’s wrong with  What is the man/woman money for her vacation B Whether she returned the book on labor concerned/ worried about? dispute  What is the man/woman’s C Whether the airline will problem? be operating or not  What is bothering the D Whether her union will man/woman? get higher wages M: Are you all set for your vacation on Friday, Ms Kim? W: Yes, but now I‘m waiting to see if the airline we‘ve booked our return flight on will go out on strike that day M: Oh yes I head that‘s a possibility The company claims it has no money to meet the union‘s demands Questions about opinions  What does the man/ woman think of/ about …?  What is the man/woman’s opinion of …?  How does the man/woman feel about …? Questions about advice  What is the man/woman’s What does Martha advise Dan to do? suggestion?  What does the man/woman advise … to do?  What is the a better work schedule man/woman suggesting?  What is the man/woman’s advice? A make B Walk to the office C Turn on the lights D Give a shorter report M: I‘ll never get this report finished before the weekend 56 W: You‘ve got to allocate your time more carefully, Dan M: I guess you‘re right I‘ll probably wind up working at the office all night again (See the strategies for part 2) C Inference Questions Tactics Questions  What does the man/woman imply? -  What is the man/woman saying about …? Examples The answers for inference What are they likely to eat questions are not directly stated out for lunch? in the conversations Instead you A Soup  What can be said about…? have to draw a conclusion based B Salad  What is known about …? on the information that is C Sandwiches  What can be inferred from the presented by the speakers D Hamburgers conversation? -  What does the man/woman mean?  What is probably true about?  What are they likely to…? - Read the question carefully and focus on one or two key words M: I‘ve heard nothing but Listen for key words that help praise for that new health you make a logical conclusion food restaurant W: Same here And I‘ve got a coupon for the salad bar – buy one, get one free M: I‘m always looking to save some money Let‘s check it out for lunch 57 NOTES 58 ... Gerund >< Infinitive e Finite Verb >< Participle ( Present Participle >< Past participle) PARALLEL STRUCTURE , and but or either …or neither… nor not only… but also both … and rather than 10 whether
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