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1 The singer/the dancer/(the + career) + Proper name ⇒ The singer My Tam or My Tam singer S + not only + V + .+ but also + V + S + either + V + or + S + V + +whether + S + V + + or Generally/Individually/Particularly/Basically, S + V + O Passive sentences: S (⇒ in living things ) + be + V3/Ed .+ by ( S as a person can be used in passive voice But when looking at the S as things, please use V in passive ) S + V + + Without + Noun / Ving (A/An) + Adv + Adj + Noun (Adverb of degree or Adv-ly) Adverbs of degree : extremely, very, rather, quite, fairly, pretty Adj ⇒ Verb + ing or Verb + ed Action Verbs + Adv-ly : Speaker fluently, dance beatyfully, Exactly +Wh/H – words + S + .+ is/was not known (unknown) Wh/H – words: When, what, /How One of the Short Adj – est Most + long Adj First, second + Adj S + is/was + One of the + N (s/es) + Singular Verb (V-S/es) + Short Adj – est Most + long Adj First, second + Adj + N (s/es) FULL ADVERB CLAUSES : Adv Clause, Main clause Cause: Because/Since + S + V + O, S + V + O Opposition (Contradary cause): Although/Though/Even though + S + V + O, S + V + O Contrast While + S + V + O, S + V + O Condition if + S + V + O, S + V + O Unless + S + V + O, S + V + O Time: When/while/As/Since/Untill/Once/Before/After + S + V + O, S + V + O Adverb Clause Marker with ever: Whenever/wherever/However/ + S + V + O, S + V + O Compared: S + V + O S + V + O or + S + V + O, but + S + V + O (without “but”: wrong) 10 REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSES V_ING When/Although/ + V3/ED + S + V + O ( Reduced Adv Clause) ADJ EX: When astronauts are orbiting the earth, they not feel the force of gravity ÆWhen orbiting the earth, astronauts not feel the force of gravity Although it had been damaged, the machine was still operartional Ỉ Although damaged, the machine was still operartional Although he was nervous, he gave a wonderfull speech Æ Although nervous, he gave a wonderfull speech 11 Two/ three/ .+ plural N ⇒ One + V + O, the other / the others + V + O (≠ from one to another / from one another) 12 Quantity words + of + relative clause (both of, most of, many of, much of, some of ) EX : I read a number of articles Most of them were very useful I read a number of articles, most of which were very useful 13 APPOSITIVES An appositive is a noun phrase that explains or rephrases aother noun phrase S, Noun phrase, + V + O + EX : The National Road, one of the first highways in North America, conected the East Coast to the Ohio Valley (appositive following a nown – The National Road) EX : A famous frontiersman, Buffalo Bill operated his own Wild West Show (appositive before the subject - Buffalo Bill) S, Noun phrase, + be + no longer + ./S, Noun phrase, + V + no longer Noun phrase=A/An/The + Adv + Adj + Noun Note: Adv of degree: extremely, very, rather, quite, fairly, pretty Adv of manner Adj + ly Ỉ Adv-ly: beautifully 14 INVERSIONS 14.1 Not only/ No longer/ Not untill/ Not once/ At no time/ By no means/ Nowhere/ Never/ Seldom= Rarely/Scarcely/ No sooner/Hardly + auxiliary verb + S + main Verb EX: Not once was he on time 14.2.Only in (on, at, by, ) + noun phrase/Only once/Only recently + auxiliary verb + S + main V EX: Only in an emergency should you use this exit 14.3.Only if/Only because/Only untill/Only when/Only after/ + S+V+O + aux.V+ S +main V EX: Only when she is satisfied is the sale considered final 14.4 So + Adj or Participle(VING/ VED) + auxiliary verb + S + V EX: So rare is this coin that it belong in a museum So confusing was the map that we had to ask the police officer for dicrections 14.5 Preposition + noun phrase + main verb + S EX: Off the coast of Califonia lies the Channel Islands (The channel Islands lies off the coast ) • Hardly had + S + V3/ed + O when S + V2/ed + O • No sooner had + S + V3/ed + O + than S + V2/ed + O 15 CLAUSES/ SENTENSES = S + V + O I A simple sentence consist of one clause EX: People need vitamins II A compound sentence consist of two independent clause joined by a conjunction such as (and, but, or, ) EX: The man took a vitamin pill, and he drank a glass of orange juice III A complex sentence consist of an independent clause (called the main clause) and a subordinate (dependent) clause Subordinate clause may be adverb clauses, noun clauses, or adjective clauses EX: 1/The man took a vitamin pill because he had a cold (adverb clause) 2/ I didn’t realize that she was here ( Noun clause) 3/ The man who is sitting next to you now is my teacher (Adj clause) 16 ADJ CLAUSE: 16.1.Noun (people) who + V + + main Verb (Who ỈSubject) 16.2.Noun (people) whom S + V + + main Verb (Whom ỈObject) 16.3.Noun (people) whose + Noun S + V + (Whose ỈPossessive) 16.4.Noun (things) which + V + main Verb (Which ỈSubject) 16.5.Noun (things) which + S + V + main Verb (Which ỈObject) 16.6.Noun (things) Preposition + which + S + V + main Verb (Which ỈObject of Preposition) EX: That is the top I will write on it ỈThat is a topic on which i will write (write on) -Noun (Place) + where + S + V + + main Verb (Wher adv of place) EX: He is the site where the bank plans to build its new headquarters -Noun (Time) + when + S + V + .(WhenỈ adv of time) EX: This is the hour when the children ussually go to bed * When “which/ that/ whom” are used as objects in relative clauses, they can correctly be omitted EX: The painting Ms Wallace bought is very expensive (Which omitted) * Noun (people) who + V + to/in + main V ỈNoun to/in whom + V + main Verb * In which ≈ where (it depends on the verb & preposition) 17 REDUCED (SHORTENED) ADJECTIVE CLAUSES 17.1.Present participles (V-ing) are used to reduce adjective clauses that contain active verbs (active meaning) * NOUN, WHICH/ + V + O, MAIN VERB + O ỈNOUN, VING + O, MAIN VERB + O EX: Minnesota, which joined the Union in 1858, became the thirty-second state Ỉ Minnesota, joining the Union in 1858, became the thirty-second state Or joining the Union in 1858, Minnesota became the thirty-second state 17.2.Past participle (V3/ed) are used to reduce adjective clauses with passive verbs (passive meaning) EX: William an Mary College, Which was founded in 1693, is the second – oldest university in the United States Æ William an Mary College, founded in 1693, is the second – oldest university in the United States *NOUN, WHICH/ + BE + V3/ED + O, MAIN VERB + O Æ NOUN , V3/ED + O, MAIN VERB + O 17.3 Noun (people) who + V + + main V Ỉ NOUN + VING + O + MAIN VERB + O Noun (people) who + be V3/ed + + main V Ỉ NOUN+ V3/ed + O + MAIN VERB + O 17.4.Noun (things) which + V + main V Ỉ NOUN + VING + O + MAIN VERB + O Noun (things) which + be V + main V Ỉ NOUN + VING + O + MAIN VERB + O 17.5 S1 + V + O, S2 + V + O (S1=S2) ⇒ V-ing /V3/ed + , S2 + V + O ( S as thing ⇒ V3/ed S as person ⇒ V-ing) 18 CLAUSE WITH “IT” 18.1.IT + BE + ADJ + FOR SOMEONE + TO INFINITIVE EX: It is important to be punctual for appointments 18.2.IT TAKE/TOOK + SOMEONE + TIME PHRASE + TO INFINITIVE EX: It take him a long time to learn a language 18.3 IT WAS IN + ADVERBIAL TIME + THAT + S + V + O (Noun clause) EX: It was in 1959 that Alaska became a state 18.4 IT WAS PROPER NAME/ S PRONOUN + RELATIVE CLAUSE EX: It was Jack who did most of the work It was she who came to class with this news 18.5 IT BE THE FIRST/SECOND S + HAVE/HAS + V3/ED + O 18.6 IT BE SAID/BELIEVED TO V(BE) + O or S + BE + SAID/BELIEVED TO V(BE) + O 19 NEARLY/ALMOST + ADV-LY 20 NOUN CLAUSE: SUBJECT or OBJECT 20.1 SUBJECT: WH/H-WORDS + S + V + + SINGULAR VERB + O 20.2 OBJECT: S + V + WH/H-WORDS + S + V + (What, where, , How ) 20.3 WITH “THAT”: OBJECT S+ Say, know, understand, think, believe, hear, feel, rumor + That + S + V + O (NOUN CLAUSE) * (THE FACT/ THE REASON) + THAT + S + V + .+ MAIN VERB + (NOUN CLAUSE) 21 PARRALLEL STRUCTURES: VS/ES ADJ and ADJ ADV but ADV NOUN or NOUN VERB as well as VERB V2/ED Have/has/had+V3/ED Be + Ving Will/ Can + V1 V + to + V1 VS/ES V2/ED V1 V3/ED VING V1 22 PASSIVE VOICE : S(things) + Be + V3/ED .By + + O 23 CAUSTIVE VERBS: 23.1 S + MAKE(S) + IT + ADJ + FOR + SOMEONE + TO – INFINITVE + 23.2 S + MAKE(S) + ADJ + O.C (OBJECT COMPLIMENT) 23.3 S + MAKE(S) + SOMEONE + ADJ 23.4 S + MAKE(S) + SOMEONE + V1 24 NOUN (things) of NOUN: the flow of liquids 25 OF THE MANY/NUMBER (TWO/ ) + NOUNS/ES = ONE OF (ONLY ONE) + NOUNS/ES 26 OUT (PREPOSITION) OUTER (ADJ) : OUTER SPACE IN INNER 27 S + V + ADJ./ADV-LY + ENOUGH + (FOR S.O)+ TO – INF S + V + ENOUGH + NOUN + TO – INF (V1) 28 WHATEVER + TYPE/KIND/SORT + OF + N + V , S + V + O 29 S + V + FROM + TIME/PLACE + TO + TIME/PLACE S + V + FROM ONE + SINGULAR NOUN + TO + ANOTHER • PREVENT/PROTECT .FROM • PREFER + N/VING TO N/VING 30 NO/NOT 30.1 NO : OBJECT - S + HAVE/HAS/HAD + NO + SINGULAR UNCOUNT NOUN/ PLURAL NOUN - THERE + BE + NO + SINGULAR UNCOUNT NOUN/ PLURAL NOUN 30.2 NO : SUBJECT SINGULAR UNCOUNT NOUN + VS/ES + O NO + PLURAL NOUN + VPLURAL + O 30.3.NOT: S + AUXILIARY VERB + NOT + MAIN VERB + O - S + HAVE/HAS/HAD + NOT + ANY + SINGULAR UNCOUNT NOUN/ PLURAL NOUN - THERE + BE + NOT + ANY + SINGULAR UNCOUNT NOUN/ PLURAL NOUN * NOT HAVING + NOUN ≠ HAVING + NO +NOUN 31 BY MEANS: BY BUS/ or ON FOOT THAT IS + NOUN ≠ IS THAT (=MEAN THAT) + S + V + O 32 S + BE + SAID/THOUGHT/KNOWN/BELIEVED/RUMORED + THAT + CLAUSE TO BE 33 FOR + NOUN + OF NOUN AND NOUN (COMPARED), S + V + O 34 LIKE ≠ UNLIKE + NOUN/NOUN PHRASE, S + V + O S + V + O + LIKE ≠ UNLIKE + NOUN/NOUN PHRASE S + V + O + AS (JUST AS) A CLAUSE * S + FEEL LIKE + VING 35 S + APPOINT + SOMEONE + AS + NOUN/NOUN PHRASE (CAREER) S + THINK OF/ABOUT + ONESELF + AS + NOUN/NOUN PHRASE (CAREER): as morden citizens 36 S + V + O + IN THAT + S + V + O (IN THAT POINT) 37 HUNDREDS/THOUNDSANDS/MILLIONS/BILLIONS/ + OF + PLURAL NOUN 38 NOUN + AS YOU/WE KNOWN + S + V + O EX: English as we know it is not hard to study 39 MAYBE = PERHAPS BECAUSE + A CLAUSE/ BECAUSE OF + NOUN PHRASE 40 A/AN + .+ ADJ – ADJ – ADJ + SINGULAR NOUN EX: A four – month – old baby 41 ALLOW: 41.1 S + ALLOWS/ALLOWED + VING + .EX: The teacher allows speaking loudy in class 41.2 S + BE (NOT) + ALLOWED + TO + V1 EX: He is not allowed to smoke here 42 INFINITIVES 42.1 S + V + to infinitive + O (infinitive as object of a verb) EX: She forgot to read the directions She pretended to cry or She pretended not to know how to eat dog meat 42.2.To infinitive + O + singular V (infinitive as subject of a verb) EX: To read the directions is important 42.3 To/in order to + infinitive + O, S + V + O (Purpose) EX: To learn how to cook, she took lessions 42.4 It + Be + Adj + (For someone) to infinitive (infinitive after to be + Adj.) EX: It is important to read the dicrections 42.5 S + be + the first + person + to be + V3/ed EX: John Glenn was the first American to obit the Earth 42.6 S + be + the first + person + to be + V3/ed EX: Roberta was the first person to be asked to speak at the meeting 43 GERUNDS PREPOSITION (in, on, at, about, with, without, ) + Ving 43.1 VING + NOUN PHRASE + VS/ES (Simple present) + O (Gerund as subject of a verb) EX: Playing chess is enjoyable 43.2 S + V + (Preposition) +VING + NOUN PHRASE (Gerund as Object of a Verb) EX: He enjoy playing chess 43.3 S + V + N + PREPOSITION + VING +NOUN (Gerund as Object of a Preposition) EX: He passes the time by playing chess 43.4 S + V + PREPOSITION + MY /YOUR/OUR/THEIR/HIS/HER/ +VING + EX: We objected to her cutting class last week 43.5.S + V + PREPOSITION + PROPER NAME’S +VING + EX: We objected to Alice’s cutting class last week 43.6.VING + NOUN PHRASE + VS/ES + O 43.7 Not + VING + NOUN PHRASE + VS/ES + O Singular S (PLEASE GO TO ENCLOSED SHEETS OF GERUNDS) Gerunds: VING I Defination: The gerund is a Verb + ing form used as a noun It can function as a subject, subject of a complement, object, object of a preposition EX: 1) Writting essays in English requires practice (Subject) 2) My hobby is collecting stamp = Collecting stamp is my hobby (subject of a complement) 3) I like skiing (Object) 4) She is afraid of walking alone at night (Object of a preposition) II Formation: (Sự hình thành Gerunds) Preposition Noun and preposition Adjectives and Preposition Gerund Verbs and Preposition Idoms and Preposition Verbs Gerund sau giới từ : Giới từ + VING EX: Before going to school, he stoped by at his friend house By listening, he quickly picked up the language Gerunds sau danh từ định kết hợp với giới từ sau: - Choice of (lựa chọn)/ Posibility of ( Khả năng)/ excute for (xin lỗi)/ reason for(lý do)/ intention of (xu hướng)/method for (of) (phương thức) - EX: She há no excuse for behaving in that matter Gerunds sau tính từ định + giới từ sau: Be + Adj + Prep + VING (Gerund) - Accustomed to(quen với)/afraid of (sợ)/amazed at (ngạc nhiên)/interested in (quan tâm)/ fond of (thích)/tire of(chán)/ tire from(mệt)/ good at (giỏi về)/bad at(dở về)/successful in(thành cơng)/capable of(có thể)/Busy with(bận rộn)/excited about(hồi hộp)/ against/be or get + used to/ - EX: The chidren are excited about going on holiday Gerund sau động từ định + Giới từ sau: - Approved of: Chấp thuận - Give up: Từ bỏ - Be better off: tốt - succeed in: thành công - Put off: Dập tắt, trì hỗn - insist on: nài nỉ, đòi - Worry about: Lo lắng - keep on = go on = carry on: tiếp tục - think of = think about : Nghĩ - depend on = count on = rely on: lệ thuộc vào Gerund sau thành ngữ cố định: - Look forward to: mong chờ, ngóng mong - take to: quan tâm - It’s no use: cơng, khơng có lợi - It’s worth: xứng đáng - can’t stand = can’t bear: không chịu - It’s no worth: Không xứng đáng - can’t resist: Không thể chống lại - There is no + VING - what a nuisance !: Phiền - can’t help: Không tránh khỏi, không - Be busy: bận - It’s much use: có lợi EX: We are looking forward to seeing you soon Gerund sau động từ định - Admit: thừa nhận - delay: hoãn lại - practise: thực tập - Miss: bỏ lỡ - regret: lấy làm tiếc - resent: bực tức - Risk: Liều lĩnh - appreciate: hiểu rõ, nhận thức - finish: hoàn hành - Deny: phủ nhận - postpone: trì hỗn - quit=stop: ngưng - Avoid: tránh xa quan - Mind: phản đối, khó chịu nhở - like/love - recall: nhớ lại, nhắc - Resume: giành lại - try: cố gắng - dislike: Khơng thích - Detest=hate: ghét, ghê tởm - forgive: tha thứ - mention: đề cập - Pardon: tha lỗi - tolerate: khoan hồng, tha thứ - understand: hiểu - Recomend: giới thiệu, dặn dò - Imagine: tưởng tượng - consider: xem xét=involve: liên - enjoy = fancy: thích - prevent from: ngăn ngừa - Discuss:thảo luận - Defer: chìu theo - recollect: thu gom lại EX: He practises speaking English everyday Gerund or infinitive after certain verb (Gerund Infinitive sau động từ định) sau: - Begin=star: bắt đầu - like/love: thích, u thương - Can’t stand=bear: khơng thể chịu đựng - prefer: thích - Dread: lo sợ - intend: dự tính - Hate: ghét - *Stop: ngừng -*remember: nhớ -*forget: quên - Allow: cho phép - Agree: đồng ý - advise: Khun bảo - Dislike: khơng thích - Attemp: nổ lực=*try: cố gắng, thử - Mean: có nghĩa - Permit: cho phép - Regret: tiếc - study: học -Propose:đề nghị - continue: tiếp tục - Leave: rời - plan: dự trù - neglect: lãng *: Tất động từ phần dùng cách (Gerund & Infinitive) mà ý nghĩa không thay đổi, ngoại trừ động từ có dấu * EX1: He started studying after dinner = He started to study after dinner: sau bữa tối, anh bắt đầu học EX2: She stopped studying English ≠She stopped to study English (Cô không học tiếng anh ≠ Cô ngừng làm điều để học tiếng anh) EX3: I remember locking the door before I left ≠ I remember to lock the door before I left (tơi khóa cửa tơi nhớ rõ việc ≠ Tơi nhớ việc khóa cửa trước để khóa) EX4: I tried helping her but she failed ≠ I tried to help her ( thử giúp bà ≠ cố giúp bà ấy) III Function of Gerunds ( Chức Gerunds) Gerunds as Subjects: Gerunds chủ từ VING + V + O or VING + O + V + O EX: Worrying is not going to help OR Worrying about it is not going to help you Gerund as Subject of complement : S + V + VING + O or VING + O + V + O EX: My hobby is collecting stamps OR Collecting stamps is my hobby OR seeing is believing Lưu ý: Nếu chia đơn động từ ln chia hình thức số (be: is/was) Gerund as Object S + V + VING EX: I like swimming Gerund as Object of preposition: S + V + Prep + VING + O EX: She is fond of working with animals Gerund as a possessive adjective or noun: EX1: Possesive Adj : Your being right doesn’t mean my being wrong (Adj + Gerund) EX2: Possesive noun: My father’ walking improves his health (Noun’s Gerund) DIRECT SPEECH AND REPORTED = INDIRECTED SPEECH (Noun Clause in Conversation) I STATEMENTS IN REPORTED SPEECH: Câu tường thuật dạng xác định: Nghiên cứu kỹ câu sau đưa công thức qui luật chung: EX: 1) Direct speech: She say to me : “I am ill today” Reported speech: She tell me (that) she is ill that day 2) Direct speech: She said to me : “I am ill today” Reported speech: She told me (that) she was ill that day • 3 Rules: cách đổi câu trực tiếp sang câu tường thuật (câu gián tiếp) theo số thứ tự sau: Đổi say to thành tell said to thành told Bỏ dấu hai chấm (:) dấu phẩy (,) Đổi dấu ngoặc kép thành chữ that (có thể bỏ được) Đổi đại danh từ tính từ sở hữu cách ngoặc kép thành: ™ Ngôi thứ nhất: I, me, my, mine / We, us, our, ours: Cùng với chủ từ động từ giới thiệu ™ Ngôi thứ hai: you, your, yours Cùng với túc từ động từ giới thiệu ™ Ngôi thứ 3: She, he, they, it: Không đổi, giữ nguyên EX: She She said to told me me “I (that) hope She hoped you will ” I would Đổi động từ ngoặc kép động từ giới thiệu khứ (said/ ) sau: Hiện Quá khứ Simple present (walk) Simple past (walked) Present progressive (is walking) Past progressive (was walking) Present perfect/simple past (has walked/walked) Past perfect (had wwalked) Past progressive (was walking) Past perfect progressive (had been walking) Simple future (will walk) Conditional present (would walk) Conditional present (would walk) Conditional perfect (would have wwalked) Past perfect/ Conditional perfect Không đổi 10 Đổi vài từ thời gian nơi chốn sau: Direct Reported Now Then Today That day This morning That morning Tomorrow The following day/the next day/the day after Yesterday The day before / the previous day Ago Before This That These Those Here There Come Go Next week/month/year The next week/month/year Last night /week/month/year The night /week/month/year before The day before yesterday Twos day before The day after tomorrow In two day’s time A year/ ago A year/ before II QUESTIONS: Câu tường thuật dạng câu hỏi Có dạng câu hỏi: YES/NO QUESTIONS: S + say/said + to + O, “Auxiliary verbs + S + V1 + ?” Ỉ S + ask/asked/ + O + if + S + V + Lưu ý: * O = me, you, us, them, him, her * Axiliary verbs ( trợ động từ): am, is, are, were, was, can, might, must, will, do, does, did, WH/H QUESTIONS: S + say/said + to + O, “WH/H + Auxiliary verbs + S + V1 + ?” Ỉ S + ask/asked/ + O + WH/H + S + V + EX: I said, “Where are you going now, Mary” Ỉ EX: She usually says to me, “What time is it now?” Ỉ 11 I asked Mary where she was going then She usually asks me What time it is then • Rules: Gồm bước: Đổi say to thành ask/wonder/want to know/inquire Bỏ dấu phẩy (,) Đổi dấu ngoặc kép thành If (liệu) /whether (có khơng) dạng (YES/NO question) Còn dạng WH/H question giữ nguyên: what/who/where/when/why/how/ Đổi đại danh từ tính từ sở hữu cách giống dạng câu xác định (Xem phần 4/I) Chuyển chủ từ lên trước động từ thành câu xác định Đổi động từ ngoặc kép (hạ thì) động từ giới thiệu khứ (Xem phần 5/I) Đổi từ nơi chốn hay thời gian (Xem phần 6/I) Đổi dấu chấm hỏi (?) thành dấu chấm (.) • Lưu ý điểm cần ý: a) Trợ động từ must chuyển sang câu gián tiếp phải dùng had to, must not must not (nếu mang tính cấm đốn) Need not (needn’t) đổi thành did not have to EX: The teacher said: “You must the exercises carefully” Ỉ The teacher said that we had to the exercises carefully EX: The girls said, “You needn’t come with us if you not want to” Ỉ The girls said that =asked me I did not have to come with them if I did not want to b) Thì khứ câu trực tiếp chuyển sang câu gián tiếp không thay đổi nghĩa rõ ràng EX: Tom said to me, “My mother died of canser in 1985” Ỉ Tom told me his mother died of canser in 1985 c) Thì khơng thay đổi nghĩa chân lý, điều hiển nhiên EX: He said, “The Earth revoles around the sun” Ỉ He said that the Earth revoles around the sun d) Khi động từ giới thiệu đơn/hiện tiếp diễn/hiện ồn thành/ tương lai hồn thành Khơng hạ không thay đổi trạng từ thời gian nơi chốn, đổi đại từ nhân xưng EX: The door says/ is saying/has said/will say, “You have to stay here” Ỉ The door says/ is saying/has said/will say that I have to stay here 12 III COMMANDS: DẠNG MỆNH LỆNH THỨC GỒM HAI LOẠI Positive commands: mệnh lệnh thức dạng xác định S + say/said to + O, “V1 + O + , please” Ỉ S + ask/asked + O + to V1 + O + EX: She said to Bill, “Please wait for me here” Ỉ She asked Bill to wait for her there Negative commands : Mệnh lệnh thức dạng phủ định S + say/said to O, “Don’t/Never + V1 + O + , (please)” Ỉ S + ask/asked + O + not to/never to +V1 + O EX: She said to me, “Don’t touch anything in this room now, please” Ỉ She ordered me not to touch anything in that room then EX: The officer always says to his men, “Never turn your backs to your enemies today” Ỉ The officer always commands his men never to turn their backs to their enemies that day • Rules: Đổi say to thành ask/advise(khuyên)/order(ra lệnh)=command/ beg(van xin)/ warn(cảnh báo) / request(đề nghị)=suggest Bỏ dấu phẩy (,) Bỏ dấu ngoặc kép (“”) Nếu câu dạng mệnh lện xác định đổi thành to+V1 , bỏ please (nếu có) Nếu câu ngoặc kép dạng mệnh lệnh phủ định đổi thành Not to/never to +V1, bỏ please (nếu có) Đổi đại danh từ tính từ sở hữu cách (xem phần 4/I) Đổi trạng từ thời gian nơi chốn có ( Xem phần 6/I) Lưu ý: Hai dạng câu mệnh lệnh thức đổi sang câu gián tiếp khơng hạ thì, ln giữ ngun V1 (ngun mẫu), thêm to not to/never to +V1 GET IT IN YOUR MIND! 13 SENTENCE STRUCTURES FOR LEVEL B together with Singular S, along with + Noun phrase, singular Verb + O accompanied by as well as Ex: The actress, along with her manager and some friends, is going to a party tonight Singular S Singular V Non-count noun + singular verb + O Non of the + Plural count noun + Plural verb + O Ex: Non of the counterfeit money has been found Non-count N singular verb Non of the students have finished the exam yet Singular N & Non-count noun + singular verb + O No + Plural noun + Plural verb + O Ex: No example is relevant to this case No examples are relevant to this case a Neither nor + Noun + Either + Plural noun + Plural verb + O or Ex: Neither John nor his friends are going to the beach today b Neither nor + Noun + Either + Singular noun + Singular verb + O or Ex: Neither Jack or Bill is going to the beach today V-ing + Singular verb+ O ( V-ing: Gerund as Subjects) Ex: Writing many letter makes her happy a/ A number of + Plural noun + Plural verb (A number of=Many) Ex: A number of students are going to the class picnic b/.The number of + Plural noun + Singular verb Ex: The number of days in a week is seven a/ S (person the action) + need + to-infinitive + O Ex: His friend needs to learn English well V-ing b/ S ( an inanimate object as S: Vật vô tri, vô giác) + need + + tobe + V 3/ED 14 Ex: The grass needs cutting or The grass need tobe cut c/ S + Be + in need of + N (be in need of = need) Ex: He is in need of money a/ Who + VS/ES + O ? Ai làm mình? Ex: Who loves her? b/ Who + auxiliary verb + S + V + O ? Mình làm ai? Ex: Who you love? When Where How auxiliary + be +S+V+O? do/does/did Why Ex: Where you live? 10 a/ S + V + question word (When ) + S + V + (Embedded questions) Ex: We have not find out where the meeting will take place b/ Auxiliary + S + V + question word + S + V + ? Ex: Do you know where the meeting will take place? as if 11 a/ S + VS/ES (present) + as though + S + V2/ED (past) ( thể .) Ex: He acts as though he were rich as if b/ S + V3/ED (past) + as though + S + had + V3/ED (past perfect) Ex: He looked as if he had seen a ghost (He didn’t see a ghost) 12 S + V2/ED + O, S + would + V1 Ex: When he was young, he would swim once a day 13 S + used to +V1 + O (thường thường: thói quan khứ) Ex: When he was young, he used to swim once a day (past time habit) 14 a/ S + be + used to +Ving+ O (quen quen với, BE chia khứ tùy ý) Ex: Mary is used to reading books everyday b/ S + get + used to +Ving+ O (dần dần làm quen với, từ từ quen với ) Ex: Mary gets used to swimming everyday Note: Be used to = Be accustomed to but Get used to = become accustomed to ™ Would rather .than .: thích 12 a/ S + would rather + V1 + N + than + Noun Ex: Peter would rather drink Coca-Cola than orange juice b/ S + would rather + V1 + O + Adverb of time + than + Adverb of time (present) Ex: Jim would rather go to class tomorrow than today c/ S + would rather + have + V3/ED + than + (past) Ex: Jim would rather have gone to class yesterday than today 15 ™ Would rather that: thích 13 a/ S1 + rather that + S2 + Verb in simple form ( Present subjunctive) Ex: She would rather that he take this train (take giữ nguyên mẫu) b/ S1 + rather that + S2 + V2/ED + ( Present contrary to fact) Ex: John would rather that it were Spring now (It is not Spring now) c/ S1 + rather that + S2 + had +V3/ED + ( Past contrary to fact) Ex: John would rather that Jack had gone to class yesterday ( Jack did not go to class yesterday) Note: Negative form: - Would rather not + V1 - Would rather not have + V3/ED - Would rather that .+ not + Vnguyên mẫu ™ Prefer .to : thích 14 a/ S + prefer + Noun + to + Noun Ex: He prefers football to tenis b/ S + prefer + Ving + O + to + (Ving) + O Ex: He prefers playing football to watching film 15 S + would like + to V1 + O (would like: thích) Ex: I would like to visit Japan Had better Should 16 S + ought to + V1 + O ( nên : some choice) Be supposed to Ex: You should study tonight 17 a/ S + must + V1 + O ( phải : no choice) Ex: You must study tonight b/ S + must + be + N ( có lẽ : not sure) Ex: He must be a doctor c/ S + must have + V3/D + O ( có lẽ :a logic conclusion in the past) Ex: It must have rained last night (It probably rained last night) 18 S + have to + V1 + O .( phải = must) Ex: He has to call his insurance agent today (complete obligation) 19 S + V + the same + (noun) + as + noun/pronoun Ex: My house is the same height as his 20 S + V + different from + Noun Ex: Their teacher is different from ours 21 a/ S + V + Adj/Adv + enough + (for someone to + V1 .) Ex: It is not cold enough for you to wear a heavy jacket 16 b/ S + V + enough + Noun Ex: Do you have enough sugar for the cake? 22 a/ Because + S + V + O, S + V + O (or Because there +be + S ) Ex: Because there was a traffic jam, the students arrived late b/ Because of + N/noun phrase, S + V + O Ex: The students arrived late because of the traffic jam 23 a/ S + V + + so that/in order that + S + V ( để ) Ex: He studied very hard so that he could pass the test b/ S + V + + to/in order to + V1 + Ex: He studied very hard to pass the test 24 a/ S + V + so + Adj/Adv + that + S + V ( .quá .) Ex: The soup tastes so good that everyone will ask for more Note: i/ S + V + so + many/few +plural count noun + that + S + V Ex: He had so many children that they formed his own baseball team ii/ S + V + so + much/little +non-count noun + that + S + V Ex: The grass received so little water that it turned brown in the heat b/ S + V + such + a/an +Adj + singular count noun + that + S + V ( ) Ex: It was such a hot day that we decided to stay indoors = S + V + so + Adj + a/an + singular count noun + that + S + V Ex: It was so hot a day that we decided to stay indoors c/ S + V + such +Adj + plural count noun/non- count noun + that + S + V Ex: This is such difficult homework that he never finish it ™ CAUSATIVE VERBS: Nhờ, bảo, bắt làm cho 25 a/.S + have + someone + V1 (verb in simple form) + O (Active) Ex: Mary had John wash the car b/ S + get + someone + V1 + O (Active) Ex: Mary got John to wash the car c/ S + have/get + something + V3/ED (verb in past participle) + (by someone) (passive) Ex: Mary had the car washed by John 26 S + make + someone + V1 + O .( bắt làm gì) Ex: The robber made the seller give him the money 27 S + let + O + V1 .( cho phép .) Ex: The teacher let the student leave class early 28 S + be + scared of + Ving + O Ex: She is scared of living on her own in such a big city 29 S + reminds + someone + of + Noun /Ving Ex: That picture reminds me of the time when we loved each other 17 It takes/took somebody + time + to infinitive (Ai để làm ) S + be + such + (a/an) + noun or S + be + so +adj + (a/an) + noun .như S + need not + have + V3/ED + O Lẽ không cần phải Time clause: a/ Since + S + V2/ED + O ., S + have/has + V3/ED + O Khác với It + be + time + since + S + V2/ED .( Since đơi bỏ đi) b/ As soon as + S + have/has + V3/ED + O, S + will + V1 + O Superlative + S + have/has + ever + V3/ED Noun Clause ( that): S + say/believe/know/rumour (that) + S* + V - It is said/believed/known/rumoured/reported that + S + V Người ta nói/tin/đồn/báo cáo - Hoặc S* + be + said/ + tobe + S + had better + V1 + .= It would be advisable for Sb + to Sth S + find that + S + V nhận thấy S + find + Sb + to-infinitive .Nhận thấy 10 S + happen + to-infinitive tình cờ 11 It happens/ed that S + V 12 Not until + S + had + V3/ED + O + did + S + V1 + (Luôn đảo ngữ vế sau) 13 It was not until + time + that + S + V2/ED .thì Or S + did not + V1 + O + until + time (time clause) 14 The only/first/last + Noun + to + V1 + O + be + Noun The only/first/last + Noun + who/which + V (usually V2/ED) + be + Noun 15 S + spend/waste + time + Ving + O 16 S + apologize to + Someone + for + keeping + someone + waiting Xin lỗi để đợi 17 Leave + Sth + Ving 18 It + be + stupid = silly = foolish/shy/careless + of + someone + to + Sth Ai thật khờ/e thẹn/bất cẩn làm 19 S + be tire of + someone + Ving Khơng thích làm 20 S + be + busy + Ving 21 S + find/found it + adj +V1 /Ving nhận thấy thật để 22 S + see + someone/living things + V1/Ving 23 S + see + Sth + V3/ED (by ) 24 S + shake hands with someone bắt tay với 25 S + make friends with someone kết bạn với 26 Let + someone + V1 + Sth or Let + Sth./yourself + be + V3/ED 18 MAKE: LÀM, SẢN XUẤT, CHẾ TẠO RA Make cake : Làm bánh Make noise : gây ồn Make a promise = promise : hứa hẹn Make trouble : gây phiền toái Make difference : khác với Make progress = progress : tiến Make money = earn momey : kiếm tiền Make a speech : soạn đọc, diễn văn Make a mistake : phạm lỗi 10 Make decision = reach decision : đưa đến định ♣ make up one’s mind : định DO: LÀM, THỰC HIỆN Do one’s best = try one’s best : cố gắng Do homework/housework : làm tập nhà/ công việc nhà Do exercise : tập thể dục Do + Someone a favour = help someone :giúp Do a job/work : làm việc Do shopping = go shopping : mua sắm Do business : kinh doanh EXPRESSIONS Write a good hand : Viết chữ đẹp Take pot-luck : có ăn Take (a) pride in : tự hào Take cold : cảm lạnh Show zeal for : tỏ sốt sắng với, tỏ nhiệt tình với Say not so : có nói save one’s breath : làm thinh Ask me another : không biết, đưng hỏi Bear/keep in mind : Ghi nhớ, mang tâm trí 10 Come to life : Cải tử hồng sinh 11 Come true : trở thành thật 12 Do good : làm việc thiện, làm phúc 13 Do one’s needs : vệ sinh 14 Refuse for good : khả từ chối I very much hope you learn all by your heart! 19 GIỚI TỪ WITH Agree with : đồng ý với Begin with : bắt đầu Communicate with : liên lạc với Compare to/with : so sánh với : cạnh tranh, đua đòi với Compete with/against Comfier with :làm lúng túng, bối rối, mơ hồ Comply with : tuân theo, chiều theo :làm tương phản với Contrast with/to Cope with :đối phó, đương đầu 10 Correspon with :tương ứng với, phi hợp với, giao thiệp = thư từ 11 Finish with :hoàn tất 12 Help with/in : giúp đỡ 13 Disgust with = hate : căm ghét 14 Interfere with/on : gây trở ngại, quấy rầy 15 Interface in : xen vào, can thiệp vào 16 Mix with : dính dáng, giao thiệp, hợp tác 17 Be occupied with : choáng, chiếm chổ 18 Part with : chia lìa, từ biệt 19 Please with : hài lòng với 20 Quarrel with Sb / about Sth : cải với ai/ 21 Reason with : viện lý lẽ 22 Satisfied with : hài lòng với, làm mãn nguyện 23 Threaten with : đe dọa, làm cho sợ VERBAL PHRASE 20 Take down : tháo xuống, ghi chép, sỉ nhục, giảm, hạ Take in : mời vào, đưa vào, tiếp đón, gồm có Come to : đến, lên tới, hồi tỉnh lại, tình ngộ Break up : vỡ mảnh, giải tán, chia ly, sụt lở Beak down :đập vỡ, kiệt sức, vỡ nợ, bị phá sản Break in : đánh bể, tập Break off : giới hạn, hủy bỏ, thủ tiêu, rời Make out : đặt, xác minh, giải thích, nhận Make up : Gồm có, chứa đựng, bao hàm 10 Put on weight : lên cân, mập ra, béo 11 Turn down : gấp, gập xuống, bẽ, lụi, bác bỏ GIỚI TỪ TO Be accustomed to : tập cho quen với Be amount to : lên đến, lên tới Appeal to : kêu gọi, cầu cứu Apply to ≠ Apply for : ứng dụng, áp dụng ≠ Hỏi xin việc Attach to : gắn, dán, trói, buộc Attend to : ý đến Belong to : thuộc Challenge to : thách đố, thách thức Compare to / with : so sánh với 10 Be condemn to ( to death) : kết án, kết tội ( tử hình) 11 Confess to : thú nhận, thú tội 12 Confine to : Giam giữ, giam cầm 13 Consent to : đồng ý, hài lòng 14 Convert to :biến đổi, đổi 15 Entitle to : cho đề tựa ( tên sách) 16 Listen to : lắng nghe 17 Mention to : đề cập đến 18 Object to (Vt) : phản đối, chống đối Object to (Vi) : ghét, khơng thích 19 Occur to : xảy ra, tình cờ, ngẫu nhiên 20 Prefer to : thích 21 Reply to : đáp trả, trả lời 22 Respond to : phản ứng lại, đáp lại 23 See to : chuẩn bị 24 Submit to : chịu phục tùng, đệ trình, đưa ý kiến 25 Surrender to : đầu hàng 26 Turn to : Biến thành, trở thành, hóa thành 27 Refer to : liên hệ đến, ám đến 28 Look forward to : trông mong VERBAL PHRASE Put up with Sb : chịu đựng Put up = to raise = to hold up : giương, căng (ô) Put Sb up : cho trọ lại Put out = to extinguish : dặp tắt (lửa) Put on ≠ take off : mặc vào ≠ cởi Put down = to write = to copy : ghi chép Put off = to postpone = to cancel = call off : hoãn lại 21 Put away = to store Sth in it : cất GIỚI TỪ AT Attend at : tham dự, có mặt Amuse at/by :làm buồn cười Arrive at/in : đến ( thị trấn, ) Be astonish at/by : gây ngạc nhiên Call at = stop : ngừng lại Exclaim at : la to Glance at : nhìn lướt, nhìn thống Guess at : đốn Knock at : gõ vào (cửa, ) 10 Look at : nhìn vào 11 Point at/to :điểm vào, vào 12 Shock at/by : bị xúc động 13 Stare at : nhìn đăm đăm 14 Surprise at/by : gây ngạc nhiên 15 Wonder at/about : tự hỏi về, ngạc nhiên 16 Work at/on : làm việc GIỚI TỪ FOR 22 Account for = Explain : giải thích, cắt nghĩa Ask for/of : hỏi Act for/on :hành động Appologize for : xin lỗi Blame for :mắng, chửi Beg for : khẩn cầu, van xin Call for : gọi, đến tìm Charge for : tính giá, đòi trả Exchange for :đổi 10 Hope for : hy vọng 11 Look for : tìm kiếm 12 Mistake for : phạm lỗi lầm 13 Mourn for/over : than khóc, thương tiếc 14 Pay for : trả lương, tiền 15 Prepare for : chuẩn bị 16 Provide for : cung cấp 17 Search for : lục lọi, tìm kiếm, thăm dò 18 Thank for : Cám ơn 19 Vote for Sb./on Sth : Bỏ phiếu bầu ai, bỏ phiếu động 20 Wait for Sb / Wait on Sth : đợi ai/ đợi điều
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