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Contents Unit Topic 5 10 conditionals nouns, adjectives, adverbs, articles and comparatives Page determiners and pronouns passive and active voices tenses -ing and the infinitive subject-verb agreement and subjunctive mood prepositions and sentence structure relative clauses modals 15 19 confusing words and differences between English and American 49 23 30 34 39 46 48 TOEIC GRAMMAR Unit Conditionals Point form and overview Type General truth Type Real present Type Unreal present Type Unreal past If-clause Main clause (result) Use (hypothesis) If + present simple Present simple If the temperature falls below C, water turns into ice future/ imperative If + present can/may/might/must/s real – likely simple, present hould/ to happen in perfect or can could/have to + bare the present infinitive or future If he doesn’t pay the fine, he will go to prison If you need help, come and see me If you have finished your work, we can have a break If you’re ever in the area, you should come and visit us imaginary If + past simple would/could/should + situation (were) bare infinitive contrary to facts in the present; also used to give advice If I had time, I would take up a sport (but I don’t have time – untrue in the present) If I were you, I would talk to my parents about it (giving advice) imaginary If + past perfect would/should/could + situation (had +PII) have + PII contrary to facts in the past; also used to express regrets or criticism If she had studied harder, she would have passed the test Note: +) Conditional clauses consist of two parts: the if-clause (hypothesis) and the main clause (result) When the if-clause comesbefore the main clause, the two clauses are seperated with a comma When the main clause comes before the if-clause, then no comma is necessary Example: If I see Tim, I’ll give him his book I’ll give Tim his book if I see him +) We not normally use will, would or should in an if-clause However, we can use will or would after if to make a polite request or express insistence or uncertainty (usually with expressions such as I don’t know, I doubt, I wonder, etc.) We can use should after if to talk about something which is possible, but not very likely to happen Example: If the weather is fine tomorrow, we will go camping (NOT if the weather will be fine ) If you will fill in this form, I’ll process your application (Will you please fill in – polite request) If you will not stop shouting, you’ll have to leave TOEIC GRAMMAR (If you insist on shouting – insistence) I don’t know if he will pass his exams (uncertainty) If Tom should call, tell him I’ll be late (We don not think that Tom is very likely to call.) +) We can use were instead of was for all persons in the if –clause of Type conditionals If he were here, we could have a party +) We can omit if in the if-clause When if is omitted, should (type 1), were (type 2), had (type 3) and the subject are inverted Example: Should Peter come, tell him to wait (= should Peter should come, ) Were I you, I wouldn’t trust him (= If I were you, ) Had he known, he would have called (= if he had known, ) +) Mixed conditionals If - clause Type If nobody paid the bill, Type If he had money, Type If he had won the lottery, Point Main clause Type the electricity will be cut off Type he would have bought her a gift Type He wouldn’t be asking for money Other ways of making conditionals +) or/ or else/ otherwise is another way of say if not You have to complete the project on schedule, or/ or else/ otherwise you will be fired +) Even if can also be used in conditional sentences to emphasize if Even if you begged him to take the money, he wouldn’t accept +) If only can be used as a way of emphasizing if In addition, the if only clause can also express a wish If only you had told me, I could have helped you If only we had enough money to go on vacation (but we don’t have enough money) +) provided/ providing (that), as long as, on condition (that) these are more emphatic ways of saying if You can go to the party if you are home before 12.00 You can go to the party provided you are home before 12.00 You can go home as long as you are home before 12.00 +) supposing/ suppose/ imagine these ways of expressing conditions without if Supposing/ suppose/ imagine you were president, how would you change the country? +) Unless this is an emphatic way of saying if not in the if – clause of type1 conditionals TOEIC GRAMMAR Unless you leave now, you will miss the bus (= if you don’t leave now, ) (NOT: unless you don’t leave now, ) +) If (it) were / was not for / hadn’t been for This describes how one event depends on another If it were not for Helen, our team would be the worst in the area! (If Helen weren’t a really good player ) If it hadn’t been for Jim, the child would have drowned (If Jim hadn’t jumped in to recue the child ) Note: in some situations, we cannot use one of these mentioned above to replace “if” becau it may affect the meaning of the sentence, so be careful! Example: Lateness inevitably causes errors, which in turn means that we are all held up going home at the end of the day -the problem continues, we will consider introducing penalties to deal with offenders Please make sure all staff are aware of this (p 247, practice test 6, TARGET TOEIC second edition) A When B Provided C If D Considering In the sentence above, in terms of grammar we can use A, B, C or D However, in terms of semantics choice C is the best answer TOEIC GRAMMAR Unit Nouns, adjectives, adverbs, articles and comparatives Point Countable and uncountable nouns A Countable nouns When a countable noun is singular, it is used with an indefinite article a/an; when a countable noun is plural, it ends in –(e)s Example: To request extra credit card for other members of your household, call our automated service line (not correct)  A countable noun must be used with an indefinite article a/an in the singular form; otherwise it should end in –(e)s in the plural form (card  cards) The electronics company has recruited staff from several of its competitor (not correct)  A plural noun must be used after such determiners as several, some, many, etc (competitor  competitors) B Uncountable nouns Uncountable nouns refer to substances, concepts etc that we cannot divide into separate elements An indefinite article a/an cannot be used with an uncountable noun Besides, an uncountable noun in the subject position must be used with a singular verb +) Uncountable nouns are singular in form Example: The equipment you ordered are scheduled to be delivered on August 26 (not correct)  Because equipment is uncountable, it is singular and is used with a singular verb (are  is) +) Uncountable nouns cannot be used with an indefinite article a/an Example: They helped needy people by the provision of a clothing, food, and shelter (not correct)  Uncountable nouns cannot be used with an indefinite article a/an (a clothing  clothing) +) Uncountable nouns that frequently occur in the TOEIC test advertising equipment information pollution traffic Point advice furniture machinery recreation luggage/baggage clothing homework money scenery employment knowledge merchandise stationery fun leisure Noun + noun = compound noun TOEIC GRAMMAR A compound noun is made up of two or more nouns In this combination, the first noun is used as an adjective, and therefore is almost always singular in form However, there are a few exceptions in which a compound noun is formed with “noun-s + noun” (savings account) The plural form of a compound noun is created simply by adding –(e)s to the second noun (savings accounts) Memorize the following compound nouns as they frequently occur in the TOEIC test A Noun + noun advertising company application form assembly line baggage allowance company policy consumer loan dress-code regulation evaluation form face value gender discrimination information desk membership fee performance appraisal product recognition profit margin safety precautions staff production delivery company board meeting interest rate staff meeting health care flight attendant apartment complex application fee attendance record communication skill construction site customer satisfaction employee participation expiration date consumer spending hotel reservation job performance office furniture product schedule promissory note service desk stationery store work schedule recognition day checking account (=current account) company employee travel agency customer service product availability B Noun-s + noun awards ceremony customs official earnings growth benefits package overseas trip sales department sales manager sales slip Point communications satellite customs regulations economics professor/ student public relations office / department savings account sports complex customs officer sales target Both countable and uncountable Many nouns can be used as countable and uncountable nouns, usually with a difference in meaning: TOEIC GRAMMAR Uncountable paper (material) business all business transactions) space (the universe) work(employment) time (hours, days, etc) a a a a a Countable (news) paper business (a company) space (a blank) work ( of art) time (an occasion) Example: They have some work to on business If the global economy continues to flourish, people will continue buying works of art Point Note the singular and plural forms of the following nouns Singular -f(e): half, life, self … child foot, tooth mouse alumnus, syllabus … analysis, crisis … criterion, phenomenon man, woman Plural -ves: halves, lives, selves … children feet, Teeth mice alumni, syllabi … analyses, crises … criteria, phenomena men, women always singular news the United States of America, nouns in –ics: athletics, mathematics … … always plural belongings, clothes, contents, earnings, goods, people, customs, outskirts … one thing, two parts: pants, shorts, jeans, glasses … Same as singular means, series, species, crossroads, headquarters, fish, sheep, data, aircraft Example: The news is disturbing This is a means to an end Point hundred, thousand, etc When dozen, hundred, thousand, million and billion are used to convey the idea of: +) a definite number, the pattern is: number/several + hundred, thousand, million … + plural noun twenty thousand dollars Economists were alarmed by the deficit, which was several billion worse than they had expected +) an indefinite number, the pattern is: hundreds, thousands, millions … + of + plural noun I’ve told you hundreds of times Point Indefinite article a / an vs Definite article the Indefinite article+) a/an +) +) use before an unspecific object to mean one of a number of the same objects used before a singular countable noun a is used before a noun that begins with a consonant sound; an before a noun that begins with a vowel sound TOEIC GRAMMAR But: a unaminous decision a European country a uniform a UFO is an Unidentified Flying Object half an hour an honest man An MBA is a Master in Business Administration Definite article +) used before a specific object; something that both the person the speaking and the listener know, or something that is modified +) used as part of the superlative form (the + superlative) +) used before a cardinal number (the + cardinal number (first, Second, third )) +) some of / most of / all of / many of / half of / several of + the + noun Example: I opened an account with the bank today Several of the world’s finest runners have entered the race +) Zero article No article is used before academic subjects, means of transportation, or means of communication Academic subjects in an economics (not correct)  in economics in an accounting (not correct)  in accounting Means of by a car (not correct)  by car (but in a car) transportation by a plane (not correct)  by plane (but on the plane) Means of by a fax (not correct)  by fax communication by the phne (not correct)  by phone (but over the phone, on the phone) Example: I want to major in economics at the university Such heavy items are expensive to transport by plane This is the woman I talked about over the phone Point forms of address and Abbreviations Mr Smith Mrs Smith Miss Smith Ms Smith a man a married an unmarried woman a married or unmarried woman These forms of address have to be followed by a family name Abbreviation ASAP RSVP Attn p.p i.e p.a e.g PTO AM Expression/ word in full as soon as possible repondez SVP to the attention of per proxy; per pro (on behalf id est (that is) per annum exempli gratia (for example) please turn over ante meridiem Abbreviation VAT Bros Co of) Corp Inc Ltd PLC ATM CEO Expression/ word in full Value Addded Tax Brothers Company Corporation Incorporated Limited Public Limited Company Automatic Teller Machine Chief Executive Officer TOEIC GRAMMAR PM # or No POB @ misc lb or lbs oz GMT Id mph NB post meridiem number post office box at miscellaneous pound(s) ounce(s) Green Mean Time the same miles per hour nota bene (take note) IT MBA R&D PR HR PC CFO Information Technology Master of Business Administration Research and Development Public Relations Human Resources Personal Computer Chief Financial Officer Point Pay attention to the use of articles in the following expressions A Expressions with the in a way of (not correct) in a distance (not correct) on a contrary (not correct) on a whole (not correct)     in the way in the distance on the contray on the whole (= in general) Example: My opinion is on the whole the same as yours B Expressions with zero article for the safekeeping (not correct) in a haste (not correct) in an error (not correct) in a detail (not correct) in the order to (not correct) until the further notice (not correct) take the advantage of (not correct) take a care of (not correct)         for safekeeping in haste in error in detail in order to until further notice take advantage of take care of Example: I got out of the train in haste C Expressions always used with articles as result of (not correct) as symbol of (not correct) as whole (not correct) at distance (not correct) come to end (not correct) all of sudden (not correct) in effort to (not correct) in attempt to (not correct) in hurry (not correct) in middle of (not correct) in potential (not correct)            as a result of as a symbol of as a whole at a distance come to an end all of a sudden in an effort to in an attempt to in a hurry in the middle of in the potential TOEIC GRAMMAR reach agreement (not correct)  reach an agreement Example: As a result of traffic accidents, many people were injured Point Adjectives and adverbs Tip: Check that the adjective is placed before the noun Remember that adjectives are always singular Tip: Check that the adverb is often placed: - before or after a verb - before an adjective - before another adverb Remember that most adverbs are formed as follows: adjective + ly slow slowly final finally +) Adjectives or adverbs Adjectives only costly, friendly, likely, lively Both adjectives and adverbs daily, weekly, monthly, yearly, early, quarterly, hourly, nightly, fast, straight, well Adjectives free hard high late pretty wide +) +) +) +) +) +) +) +) +) +) +) +) Adverbs free (without payment) you can come in free freely (without limit) He could speak freely about it hard He work hard hardly (= almost not) He hardly knows her high Planes flies high highly (= very much) a highly paid job late He left work late lately (= recently) What have you been doing lately? prettily She danced prettily pretty (= rather) Teperatures are pretty high wide Open the door wide widely (in many different places) He has traveled widely +) Verbs + adjective The following (state) verbs can only be followed by adjectives not adverbs: be, seem, become, appear, prove, stay, grow, get look, sound, taste, feel, smell (verbs of senses) It sounds good to me Chances of survival seem hopeless Note: The adjectives alike, alive, alone, afraid, asleep can only appear after the above verbs and never directly in front of the nouns they describe Example: Ads all look alike +) Adjectives: -ed or –ing 10 TOEIC GRAMMAR Likewise, we use the past perfect tense form of a verb in the that-clause if we want to express a wish contrary to the fact in the past, as in: fact: Subjunctive mood: fact: Subjunctive mood: Point I was busy then I wish (that) I had been free then he left early I wish ( that) he had left early a mandative statement (verbs + that + verb base) The verbs and phrases below are followed by that + verb base • • • Ask, demand, request, command, order, require, suggest, propose, insist, recommend, maintain, rule, desire, urge It + be + important/ vital/ essential/ necessary/ imperative/ advisable/ crucial/ desirable The nouns derived from the above verbs are also followed by the verb base: demand, request, requirement, proposal, suggestion, recommendation The manager suggested that the meeting be put off until next week It was important that the report be reviewed once again I asked that Peter handle the work alone Note: We can also use modal verb should, which is often omitted, in this sentence It is necessary that he (should) finish the work before leaving The manager suggested that the meeting (should) be put off until next week Unit Prepositions and sentence structure A preposition - Definition A proposition is a word like in, out, off normally followed by a noun or a pronoun Point Multiple word prepositions Here is a list of the most common multiple word prepositions: • • • • according to, in accordance with as regards, as to, in connection with = regarding, about ahead of as a consequence of, as a rsult of, because of, on account of, due to, owing to, thanks 37 TOEIC GRAMMAR • • • • • • • • • • • • • • apart from, except for, with the exception of by means of, by way of = using contrary to in addition to, on the top of in comparison with, compared with in contrast to/ with in favor of, to the benefit of, all for, on the side of in front of instead of, rather than in the event of, in case of, for fear of on behalf of prior to, previous to regardless of together with, along with, as well as Point Beside/besides The difference is the following: beside besides = = by the side of, next to, by in addition to The woman standing beside the lecturer is Mrs Jones He holds numerous non-executive directorships besides his $400,000 job at Man PLC Point • • • During / for / while during is a preposition used to say when something happened for is a preposition used to say how long it took while is a conjunction (subject + verb) used to introduce a background situation It rained for five days during our holiday We didn’t get much sunshine while we were on holiday Point By / until / till • by (+ a time) = not later than - something happens by a time in the future We’d better hurry We have to be home by o’clock (= at or before o’clock, not later than o’clock) The River Road Bridge over Interstate 495 is on schedule for completion by October • Until / till shows an action or situation that continues up to a certain time The shop will open until p.m The sale of the franchise doesn’t close until October Point In/ on / at Prepositio n AT Time Space + time: at 12.00 at lunchtime at night at Christmas at Easter at the moment at present at the same time at breakfast at at at at at home work an address the office school + a certain point: at the crossroads/ bus-stop at the top at the bottom at the end 38 TOEIC GRAMMAR ON + days and dates: on Saturday on 13 may 1984 on Friday afternoon on time = punctual, not late on a street on a street corner on a coast on a river + a means of public transportation: on the train/ bus/ ship/ plane IN Point + longer periods: month, year, season in march in 1997 in winter in the 1990s + parts of the day: In the morning(s) + time in the future: in a week in a moment in time = soon enough in a room in a building in a corner of a room in a car in a taxi in a boat in in in in in a a a a a country state province county city despite = in spite of Despite and in spite of have the same meaning Breakfast cereals still contain high level of fat, salt and sugar in spite of / despite manufaturers’ claims to have improved the healthiness of their products Point Like or as • Like is a preposition - used to compare things - synonymous with: similar to, the same as, for example He is a broker like most of his friends We need more details like when, why, how, etc • As is either a preposition - used to talk about the jobs, roles and functions of people and things - synonymous with: in the position of, in the form of We work as an apprentice in ANZ Co They see the soaring oil prices as a threat to the world economy or a conjunction ( + subject + verb) - used to compare things You should have replied as I told you 39 TOEIC GRAMMAR • • Note: The preposition unlike (= not like) to show contrast Unlike tranditional newspaper, free new papers offer advertisers unlimited space The adjective alike to show similarity but used only after state verbs We are not related despite the fact that we look alike Point Preposition + noun on purpose; by mistake/chance/accident in my opinion; from my point of view on holiday; on business; on a journey/trip/tour for sale; on the market ( # in the market) in advance; up to date; out of date on the whole; in general on television; on the radio/the phone/the Internet in writing; in pen/biro/felt-tip/ink/pencil in cash; by check/credit card on the way (during the journey); in the way (blocking the way) in the end (finally, after a long time); at the end (when something stops – at the end of) by car, train, air ; on foot Point Prepositions of space 40 TOEIC GRAMMAR B Sentence structure: Point Word order The word order in a sentence is uasually as follows: (time) (Last night) subject The chairman verb delivere d object His speech manner vehement ly place At the conference hall time last night Tip: Parallel structures express ideas of equal importance and are used in a series Check that in those parallel structures the same grammatical structures are used A secretary’s duties include writing, typing, organizing and filed (not correct)  A secretary’s duties include writing, typing, organizing and filing Point Parallel structures with correlative conjunctions Parallel structures should be used after correlative conjunctions: both and not only but also either or but both and as well as not but neither nor and The training course consists of both theory and practical instruction Point Parallel structures with comparisons Parallel structures should be used with comparisons: • comparative than • as as • the same as • similar to Renting those apartments costs the same as leasing them Note: After comparative structures, that (of) and those (of) are used instead of repeating a noun The team’s overall performance is better than that of any individual could be Point Cardinal and Ordinal numbers +) Cardinal numbers (one, two, three ) are used as follows: + noun + cardinal number Proceed to gate four Wait for me on platform Note: Ordinal numbers come before cardinal numbers as follows: the + ordinal number + cardinal number + noun He had trouble adapting for the first two weeks +) Ordinal numbers are formed as follows: 41 TOEIC GRAMMAR first second third fourth fifth sixth eleventh seventh eighth thirteenth ninth fourteenth tenth fifteenth They are used as follows: Take the third street on the left Note: The order for dates is as follows: twentieth twelfth twenty-second twenty-third twenty-fourth thirtieth twenty-first fiftieth hundredth thousandth fortieth the + ordinal number + noun the + ordinal number + of + month (GB) My birthday is the twenty-second of August month + (the) + ordinal number Independence Day in the US is July (the) fourth Point Inversion Inversion is used in the following cases: Case Omission of if Neither, nor, so After negative adverbial expressions, not or only Inversion auxiliary verb (were/had/should) + subject + verb were she my daughter (if she were ), I would tell her had I known (if I had known ), I wouldn’t have come should you change your mind (if you change ), let me know neither/nor/so + auxiliary verb + subject I don’t like aggressive ads – Nor/neither (= I don’t either) I really like jazz music – So I (= I also/too) negative adverbial expression + auxiliary verb + subject not / only Under no circumstances can we leave the room Never had I felt like this Only after finishing my work can I get a bonus 42 TOEIC GRAMMAR So / such that Point So / such + auxiliary verb that So nice is he that I like him Such a good job did she that she won our praise Conjunctions Conjunctions are: • used to join clauses together • used to show the relationship between the ideas in the • followed by a subject and a verb • Cause and Place Condition Contrast effect as where even if although because whereve if even though in order that r in case though now that once whereas that provided (that) while since providing so that unless whether (or not) clauses Manner as as if as though He talks to me as if he were my boss Unless the sales improves in the future, we will be forced to shut down We have to work overtime in order that we can meet the deadline Point No longer / no more • • No longer/not any longer are used with time No more/not any more are used with time, quantity or degree • • The no structures are used before the verb or after the verb “to be” The not any structures are used at the end of the sentence Mr Jones doesn’t work here any more/longer He no longer fitted the job There’s no more paper in the photocopier Point • Discourse markers Contrasting on the other hand, however, nevertheless, yet, nonetheless, in comparison with, compared with 43 TOEIC GRAMMAR • • • • • Contradicting Adding Talking about purpose Providing reasons Explaining results • Generalizing • Summing up on the contrary, contrary to moreover, in addition, furthermore, what’s more in order to, so as to, with a view to (doing) owing to, due to, on account of, because of, thanks to consequently, as a result, therefore, so, then, thus, hence on the whole, in general, broadly speaking, by and large, to some extent to sum up, in a word, in short, briefly, in conclusion, finally, lastly, all in all, to conclude Our sales have soared in the past months; however, the boss hasn’t increased our salary Thanks to his invaluable dedication, our sales have soared Point How The word order is: • in questions: How (+ adjective/adverb) + auxiliary verb + subject + verb? How could I meet him? How far can people go in the name of reasearch? • in exclamations: How + adjective/adverb + subject + verb! I know how nice he really is He will receive a percentage based on how well they sell Unit Relative clauses Point Form and overview (see p 16) Point Which is used to modify the whole sentence Joe got the job This surprised everybody  Joe got the job, which surprised everybody (which modifies “Joe got the job” not “the job”) They couldn’t meet us This was a pity  They couldn’t meet us, which was a pity Point all of most of none of either of both of + whom (people) + which (things) 44 TOEIC GRAMMAR one of each of etc Mary has three brothers, all of - are married A them B him C whom D they In the sentence above, most learners mistakenly choose choice A in place of choice C, because they not realize that this is a compound sentence from single sentences below: Mary has three brothers All of them are married ( sentences) When they are compounded, they need a relative pronoun to modify “three brothers” and link the two sentences “them” must be replaced by “whom” and we must replace the stop with a comma, as in: Mary has three brothers, all of whom are married They asked me a lot of questions I couldn’t answer most of them (2 sentences)  They asked me a lot of questions, most of which I couldn’t answer (1 sentence) Point reduced relative clauses In defining and non-defining clauses we can leave out the relative pronoun and part of the verb phrase to leave a participle acting as an adjective defining the noun Tell the people who are waiting outside to come in  Tell the people waiting outside to come in The person who answered the phone was polite to the caller  The person answering the phone was polite to her caller Peter was the only one of the group who was arrested after the match  Peter was the only one of the group arrested after the match Their friends, who were soaked to the skin, eventually arrived home  Their friends, soaked to the skin, eventually arrived home Note: We never use “that” in non-defining clauses and “that” cannot follow a preposition Jade is proud of her new job, - she is enjoying A that B which C who D what As we mention above, choice B is the best answer The position for - they applied was very demanding A that B it C which D What Choice C is the best answer 45 TOEIC GRAMMAR Unit 10 Modals Can/could/may/might/should/would/need/must … are called modal verbs In the TOEIC test, some modals we should pay special attention to are could, may, might, must and should (ought to) +) could • Past ability • Possibility (= may/might) could do/have done smt +) may/might • possibility may/might (in the present or future) may/might have done (in the past) +) must • obligation • certainty (logical assumptions) must do/have done +) should • advice, recommendation or expectation • criticism of an action 46 TOEIC GRAMMAR should do/have done Confusing words and differences between English and American A Confusing words +) Tell/say/talk/speak Both say and tell are used with direct and indirect speech (Say is more common than tell with direct speech.) • • tell -somebody that - somebody to - a lie, the truth, a story, the time say - that - to somebody that - : “ ” - to somebody: “ .” There is little difference between speak and talk In certain situations one or the other is prefered, but they are usually both possible • talk - informal communication - an informal lecture (a talk) Could I talk to you about the football match for a few minutes? This is Patrict Allen, who’s going to talk to us about gardening 47 TOEIC GRAMMAR • speak - is often used for communication in more serious or formal situations - is prefered for more formal lectures, sermons etc - refers to use of languages and to the physical ability to speak - to somebody on the phone (US also speak with) I’ll have to speak to that boy – he’s getting very lazy After she had finished reading the letter, nobody spoke The Pope spoke to the crowd for seventy minutes about world peace Hello Could I speak to Karen, please? She speaks three languages fluently +) Do and make These words are very similar, but there are some differences • • - when we not say exactly what activity we are talking about – for example with something, nothing, anything, everything, what Do something! I like nothing - when we talk about work, and in the structure do-ing I’m not going to any work today I dislike doing housework I hate doing the cooking and shopping make - We often use make to talk about constructing, building, creating, etc We’ve just make a cake Let’s make a plan Learn these expressions: • You do: the dishes/the washing up/your homework/an assignment/some research/your work, your duty/good /bad/one’s best/(sb) a favor/business/100 mph • You make: progress/headway/an agreement/a decision/ an offer/a promise/a discovery/an attempt/an effort/an excuse/an exception/a suggestion/inquiries/a phone call/a photocopy/an annoucement/a mistake/a noise/a journey/money/a profit/a bed/a fire +) farther and further • • Both of them are used to talk about distance There is no difference of meaning Edinburgh is farther/further away than York We can use further (but not farther) to mean “extra”, “more advanced”, “additional” For further information, see page 277 College of Further Education +) Lend / borrow Could you lend me your dictionary for a moment? Can I borrow your pencil-sharpener, please? +) Come, bring (for movement towards the speaker): They came into the room where we waiting, and brought the dog with them +) Go, take (for movement away from the speaker): When you go home, take a present for your mother 48 TOEIC GRAMMAR B English or American: differences +) Grammar differences Bristish English He has just seen his former colleague Have you got a problem? It fitted the mood of the moment It’s important that he should come Mortgages have got more costly for some homeowners American English He just saw his former colleague Do you have a problem It fit the mood of the moment It’s important that he come Mortagages have gotten more costly for some homeowners +) Spelling differences English words -our colour, honour, humour -tre centre, theatre, metre -ogue catalogue, analogue, dialogue -ise organise, nationalise -ence licence, defence anaesthesia, gynaecology aluminium to practise programme American words -or color, honor, humor -ter center, theater, meter -og catalog, analog, dialog -ize organize, nationalize -ense license, defense anesthesia, gynecology aluminum to practice program 49 TOEIC GRAMMAR grey jewellery pyjamas speciality storey tyre doughnut cheque draught aeroplane gray jewelry pajamas specialty story tire donut check draft airplane +) Vocabulary English chips spirits tin ground floor flat public toilet lift cupboard rubbish cashpoint banknote engaged tone mobile phone managing director, MD rise (in salary) CV surname post postcode town center driving licence petrol railway pavament underground lorry taxi return single American french fries liquor can first floor apartment rest room elevator closet garbage, trash ATM bankbill busy tone cell phone CEO raise resume last name mail zip code downtown driver’s license gas railroad sidewalk subway truck cab round trip one-way 50 TOEIC GRAMMAR motorway autumn holiday rubber trousers handbag shop queue pharmacy, chemist shopping centre film bill (restaurant) estate agent highway, freeway fall vacation eraser pants purse store stand in line drugstore mall movie check realtor 51 ... at a.m tomorrow My train leaves at 11 .30 tomorrow morning Note: Pronunciation - vebs which end in /z/, /dz/, /s/, /sh/, /tsh/ and /ks/ make an 23 TOEIC GRAMMAR extra syllable in the third person,... beginning or at the end of a sentence The staff meeting is held quarterly Every day I love you 13 TOEIC GRAMMAR Unit Determiners and pronouns Point Determiners Definition : A determiner is a word... Considering In the sentence above, in terms of grammar we can use A, B, C or D However, in terms of semantics choice C is the best answer TOEIC GRAMMAR Unit Nouns, adjectives, adverbs, articles
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