Ứng dụng công nghệ thông tin trong đề án học tập để dạy kĩ năng nói học sinh trường THPT Lê Hồng Phong (Luận văn thạc sĩ)

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Ứng dụng công nghệ thông tin trong đề án học tập để dạy kĩ năng nói học sinh trường THPT Lê Hồng PhongỨng dụng công nghệ thông tin trong đề án học tập để dạy kĩ năng nói học sinh trường THPT Lê Hồng PhongỨng dụng công nghệ thông tin trong đề án học tập để dạy kĩ năng nói học sinh trường THPT Lê Hồng PhongỨng dụng công nghệ thông tin trong đề án học tập để dạy kĩ năng nói học sinh trường THPT Lê Hồng PhongỨng dụng công nghệ thông tin trong đề án học tập để dạy kĩ năng nói học sinh trường THPT Lê Hồng PhongỨng dụng công nghệ thông tin trong đề án học tập để dạy kĩ năng nói học sinh trường THPT Lê Hồng PhongỨng dụng công nghệ thông tin trong đề án học tập để dạy kĩ năng nói học sinh trường THPT Lê Hồng PhongỨng dụng công nghệ thông tin trong đề án học tập để dạy kĩ năng nói học sinh trường THPT Lê Hồng PhongỨng dụng công nghệ thông tin trong đề án học tập để dạy kĩ năng nói học sinh trường THPT Lê Hồng PhongỨng dụng công nghệ thông tin trong đề án học tập để dạy kĩ năng nói học sinh trường THPT Lê Hồng PhongỨng dụng công nghệ thông tin trong đề án học tập để dạy kĩ năng nói học sinh trường THPT Lê Hồng Phong THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES TRAN THI BINH APPLYING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN TEACHING SPEAKING SKILLS FOR STUDENTS AT LE HONG PHONG HIGH SCHOOL via PBL (Ứng dụng công nghệ thông tin đề án học tập để dạy nói học sinh trường THPT Hồng Phong) M.A THESIS Field: English Linguistics Code: 8220202 THAI NGUYEN – 2018 Acknowledgement In completion of my thesis, I have received generous advice and help from many lecturers whose lectures are very practical and useful Firstly, I would like to express my sincere thanks to my supervisors Dr Hoang Thi Ngoc Diem and Dr Nguyen Thi Minh Loan from School of Foreign Languages, Thai Nguyen University for her close guidance, criticism, and her generous help in the process of completing my thesis My special thanks also go to all lecturers and the staff of the Schools of Foreign Languages for their useful materials, guidance and enthusiasm during my course of study I really wish to thank all my colleagues and my students at Le Hong Phong High school for their kind cooperation in giving valuable information Finally, I owe my deep thanks to my dear family, specially my husband, my little children and my friends who always stand for me with their consideration and encouragement Abstract This research was conducted to the eleventh grade students and EFL teachers of Le Hong Phong high school, Pho Yen Town, Thai Nguyen province in academic year 2017-2018 The aim of this research was to find out how well the use of Project-based learning with the help of m-learning in improving students’ speaking skill, the trend in ICT use of the EFL teachers and attitude and motivation in learning foreign language In conducting this research, the writer designed an experimental study that pursues to boost the students’ speaking competences Before drawing the experiment, ten EFL teachers and both groups were carried out questionnaires to measure both the teachers’ trend in use of ICT and attitude and motivation towards learning English The findings of this research showed that there was an improvement on students’ speaking skill through project-based learning with Aurasma app particularly in accuracy and fluency The results of this study suggest that the EFL teachers seemed to be aware of the benefits of ICT to their classroom instruction of the English language They also indicated that their beliefs about ICT benefits had the biggest impact on their ICT use Moreover, the EFL students’ English language competence improved significantly in almost all area of their speaking competence after the implementation of the PBL lesson plan with the help of m-learning The control group only showed improvements in grammar and vocabulary because their curriculum focused mainly on those areas The experimental group showed positive changes in their attitudes and motivation towards learning English after the PBL lesson plan, while control group’s attitudes and motivation remained unchanged The importance of having competence in English is well-recognized However, high school students’ speaking level entails not only the speaking competence but competency in reading, writing and listening as well Therefore, future studies should explore effectiveness of PBL in developing students’ reading, writing and listening skills with the help of m-learning TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION .1 1.1 Rationale for the study .1 1.2 Aims of the study 1.3 Significance of the paper .4 1.4 Scope of the study 1.5 Organization CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Research context 2.1.1 Influence of traditional pedagogy on language education 2.1.2 Role of teachers .6 2.1.3 Roles of examinations 2.1.4 Roles of textbooks 2.1.5 Students in classroom 2.2 Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) 2.2.1 Traditional language teaching methods 2.2.2 Communicative Language Teaching in the current school system 10 2.3 English speaking skill 14 2.3.1 Speaking skill 14 2.3.2 Speaking Competence 16 2.3.3 Speaking sub- competence 16 2.3.4 The importance of acquiring speaking skill 18 2.3.5 Ways of developing speaking skill 19 2.3.6 Characteristics of a successful English speaking classroom 20 2.4 Project Based Learning (PBL) 21 2.4.1 Definition of PBL 21 2.4.2 Benefits of PBL in English speaking classroom 23 2.5 Mobile technology to support speaking skill 26 2.5.1 Augmented Reality (AR) 26 2.5.2 Aurasma 27 2.5.3 Previous studies 28 CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 31 3.1 Research design 32 3.2 Participants 32 3.3 Data collection instruments 33 3.3.1 Survey questionnaire 33 3.3.2 Pre-test and post-test 33 3.4 Data collection procedure 34 3.5.1 Survey analysis 37 3.5.2 Pre-test and post-test analysis 38 CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 40 4.1 Results 40 4.1.1 ICT applications 40 4.1.2 Pre-test result 42 4.1.3 Post-test result 44 4.1.4 Pre-test and post-test comparison 46 4.1.5 Results after using PBL with m-learning 46 4.1.6 Comparisons of attitudes and motivation levels 47 4.1.7.Attitudes and motivation in the experimental group after the treatment 47 4.2 Discussion 47 4.2.1 ICT applications 47 4.2.2 The same level speaking competence of the control and experimental groups 48 4.2.3 Improvement after implementing the PBL lesson plan 49 4.2.4 Progress on attitudes and motivation after the intervention 50 CHAPTER 5: IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSION 53 5.1 Implications 53 5.2 Limitation and suggestion for further research 54 5.3 Conclusion 54 References Appendixes List of tables Table Frequency of Use of ICT Page 40 List of Figures Figure The mean pre-test scores of overall speaking competences Page 41 and sub-competences of control group and experimental group Figure The mean post-test score of the control group and experimental group Page 43 in overall speaking and sub-competences List of abbreviations AR Augmented Reality EFL English as a Foreign Language CLT Communication Language Teaching ICT Information and Communication Technology IT Information Technology m-learning Mobile- learning MoET Ministry of Education and Training PBL Project- Based Learning Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Rationale for the study English is one of the most common languages in the world, and the most popular second language of study in Vietnam (Crystal, 2012) A chain of economic reforms in 1986 and 1993 have been creating a flow in the number of people learning English (Tri, 2001) Following Vietnam becoming a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 1995 and the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2006, many foreigners and investors launched business in Vietnam Vietnam has seen rapidly economic development and an explosion in commercial cooperation, technology advancement and culture exchanges with other part of the world This has given a rise to a pressing demand for English proficiency (Le, 2005) The recent development in the country, together with increased globalisation, has created more career opportunities for the Vietnamese people Needless to say the needs of Vietnamese people to use English in their work and daily lives have been dramatically increasing Therefore, teaching and learning English have a vital role in raising the English competence However, Vietnamese students especially in the schools in rural areas have difficulties in learning and practising speaking skill because of limited access to authentic materials, out of date teaching methods and over- sized classes with multilevel Consequently, the so- called “deaf and dumb English” users are ironically referred to many learner generations with in complete English competence (Hoang, 2015) Another reason for the inconsistencies between the numbers of the expected and actual fluent English speakers in the country might be due to the teacher- centred model of teaching and the ways that Vietnamese students study and are evaluated In this model, the focus is on the teacher only, while the students sit quietly and listen as the teacher instructs the whole class The teacher’s responsibility is observed as being the contents delivery, where as the students’ role is swallowing the content (Pratt et al.1999) Furthermore, Vietnamese students believe that learning is memorizing books or information provided by teachers in class (Kennedy, 2002) The teacher is usually the sole source of verbal English input for the students Thus, the students normally not participate in classroom activities, are unwilling to give answers or ask questions and are reliant on the teacher (Braddock et al., 1995) The teacher- centred model results in a passive learning style on the almost part of the students, and a situation where the students are uncomfortably speaking English outside the classroom In addition, the education system and examinations focus almost entirely on grammar and vocabulary (Peterson, 2014) Since Vietnamese students study English to pass the examinations and to move to further study (Denham,1992), they tend to overlook the verbal communication parts such as pronunciation, speaking and listening The grammar and vocabulary-heavy curriculum and examinations means that the students rarely have chances to practice communicating with each other in English in the classroom According to Kayi (2006), foreign language teachers should pay much attention to teaching speaking because “the ability to communicate in a foreign language clearly and efficiently contributes to success of the learners in school and success later in every phase of life” Instead of leading students to purely learn by memorization, English teachers should provide a rich environment for the students, where meaningful communication can take place The term to denote one’s competency in speaking a language is named speaking competence Speaking competence is one’s skills, knowledge, and motivation to speak to anyone in any context To develop these speaking competences, it is essential to teach and encourage verbal communication To improve speaking competences of students in English, and to increase their experience of speaking the language, this paper uses a well-established methodology, known as Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) CLT is “a set of principles about the goals of language teaching, how learners learn a language, the kinds of classroom activities that best facilitate learning, and the roles of teachers and learners in classroom” (Richard, 2006) The purpose of the communicative approach is to communicative with APPENDIX C: ATTITUDE AND MOTIVATION Answering the following questionnaire is to survey about your attitudes and motivation towards speaking English as a foreign language There are no wrong or correct answers, please answer accurately as possible Choose one number for each response I wish I could speak English perfectly I don’t pay much attention to the feedback I receive in my English class I don’t get anxious when I have to answer a question in my English class I look forward to going to class because my English teacher is so good Learning English is really great Studying English is important because it will allow me to be easier with people speaking English My English class is really a waste of time I would get nervous if I had to speak to a foreigner I don’t think my English teacher is very good 10 Studying English is important because I will need it in the future 11 I would spend more time in my English class and less in other classes 12 My parents feel that it is very important for me to learn English 13 I enjoy the activities of our English class much more than those of my other classes 76 No idea Disagree Question Agree No 14 My English teacher has a dynamic and interesting teaching style 15 Native speakers are very sociable and kind 16 It worries me that other students in my class seem to speak English better than I 17 I like my English class so much and I look forward to studying more English in the future 18 My parents are very interested in everything I in my English class 19 I tend to give up and not pay attention when I don’t understand my English teacher’s explanation of something 20 To be honest, I really have no desire to learn English 21 The more I get to know native English speakers, the more I like them 22 My English teacher doesn’t present materials in an interesting way 23 I am sometimes anxious that the other students in class will laugh at me when I speak English 24 I feel anxious if someone asks me something in English 25 I would rather see movies dubbed into our language than in its own language with subtitles 26 When English is not compulsory, I will give up the study of English because I am not interested in 27 When I am studying English, I ignore distractions and pay attention to my task 28 Study English is important because it will be useful in getting a good job 29 When I have a problem understanding something in my English class, I always have my teacher for help 77 30 Study English is important because it will become confident to me APPENDIX D: The percentages for each items in the attitudes and motivation test Items Pre-intervention (%) Disagree No idea Agree Experimental Group Agree Control Group Interest in English 2.Parental Encourage ment Motivation al intensity English class anxiety 5.English teacher evaluation 6.Attitudes towards learning English 7.Attitudes towards English speaking people 8.Integrativ e orientation 9.Desire to learn English 10.English course evaluation 50 50 57.65 41.91 58.0 41.91 42.35 57.6 45.29 54.7 47.06 50 48.82 No idea Disagree Disagree Agree 48.83 51.17 42.65 57.35 42.35 57 65 41.76 58.24 48.24 51 76 43.53 56.47 50 50 47.06 52.94 51.1 52.94 47 06 49.41 28.68 33.8 32.35 30 15 39.71 60.2 52.94 47 06 48.82 51.1 50 36.47 63.5 39.41 intervention Agree No idea 42 35 58 09 Post(%) No idea Disagree Post- intervention Pre-intervention (%) (%) 82 35 46 32 12.9 53.6 74 12 25.8 74 71 25.2 93 53 6.47 50.59 91 76 8.24 29.41 36.03 34 56 51 47 13.9 34.5 36.76 63.24 89 71 10.2 50 49.41 50.59 87 65 13.3 60 59 26.47 73.53 85 88 14.1 78 11 English 27.06 course evaluation 12 English 51.52 use anxiety 72.9 27.65 72 35 26.47 73.53 64 71 35.2 48.4 63.24 36 76 50 50 82 35 17.6 APPENDIX E: Students’ pre-test and post-test scores Table E.1 Students’ pre-test scores No Name O G P G V D M P F V ID 2 ID 2 4 2 3 ID 3 2 ID 4 4 4 4 ID 2 ID 2 2 2 ID 2 ID 3 3 2 ID 3 3 10 ID 10 2 2 11 ID 11 3 2 3 12 ID 12 3 2 13 ID 13 3 3 14 ID 14 3 2 3 2 15 ID 15 2 1 16 ID 16 2 3 2 17 ID 17 1 1 1 1 18 ID 18 1 2 19 ID 19 2 2 20 ID 20 2 1 21 ID 21 4 2 22 ID 22 2 23 ID 23 2 2 24 ID 24 3 2 3 3 79 25 ID 25 3 2 3 26 ID 26 2 27 ID 27 1 28 ID 28 4 3 2 29 ID 29 2 1 2 30 ID 30 2 1 1 1 31 ID 31 1 2 2 32 ID 32 2 2 2 33 ID 33 2 3 2 34 ID 34 4 2 2 Table E.2 Students’ post-test scores No Name O G P G V D M P F V ID 3 ID 5 3 4 4 ID 3 2 3 ID 5 5 5 4 ID 4 3 5 3 ID 2 2 2 ID 3 3 ID 3 3 2 ID 3 2 3 10 ID 10 3 3 11 ID 11 3 2 4 12 ID 12 3 3 3 13 ID 13 3 3 14 ID 14 3 2 3 2 15 ID 15 2 1 16 ID 16 3 4 3 17 ID 17 3 2 3 2 80 18 ID 18 2 4 2 19 ID 19 3 3 20 ID 20 3 2 1 21 ID 21 5 4 22 ID 22 4 2 23 ID 23 2 2 2 24 ID 24 4 3 4 4 25 ID 25 2 3 26 ID 26 3 2 27 ID 27 3 3 5 28 ID 28 4 3 2 29 ID 29 3 2 1 2 30 ID 30 2 1 2 1 31 ID 31 2 3 3 32 ID 32 2 2 33 ID 33 4 4 3 34 ID 34 2 2 81 APPENDIX F: PBL LESSON PLAN TV NEWS PROJECT I Project Description: The class is divided in to four groups of students Each group write a TV news on their chosen field and practice broadcasting the news At the of the terms, they are expected to present the practiced news in VTV1 II Project Objectives: The project aims at: - Developing the four skills namely reading, writing, listening and especially speaking by practicing speaking regularly - Applying IT skills: recording and editing photographs and video Using Aurasma app on IOS and android properly - Developing some soft skills including team-work skill, time management, etc III Expected products: At the end of the term, a news broadcast is expected to be accomplished IV Assessment - Participation: 10% - Broad cast : 40 % - News report: 40 % - Group assessment: 10% 82 V Project Calendar: Week Work to Expected products Introduction Plans by students Requirements, grouping, choosing a Group 1: Causes of topic pollution in Samsung Industrial Zone Group 2: Effects of pollution Group 3: Solutions to the problem of pollution Group 4: Sstudents’ responsibilities in controlling urbanisation Week 2,3 Finding relevant materials, reading the Written news reports materials and writing news report Week 4,5,6 Rehearing broadcast Files on rehearing scene Week 7,8 Broadcasting the news Performance Week Learn how to use Aurasma app Create an account Explore Aurasma source Week Display exhibition Using Aurasma app to peer 10,11 Week 12 correction Evaluation VI Notices: - The news broadcast should last no longer than minutes - All group members have to be broadcasters - Each broadcaster have an equal amount of time to speak 83 - All group members have an account of Aurasma app and publish their product on Aurasma publicly A SAMPLE LESSON PLAN Topic: ENVIRONMENT Objectives: By the end of the lesson, Ss will gain a) Knowledge: - Understanding more about pollution including the causes, effects and solutions to the problems b) Skills: - Group working - 3D map designing - Video and brochure making - Presenting - Applying ICT (Aurasma app) c) Attitude: Raise awareness about responsibilities of individuals to control pollution Be willing to the project work within groups Preparations: a) Teacher’s: computer, project records, smart phone with 3G or 4G, wifi b) Students’: computers, cameras, paper, pens… Procedure 84 Time Contents Teacher’s activities Students’ Teaching’s and activities learning’s aids Step 1: Plan (45 minutes) mins Introduction WARM UP Smart TV or a -greet the students projector -check students’ - Watch the attendance - explain the goal of teaching and - video guess the topic learning - listen and -Use a video to elicit (a video) take notes student about the topics Ask Ss to watch the video clip and guess the topic 12 mins - work in Development of sub-topics - Have Ss use “mind groups to map” technique to complete the make the work mind maps easier - present - Writes the key group’s ideas words For example: What is pollution? - discuss with “What are the the teacher main categories we want to find out about pollution?” - Ask Ss to work in groups including a group leader who 85 Board, subboards, board markers, chalk will divide and assign the work equally - discuss with Ss to focus on the main and common factors 28 mins Plans to carry out the project - give task: study - listen more about the topics - Ss answer - ask: What should the we to collect questions: information before we research? - Divide the whole class into groups, each group has to discuss the method of Suggested answer: +surveying +interviewing the authority and local - projector doing the project and people presenting +searching for Task 1: causes of pollution in Samsung Industrial Zonegroup Task 2: effects of pollution - group Task 3: solutions to the problem of pollution (Student’s information on the Net and analysing + Discussing about the language, the sentence structure in their work - sheets practical activities)- + Designing group clips Task 4: students’ responsibilities in 86 (Members’ tasks) controlling - discuss what urbanisation – group should be done - assign the tasks for students by giving - listen, them the handouts about the assigned tasks for each group - elicit Ss’ activities to the tasks - instruct how to discuss and take notes - plan their project in the tasks (design, groups distribute, collect and (assign tasks analyse the to members) information, - present the present……) plans (group - Giving handouts to each group about how to use a report, a narrative, an application letter - assign presentation tasks - shows an example of the final product of the project - ask Ss to study and fill in the sheets - go around to offer help - give comments 87 leaders) (Teachers observe, support and give feedback to students) Step 2: Carry out the project and complete the work Information collection Analysis of information and completion of Project Record - observe, instruct - questionnair of the plans report the - es questions for interviews distribute, collect and things - cameras analyze the information, report the news , carry out the clips, write and perform a play, make a video ….) discussed in groups - internet books - computers pens, pieces and help the groups to carry out the project (design, - take steps - observe, instruct and help the - analyse information groups to analyse and prepare information and prepare for presentation (3 groups share the information they have collected to each other; each group focus on one for presentation (share information, then each group prepare for the presentation factor; after presenting the work, give personal ideas on the topic) on each of the following: 88 of paper - the Project Record - complete the Project Record Step 3: Present the work Introduction - introduce the - listen lesson Presentation - ask groups to show their - present product and - computers - projector - computers projector - Smart present in turn: causes, effects, - ask presenters phones connecting solutions and students’ responsibilities in controling pollution - Ask Ss to questions about the topic - answer the questions the Internet to play Aurasma app Image Triggers (Pictures) to - - - provide hang on the correction among the groups and gives feedback Emphasize the expression mistake and wall or the board give remark Announce the best product 89 Further talk - Ask: What you think about the - work in groups discussing trend of pollution in - present the future? Comments - and comment on - listen groups’ work - reflect their and assessments - - learning participation summarize and reflect the lesson preview on the upcoming materials 90 ... competence but competency in reading, writing and listening as well Therefore, future studies should explore effectiveness of PBL in developing students’ reading, writing and listening skills with the... new national education program, many teachers continue to apply the traditional grammar- translation method, which focuses on reading and writing The Ministry of Education and Training’s curriculum... technology in teaching and learning at Le Hong Phong high school To investigate the effect of a specific mobile application for PBL among students at Le Hong Phong High school To explore the attitudes
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