Consumer behavior 6th by hoyer maclnnis

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Giáo trình nghiên cứu hành vi khách hàng Consumer behavior 6th by hoyer maclnnis Giáo trình nghiên cứu hành vi khách hàng Consumer behavior 6th by hoyer maclnnis Giáo trình nghiên cứu hành vi khách hàng Consumer behavior 6th by hoyer maclnnis Giáo trình nghiên cứu hành vi khách hàng Consumer behavior 6th by hoyer maclnnis Giáo trình nghiên cứu hành vi khách hàng Consumer behavior 6th by hoyer maclnnis Giáo trình nghiên cứu hành vi khách hàng Consumer behavior 6th by hoyer maclnnis Giáo trình nghiên cứu hành vi khách hàng Consumer behavior 6th by hoyer maclnnis Giáo trình nghiên cứu hành vi khách hàng Consumer behavior 6th by hoyer maclnnis Sixth Edition Consumer Behavior Wayne D Hoyer University of Texas at Austin Deborah J MacInnis University of Southern California Rik Pieters Tilburg University Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s) Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it This is an electronic version of the print textbook Due to electronic rights restrictions, some third party content may be suppressed Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience The publisher reserves the right to remove content from this title at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it For valuable information on pricing, previous editions, changes to current editions, and alternate formats, please visit www.cengage.com/highered to search by ISBN#, author, title, or keyword for materials in your areas of interest Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s) Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it Consumer Behavior, Sixth Edition Wayne D Hoyer, Deborah J MacInnis, and Rik Pieters Senior Vice President, LRS/Acquisitions & Solutions Planning: Jack W Calhoun Editorial Director, Business & Economics: Erin Joyner Executive Editor: Michael Roche Developmental Editor: Sarah Blasco Editorial Assistant: Megan Fischer Marketing Manager: Gretchen Swann Media Editor: John Rich Manufacturing Planner: Ron Montgomery Senior Marketing Communications Manager: Jim Overly Art and Cover Direction, Production Management, and Composition: PreMediaGlobal © 2013, 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning ALL RIGHTS RESERVED No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored, or used in any form or by any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, scanning, digitizing, taping, web distribution, information networks, or information storage and retrieval systems, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without the prior written permission of the publisher For product information and technology assistance, contact us at Cengage Learning Customer & Sales Support, 1-800-354-9706 For permission to use material from this text or product, submit all requests online at www.cengage.com/permissions Further permissions questions can be emailed to permissionrequest@cengage.com ExamView® is a registered trademark of eInstruction Corp Windows is a registered trademark of the Microsoft Corporation used herein under license Macintosh and Power Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple ­Computer, Inc used herein under license Photo Researcher: © Terri Miller/ E-Visual ­Communications, Inc © 2008 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved Cover Image: © Masterfile Royalty Free Cengage Learning WebTutor™ is a trademark of Cengage Learning Rights Acquisitions Specialist: Deanna Ettinger (image), Audrey Pettengill (text) Library of Congress Control Number: 2012941536 ISBN-13: 978-1-133-43521-1 ISBN-10: 1-133-43521-1 South-Western 5191 Natorp Boulevard Mason, OH 45040 USA Cengage Learning is a leading provider of customized learning solutions with office locations around the globe, including Singapore, the United Kingdom, Australia, Mexico, Brazil, and Japan Locate your local office at: www.cengage.com/global Cengage Learning products are represented in Canada by Nelson Education, Ltd For your course and learning solutions, visit www.cengage.com Purchase any of our products at your local college store or at our preferred online store www.cengagebrain.com Printed in the United States of America 16 15 14 13 12 Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s) Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it To my wonderful family, Shirley, David, Stephanie, and Lindsey and to my parents Louis and Doris for their tremendous support and love To all of you, I dedicate this book Wayne D Hoyer Austin, Texas August 2012 To my loving family and devoted friends You are my life-spring of energy and my center of gravity Deborah J MacInnis Los Angeles, California August 2012 To Trees who loves me and Thomas who knew everything Rik Pieters Tilburg, Netherlands August 2012 Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s) Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it About the Authors Wayne D Hoyer Wayne D Hoyer is the James L Bayless/William S Farish Fund Chair for Free Enterprise in the McCombs School of Business at the University of Texas at Austin He received his Ph.D in Consumer Psychology from Purdue University in 1980 He also holds an honorary doctorate from the University of Bern in Switzerland His major area of study is Consumer Psychology and his research interests include consumer information processing and decision making, customer relationship management and new product development, and advertising information processing ­(including miscomprehension, humor, and brand personality) Wayne has published over 100 articles in various publications including the Journal of Consumer Research, Journal of Marketing, Journal of Marketing Research, Journal of Advertising Research, and Journal of Retailing A 1998 article in the Journal of Marketing Research (with Susan Broniarczyk and Leigh McAlister) won the O’Dell Award in 2003 for the article that had the most impact in the marketing field over that five-year period In addition to Consumer Behavior, he has co-authored two books on the topic of advertising miscomprehension He is a current area editor for the Journal of Marketing, a former associate editor for the Journal of Consumer Research and serves on eight editorial review boards including the Journal of Marketing Research, Journal of Consumer Research, and Journal of Consumer Psychology His major areas of teaching include consumer behavior, customer strategy, and marketing communications He has also taught internationally at the University of Mannheim, the University of Muenster, and the Otto Beisheim School of Management (all in Germany), the University of Bern in Switzerland, the University of Cambridge (UK), and Thammasat University in Thailand He has also been the Montezemolo Visiting Research Fellow in the Judge School of Business and is a Visiting Fellow of Sidney Sussex College at the University of Cambridge (UK) Deborah J MacInnis Debbie MacInnis (Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh 1986) is the Charles L and Ramona I Hilliard Professor of Business Administration and Professor of Marketing at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, CA She has previously held positions as Chairperson of the Marketing Department and Vice Dean for Research Debbie has published papers in the Journal of Consumer Research, Journal of Marketing Research, Journal of Marketing, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Psychology and Marketing, and others in the areas of marketing communications, information processing, imagery, emotions, and branding She is an Associate Editor for the Journal of Consumer Research and the Journal of Consumer Psychology She has also served as a member of the editorial review boards of the Journal of Consumer Research, Journal of Marketing Research, Journal of Marketing, and Journal of the Academy of Marketing Sciences and has won outstanding reviewer awards from these journals She has also served on the editorial review boards of other journals in marketing and business Debbie has served as Conference Co-Chair, Treasurer, and President of the Association for Consumer Research She has also served as Vice President of Conferences and Research for the Academic Council of the American Marketing Association She has received major awards for her research, including the Alpha Kappa Psi and Maynard awards, given to the best practice- and theory-based articles, respectively, published in the Journal of Marketing Debbie’s research has also been named as a finalist for the Practice Prize Competition for contributions to marketing, and the Converse Award for significant long-term contributions to marketing She has been named recipient of the Marshall Teaching Innovation Award, the Dean’s Award for iv Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s) Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it About the Authors v Community, and the Dean’s Award for Research from the Marshall School of Business Her classes have won national awards through the SAA National Advertising Competition Debbie’s major areas of teaching include consumer behavior and integrated marketing communications Debbie lives in Los Angeles with her husband and two children Rik Pieters Rik Pieters is Professor of Marketing at the Tilburg School of Economics and Management (TISEM) of Tilburg University, the Netherlands He received his Ph.D in social psychology from the University of Leiden in 1989 Rik believes in interdisciplinary work, and that imagination, persistence and openness to surprise are a person’s biggest assets He has published over 90 articles in marketing, psychology, economics, and statistics His work has appeared in Journal of Consumer Psychology, Journal of Consumer Research, Journal of Marketing, Journal of Marketing Research, Marketing Science, Management Science, and International Journal of Research in Marketing He has published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, European Journal of Social Psychology, Emotion, Psychological Science, and Journal of Economic Literature Currently, Rik is an Associate Editor of the Journal of Marketing Research His research concerns attention and memory processes in marketing communication, and the role of emotions in consumer decision making He has served as Co-Chair of the Association for Consumer Research annual conference, and has co-organized special conferences on visual marketing, social communication, and service marketing and management He has taught internationally at Pennsylvania State University; University of Innsbruck, Austria; Koc University, Turkey; and the University of Auckland, New Zealand He has won best teaching awards at the school and university levels He has been Strategy Director for National and International clients at the Prad/FCB advertising agency, Amsterdam office He bakes bread, rides bikes, and drinks hoppy, fermented barley beverages, all except the first in moderation In his spare time, he works Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s) Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it Brief Contents Part 1  An Introduction to Consumer Behavior   Chapter Understanding Consumer Behavior   Appendix  Developing Information About Consumer Behavior   28 Part 2  The Psychological Core   43 Chapter Motivation, Ability, and Opportunity   44 Chapter From Exposure to Comprehension   72 Chapter Memory and Knowledge   99 Chapter Attitudes Based on High Effort   127 Chapter Attitudes Based on Low Effort   157 Part 3  The Process of Making Decisions   183 Chapter Problem Recognition and Information Search   184 Chapter Judgment and Decision Making Based on High Effort   213 Chapter Judgment and Decision Making Based on Low Effort   241 Chapter 10Post-Decision Processes   267 Part 4  The Consumer’s Culture   297 Chapter 11Social Influences on Consumer Behavior   298 Chapter 12Consumer Diversity   329 Chapter 13Household and Social Class Influences   355 Chapter 14Psychographics: Values, Personality, and Lifestyles   382 Part 5  Consumer Behavior Outcomes and Issues   413 Chapter 15Innovations: Adoption, Resistance, and Diffusion   414 Chapter 16Symbolic Consumer Behavior   442 Chapter 17Marketing, Ethics, and Social Responsibility in Today’s Consumer Society   472 vi Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s) Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it Contents Preface  xiii Part 1  An Introduction to Consumer Behavior  Chapter 1  Understanding Consumer Behavior   INTRODUCTION: Panera Bread: More than Bread  Defining Consumer Behavior  Consumer Behavior Involves Goods, Services, Activities, Experiences, People, and Ideas  Consumer Behavior Involves More than Buying  Consumer Behavior Is a Dynamic Process  Consumer Behavior Can Involve Many People  Consumer Behavior Involves Many Decisions  Consumer Behavior Involves Emotions and Coping  What Affects Consumer Behavior?  10 The Psychological Core: Internal Consumer Processes  11 The Process of Making Decisions  12 The Consumer’s Culture: External Processes  12 Consumer Behavior Outcomes and Issues  13 Who Benefits from the Study of ­Consumer Behavior?  14 Marketing Managers  14 Ethicists and Advocacy Groups  14 Public Policy Makers and Regulators  15 Academics  15 Consumers and Society  15 Marketing Implications of Consumer Behavior  15 Developing and Implementing Customer-Oriented Strategy  16 Selecting the Target Market  16 Developing Products  16 Positioning  17 Making Promotion and Marketing   Communications Decisions  18 Making Pricing Decisions  19 Making Distribution Decisions  20 Summary  22 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR CASE: How Unilever’s Brands Connect with Consumers  22 Endnotes  23 Appendix  Developing Information About Consumer Behavior   28 Consumer Behavior Research Methods  28 Surveys  29 Focus Groups  30 Interviews  30 Storytelling  31 Photography and Pictures  31 Diaries  31 Experiments  32 Field Experiments  33 Conjoint Analysis  33 Observations and Ethnographic Research  33 Purchase Panels  34 Database Marketing  34 Netnography  34 Psychophysiological Reactions and Neuroscience   35 Types of Consumer Researchers  36 In-House Marketing Research Departments  36 External Marketing Research Firms  37 Advertising Agencies and Media Planning Firms  37 Syndicated Data Services  38 Retailers  38 Research Foundations and Trade Groups  38 Government  39 Consumer Organizations  39 Academics and Academic Research Centers  39 Ethical Issues in Consumer Research  39 The Positive Aspects of Consumer Research  40 The Negative Aspects of Consumer Research  40 Summary  41 Endnotes  41 Part 2  The Psychological Core  43 Chapter 2  Motivation, Ability, and Opportunity   44 INTRODUCTION: Movie Tavern Markets Food and a Flick  44 Consumer Motivation and Its Effects  45 High-Effort Behavior  45 High-Effort Information Processing and Decision Making  45 Felt Involvement  47 What Affects Motivation?  48 Personal Relevance  48 Values  49 Needs  49 Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s) Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it vii viii Contents Goals  53 Goals and Emotions  55 Self-Control and Goal Conflict  55 Perceived Risk  58 Inconsistency with Attitudes  60 Consumer Opportunity  62 Time  63 Distraction  63 Complexity, Amount, Repetition, and Control of Information  63 Consumer Ability: Resources to Act  60 Financial Resources  60 Cognitive Resources  61 Emotional Resources  61 Physical Resources  61 Social and Cultural Resources  62 Education and Age  62 Summary  65 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR CASE: USAA: Million of Customers, One Bank Branch  65 Endnotes  66 Chapter 3  From Exposure to Comprehension   72 INTRODUCTION: Wax or Real? Welcome to Madame Tussauds  72 Exposure and Consumer Behavior  73 Factors Influencing Exposure  73 Selective Exposure  73 Perceiving Through Touch  82 When Do We Perceive Stimuli?  84 How Do Consumers Perceive a Stimulus?  86 Attention and Consumer Behavior  76 Characteristics of Attention  76 Focal and Nonfocal Attention  77 Customer Segments Defined by Attention  80 Habituation  80 Comprehension and Consumer Behavior  87 Source Identification  87 Message Comprehension  88 Consumer Inferences  90 Perception and Consumer Behavior  80 Perceiving Through Vision  81 Perceiving Through Hearing  81 Perceiving Through Taste  82 Perceiving Through Smell  82 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR CASE: How Summary  92 Under Armour Gets Noticed  93 Endnotes  94 Chapter 4  Memory and Knowledge   99 INTRODUCTION: The Unforgettable Apple  99 What Is Memory?  100 Sensory Memory  100 Working Memory  102 Long-Term Memory  102 Explicit Memory, Implicit Memory, and Processing Fluency  103 How Memory Is Enhanced  104 Memory and Retrieval  116 Retrieval Failures  116 Retrieval Errors  117 Enhancing Retrieval  117 Characteristics of the Stimulus  118 Knowledge Content, Structure, and Flexibility  105 Knowledge Content: Schemas and Scripts  106 Knowledge Structure: Categories  111 Knowledge Flexibility  114 Why Consumers Differ in Knowledge   Content and Structure  115 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR CASE: Nostalgia Summary  120 Marketing Brings ­Memories Back  120 Endnotes  121 Chapter 5  Attitudes Based on High Effort   127 INTRODUCTION: Prestige Watches Have Timeless Appeal  127 What Are Attitudes?  128 The Importance of Attitudes  128 The Characteristics of Attitudes  128 Forming and Changing Attitudes  129 The Cognitive Foundations of Attitudes  131 Direct or Imagined Experience  131 Reasoning by Analogy or Category  131 Values-Driven Attitudes  132 Social Identity-Based Attitude Generation  132 Analytical Processes of Attitude Formation  132 How Cognitively Based Attitudes Are Influenced  135 Communication Source  136 The Message  138 The Affective (Emotional) Foundations of Attitudes  141 How Affectively Based Attitudes Are Influenced  143 The Source  143 The Message  144 Attitude Toward the Ad  146 When Do Attitudes Predict Behavior?  146 Summary  148 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR CASE: Volkswagen’s Drive to Become the World’s Top Automaker  149 Endnotes  150 Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s) Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it Product Index A Abercrombie & Fitch, 306 Ace Hardware, 451 Adidas endorsements, 136–137 NEO stores, 75 Aflac (American Family Life Assurance Company), 88 AKB48, 454 Alcohol, 483, 485, 486 Altoid mints, 457 Amazon cell phone recycling, 290 customer service, 276 prototypical brand, 112 saving items, 64 AMC Entertainments, 44 American Airlines, 345 American Cancer Society, 309 American Greetings cards, 345 American Grilled Cheese Kitchen, 389 Anchor Spreadable ad, 273 Angry Birds, 298, 319 Angry Birds Mooncake Festival, 298 Apple anchor products, 217 comparative advertising, 195 customer service, 280 distinctive design, 21 logo, 99–100 Apple iPad, 112, 191, 192 repositioning product, 431 Apple iPad2, 415 Apple iPhone brand loyalty, 455 prototypical brand, 112 Apple Newton MessagePad, 423 Ariel laundry detergent, 356 AT&T animated commercial, 76 cell phone recycling, 290–291 endorsements, 137 Audi hedonic message, 146 nostalgic commercials, 121 QR code, 185 AXA Equitable Life Insurance, 335 Axe, 22, 176 Aybrey-Organics, 49 B Baby Orajel, 140 Baidu, 208 Bailandu una Estrella, 448 Baking soda, 418 Banana Flame, 135 Barbie dolls, 480 Barbour, 482 Barilla cross-cultural affect, 258 value-driven attitude, 132 Baskin-Robbins, 87 BBC America, 76 Becel margarine, 424 Ben & Jerry’s consumer goals, 53 “personality test,” 401 Benetton, 461 Benjamin Moore, 433 Berlitz language schools, 78 Bernard Matthews Farm, 430 Bertolli, 22 Best Buy, 303 Bicycles, 466–467 Big Y supermarket, 282 Bike by Me, 217 Blendtec, 136, 432–433 Blockbuster, 250–251 Bloomingdale, 451 Blue Bottle Coffee, 434 BMW, 90 Bobbi Brown cosmetics, 250 Body Shop, 476 Bollé goggles, 14 Bolt Barbers, 320 Bolthouse Farms, 486, 492 Boston Consulting Group, 370 Botox Cosmetic, 232 Bradford Exchange, 456 Brand Match, 206–207 Bridgestone, 79 Brown Bear Car Wash, 284 Buckley’s Cough Mixture, 83–84, 138–139 Budwiser Budvar, 273 Bulgari sunglasses, 372 Burberry body fragrance, 197 custom-design, 452 Burton snowboards, 445 Busch Gardens, 11 C Cadbury nostalgic ads, 121 seasonal advertising, 19 snack foods, 157, 158 Cadillac, 432 Campbell Soup Company microwave soups, 417 new products, 393 prototypical brand, 112 quick-serve meals, 334 repositioning products, 431 senior market, 336 soup pouches, 80 Cannondale, 467 Carbonite, 58, 145 Cartoon Network, 334 Cathay Pacific Airways, 137 CDW, 188 Cesar, 141 Charles Leski Auctions, 460 Charming Shoppes baby boomers, 336 social media, 35 Cheetos, 36 Chevrolet, 78, 192 Chevy Volt, 192, 221, 223, 321 Chico’s, 336 Chow Tai Fook, 279 Christian Deals, 348 Christian Louboutin shoes, 51 Chrysler, 76 Cialis, 132 Cigarette advertising, 15, 481–482, 483, 485, 486 Cisco, 137 Cleveland Public Library, 334 ClimateMaster, 400 Club Penguin site, 363 CM Photographics, 165 Coach, 386 Coca-Cola distinctive script, 81 downward mobility, 372 Freestyle vending machine, 253 iconic bottle, 191 marketing communication, 142 online purchase panel, 34 pleasant smell, 84 product placement, 89 slogan, 273 transformational advertising, 174 teen market, 349 Cold Stone Creamy, 257 Cole Hardware, 284 Colgate, 90 College Hunks Hauling Junk, 267 Colorforms, 452 Comic Relief, 308, 310, 490 Converse shoes, 453 Costco bargains, 205 cell phone recycling, 290 retail atmospherics, 91 sampling opportunities, 432 Crème Egss, 157 Crutchfield, 267 CVS, 389, 407 I-20 Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s) Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it Product Index D Daimler, 16 Daiso Japan, 255 Danbury Mint, 456 Dannon, 61 Darn Tough Vermont, 60 Dave’s Supermarkets, 389 De Beers, role transition, 451 Debenhams, 64, 170 Deep River Snacks, 251 Dell cocreation, 419 INTERBRAND ranking, 137 “listening post,” 194 social media, 321 Del Monte Foods advertising jingle, 120–121 online purchase panel, 34 Delta Air Lines, 267, 268 Delta faucets, 428 Denny’s, 337 Dentastix, 172 Diet Pepsi, 201 Dirt Devil, 81, 427 DISH Network, 250, 251 Disney, 112 Disney Princess products, 448 Dollar General, 255 Dollar tree, 375 Domino’s Pizza artisan Pizzas, 249 digital billboards, 339 promotions, 249 Dongsuh Foods, 84 Dove brand extensions, 109–110 customer connection, 22 Dr Pepper Snapple, 33 Duane Reade drug store, 91 Duke University, 223 Dunkin’ Donuts, 193 Earthbound Organic, 249 E eBay, 488 Ebtune dashboard, 213 Eggies, 58 Elektra retail chain, 374 Energizer batteries, 252 ENERGY STAR, 489 EPIC hotel, 245 Erlanger Health System, 228 ESPN Deportes, 344 F Faber-Castell, 392 Facebook privacy issues, 486–487 prototypical brand, 112 FarmVille game, 157 FastCare Clinic, 407 Febreze, 84 Ferrero, 157 First Tennessee Bank, 278 Flipkart, payment plan, 199 Flip-Pal, 403 Flip video camera, 417 Flooz system, 423 Flying Bison Brewing Company, 259 Ford car gizmos/gadgets, 213 truck marketing, 447 video ads, 19 and Zipcar, 403 Ford Focus, Forty Putney Road Beer and Breakfast, 193 Franklin Mint, 456 Freecycle Network, 9, 488 Frito-Lay neuroscientific information, 36, 37 new flavors, 259 product legitimacy, 434 regional marketing, 341 snack foods, 157–158, 167 Frosted Flakes, 191 G Gatorade endorsements, 137 social media monitoring, 320 GEICO brand image, 109 elaboration, 105 Gecko spokesman, 136 General Mills and baby boomers, 336 and mothers, 363 General Motors African American market, 346 Buicks in China, 342 car gizmos/gadgets, 213 categories, 111 crisis management, 321 Gillette razors, 133 Girl Scouts, 309 Glad bags, 162, 163 GO Daddy, 173 Goodwill Industries International, 488 Google netnography, 35 privacy issues, 486–487 search competition, 208 Wave service, 421 Google Offers, 261 Google Wallet, 414, 415 GovMint.com, 456 Graff, 372 Green Mountain Coffee Roasters, 437 Gucci high-end bikes, 466 materialism, 386 H H&M chunking, 105 nostalgic ads, 121 eco-friendly products, 390 UNICEF support, 137 Häagen-Daz content reduction, 85 hedonism, 389 I-21 Haier appliances, 244 Hallmark cards African American market, 345 and blended families, 360 card-sending rituals, 451 job loss, 372 prototypical brand, 112 representative heuristics, 242 and sacred rituals, 461 Harley-Davidson ad strategy, 393 customer satisfaction, 280 HOGs group, 16, 235 in India, 235 “macho” characteristics, 444 “outlaw” symbols, 447 prototypical brand, 112 self-concept, 49 social media, 335 sonic identity, 81 women customers, 338 Harley Owners Group (HOG), 235 Healthy Choice, 389 Heineken, 485 Heinz “Dip & Squeeze” packets, 255 downward mobility, 372 prototypical brand, 112 recycling efforts, 289 Hermès, 188 Hertz, 60, 112 Hewlett-Packard INTERBRAND ranking, 137 photo service, 388 Hilton Garden Inn, 405–406 Hindustan Unilever, 338 Home Plus, 20 Honda, 137 Hornby trains, 388 Huggies, 33 Hyundai, 135 I IKEA assembly instructions, 62 advertising campaigns, 37 customer experience, 376–377 home ad campaign, 387 product disposal, 488 referrals, 315 service representative, 197 In-N-Out hamburger chain, 83 IRN-BRU, 257 ITALIKA motorbike, 223 ITC hotels, 348 J JC Penney African American market, 345 fund raising campaign, 131 “haul videos,” 334 social media complaints, 283 Johnnie Walker whiskey, 448 Johnson & Johnson African American market, 346 INTERBRAND ranking, 137 Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s) Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it I-22 Product Index K KB Toys, 39 Kellogg’s prototypical brand, 112 share love, 191 Kenny Rogers Roasters, 217–218 Keurig, 437 KFC chunking, 105 cross-cultural affect, 258 regional preferences, 329–330 Kia Motors, 171 Kid Nation, 306 KidZania, 363 Kimberly-Clark, 33 Kindle devices, 219, 429 Kindle e-book, 193 Kindle Fire, 425 Kit Kat bars, 115, 121 Kitzbühel, 13, 14 Kleenex tissues, 260 Kohl’s clothing lines, 249 senior discounts, 337 Kraft concentrated flavors, 162 emotional marketing, 145 Kyochon Chicken, 225 L L L Bean guarantees, 277 product review monitoring, 320 reputation, 142 La Bella del Baile, 448 Lactogen formula, 430 Lakme cosmetics, 167 LEAF electric car new features, 226 sales promotion, 229 sound symbolism, 81 LEGO global toy market, 388 opinion leaders, 304 virtual blocks, 163 LEGO Games, 221 Lenovo computers product placement, 89 representative heuristics, 244 Liberty Mutual, 270 Lipton, 22 Living Social, 261 Lone Star Steakhouse, 252–253 LoroPiana clothing, 374 Los Angeles Kings, 401 Louis Vuitton Company, 170 Lululemon, 404 Lux, 22 M M&M World, 82 Macy’s Bobbi Brown cosmetics, 250 Independence Day fireworks, 194 marketing sources, 299 Thanksgiving day parade, 194 WiFi service, 204 Madame Tussauds, 72–73 Magic Eraser, 189 Magnum Ecuador, 51 Mall of America, 322 Marlboro, 482 Mary Kay cosmetics, 315 Mazda interactivity, 161 QR code, 185 McDonald’s brand familiarity, 191 emotional cognition, 144 hamburger size, 85 Happy Meals, 486 lobster rolls, 287 marketing sources, 299 multicultural sector, 343 pricing strategy, 254 prototypical brand, 112 sonic identity, 81 Media Market, 401 Megabus services, 224 Melt restaurants, 221 Meow Mix cat food, 120–121 Mercedes Benz electric car, 113 endorsements, 143 millennial consumers, 333 status symbol, 370 Merlin Entertainments Group, 72 Metropolitan Museum of Art stores, 451 MGM Grand hotels, 83 Michael Jackson Dress-Up Set, 452 Milk ads, 13 Miller Lite, 448 MinuteClinics, 407 Minute Maid, 16 Mocavo, 208 Moon Dough, 304 Morrisons supermarket, 482 Morton Salt, 119 Moshi Monsters site, 363 Mountain Dew, Movie Tavern, 44–45 Mr Clean Auto Dry, 432 Mustang car, 19 MyFord Touch, 213 Nestlé adult supplements, 392 innovation developments, 415 positioning, 115 single-serve coffee makers, 437 yogurt marketing, 395 NetCost supermarket, 82 Netflix ratings, 198–199 rental fees, 250 New Balance, 163 Newegg, 198 Nielsen, 38 Nike endorsements, 143, 161 gender marketing, 339 logos, 93 99p Store, 481 Nissan brand image management, 17 car gizmos/gadgets, 213–214 customer complaints, 282 eco-friendly products, 390 sales promotion, 229 sound symbolism, 81 Nivea competition, 176 emotional messaging, 144 invisible deodorant, 418, 419 Nokia, 375 Nordstrom, 91 North Face parka, 14 Northstar Ski Resort, 132 Novo Nordisk, 304 NPD Group, 32 NTT DOCOMO, 403–404, 414–415 Nutella, 157 N P National Geographic cruise, 13 National Rifle Association, 133 National Trust for Historic Preservation, 488 NBC musical tags, 171 sonic identity, 81 NBC Sports Network, 18 NEO stores, 75 Nespresso endorsements, 143 single-serve coffeemakers, 437 O Ocado groceries, 284 Of a King, 392 Old Spice, 176 Oleadas, 343 Omo, 22 One Kings Lane, 403 OnStar system, 213 Oogavé sodas, 82 Oregon Institute of Technology, 198 Oscar Mayer, 112 Oxfam, 488 Palladium Mall, 51 Panasonic, 137 Pandora jewelry, 227 Panera Bread, Panera Cares restaurants, 2–3 Panerai, watches, 127 Pantene, 355 Patagonia, 31 Patek Philippe, 127 PayPal, 414, 415 Peapod, 387–388 Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s) Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it Product Index PepsiCo community grants, 472–473, 490 healthy snacks, 486 multiple media, 64 new can designs, 259 product disposal, recycling efforts, 289 teen market, 349 vending machines, 431–432 Petco, 455 Pew Research Center, 29 Philips consume knowledge, 115 Senseo coffeemaker Pizza Hut endorsements, 137 regional preferences, 329, 330 Playstation 3, uncertainty, 429 Polartec, 430 Porsche, 466 Prada, 386 Pretzel Crisps, 19 Procter & Gamble advertising to mothers, 339 African American market, 346 car cleaning sprayer, 432 class-differentiated products, 374 eco-friendly products, 390 Febreze, 84 Magic Eraser, 189 multicultural sector, 343, 344 newlywed consumption, 451 Old Spice, 176 online purchase panel, 34 Pampers ads, 342 product positioning, 18 social media, 35 Swiffer products, 226 $2 dollar consumers, 355–356, 368 Provo Craft, 103 Publix supermarkets, 343 R RadioShack, 290 Radisson Hotels, 224 Ragú, 22–23 Raymond, 38 ReCellular, 290 Red Bull, 334 Red Sox Nation, 306 RedLaser, 197 Regal, 44 Restaurant of the Future, 39 Richard Mille wristwatch, 456 Right Guard, 176 Ritz-Carlton hotels scents, 245 training system, 228 Rock and Roll Fantasy Camp, 335 Rolex endorsements, 143 prestige watches, 127, 128 materialism, 387 Rolls-Royce, 446, 447 Rovio, 298 Royal Ahold, 387–388 Royal Enfield engine, 235 Royal Ocean Racing Club, 127 Runner’s World, 445 S Sabritones Chile & Lime snacks, 434 Sainsbury, 206–207 Saks Fifth Avenue, 189 Sanibel Recreation Center, 64 Santander Bank, 284 Segway, 421–422 Senseo, 437 Sharan car system, 213 ShopSmart, 302 Siemens, 137 Sierra Club, 13 Smallbone of Devizes, 387 Snack Factory, 19 Snapfish, 388 Snausage Breakfast Bites, 34 Social Tattoo Project, Soup at Hand, 417 South Bend Silver Hawks, 194 Southern Comfort Fiery Pepper, 257 Spacer Camp, 13 Speck, 34 Sport Relief, 308, 490 Standard Chartered Bank customer service, 267 late hours, 403 Star beer, 191 Starbucks analogies, 131 brewed coffee, 434 State Farm Insurance, 344 Strategic Business Insights, 404 Subaru customer service, 270 marketing communication, 142 subculture marketing, 347 SUBWAY comparative message, 140 foot-long sandwich, 255 fresh fit line, 58 healthy food options, 486 Sunbeam Toasters, 81 Sunsilk, 22 Super Mercado, 343 Surf, 22 SurveyMonkey, 29 Sveltesse yogurt, 395 Swarovski, 17 Swiffer products, 226 Swiss Army knife, 131 Syracuse University, 198 T Taco Bell, 330 Tag Heuer, 127 Take Care Health Systems, 407 I-23 Target bull’s eye symbol, 191, 192 cell phone recycling, 290 dorm-room shopping, 241–242 Tastefully Simple, 303 Tata Nano, 448 TCBY, 58 Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, 427 Teflon, 418 Telstra, 336 TerraCycle, 289, 488 Tesco eco-friendly products, 392 grocery chain, 76 recycling incentives, 289 virtual store, 20 Threadless, 17 3M, 137 Ticketmaster, 309 Tide prototypical brand, 112 representative heuristics, 242 Tide Dry Cleaners, 18 Timberland shoes, Tobacco, 481–482, 483, 485, 486 Toll Brothers, 16 Toronto Maple Leafs, 390 Toyota car gizmos/gadgets, 213 INTERBRAND ranking, 137 Toyota Prius, 112, 390 Toyota Tundra, 448 Trader Joe’s, 360 Trek Bicycles, 466 Trunk Boiz, 466–467 U U.S Postal Service, 17 Ueshima coffee shops, 336 Under Armour brand exposure, 93 endorsements, 167 rehearsal, 105 UNICEF, 170 Unilever brand connection, 22–23 cosmetic endorsements, 167 shampoo products, 257 UNIQLO, 205 United States Automobile Association (USAA), 65–66 University Games, 452 University of Central Florida, 241 University of Utah, 241 USAA Federal Savings Bank, 284 V Velcro, 112 Verizon Coupe cell phones, 335 payment by phone, 414 Verizon Video, 90 Versus sports channel, 18 Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s) Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it I-24 Product Index Vertu cell phones, 375 Vespa scooters, 423 Vicks, 342 VideoSurf, 208 Vintage Tub & Bath, 199 Vinyl LPs, 442–443 Virgin Atlantic Airways, 267 Visa, 414 Vista operating system, 428 Volkswagen car gizmos/gadgets, 213 nostalgic ads, 121 Volkswagen Group, 59, 137, 149–150 W Walmart database marketing, 34 Hispanic market, 343 lower middle class customers, 375 medical clinics, 389 Walt Disney Company, 216 WeCar, 223 Weight Watchers, 57, 315 Wendy’s, 389 Whirlpool, 267 Whole Foods Market customer information, 277 recharging stations, 225 Wilkinson Sword razor blades, 252 Window of the World theme park, 17 Woodward Dream Cruise, 76 Woolworth, 76 World of Wrestling Entertainment (WWE), 482 Y Yandex, 208 Yellow Pages, 257 Yingli Green Energy, 433 Your Shape, 205 Yum! Brands, 329, 330 Z Zane’s Cycles, 274, 277 Zazzle, 382–383 Zipcar, 403 Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s) Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it Subject Index (‘e’ indicates an exhibit) A Ability, 11, 45, 60 See also Consumer ability, MAO (motivation, ability and opportunity) influences, 46e recycling, 288 Absolute threshold, 84, 85 Abstract goal, 55 Abstractness, and attention, 80e Academics consumer behavior research, 39 high school reference group, 305e Acceptable cutoff, 225 Accessibility/availability, brand name recall, 191 Accommodation theory, 344 Acculturation, 342, 384 Achievement symbols, 455–456 Acquisition consumer behavior, controversies, 477–482, 491 and gender, 338 methods, 7e Active coping, 279e Activists, complainer, 281 Activities, interests, and opinions (AIOs), 401, 402e Actual identity schema, 453 Actual state, 187 Adaptability, innovation, 433 Addiction, 477 and marketing, 481–482 Additive difference model, 225 Adopter groups, 422–423 application, 423 Adoption innovation, 419 innovation influences, 427–436 Advertising boomers, 336–337 and consumer behavior, 18–19 fit and self-concepts, 454 generation X, 334 Hispanic Americans, 344 position and exposure, 73 and self-image, 485–486 teens, 333–334 values influence, 393 Advertising agencies, 37 Advertorial, 88 Aesthetic innovations, 418 Affect, definition, 256 Affective (emotional) function attitudes, 128 decision-making, 222, 226–229 high effort, 141–143 high effort influences, 143–146 low-effort attitudes, 164–165 low-effort attitude influences, 169–175 Affective forecasting, 227–228, 280 Affective involvement, 47, 141 Affective responses (ARs), 142 African American consumers, 345–346 Age and consumer ability, 62 and consumer behavior, 330–337, 348 and special possessions, 458 United States consumer spending, 6e and values, 392 Agentic goal, 337 Aggressive personality, 397 Alcohol, minor’s illegal use, 483 Allocentric consumers, 388 Alternative-based strategy, 229 Ambiguity of information, 272 Ambivalence, definition, 128 American Consumer Satisfaction Index (ACSI), 274e Amount of information, and consumer opportunity, 63 Analogy, attitude reasoning, 131 Analysis of reason, attitude/behavior prediction, 147 Anchoring and adjustment process, judgment, 216 Appraisal theory, 55, 56e, 227 Approach-approach conflict, 52 Approach-avoidance conflict, 52 Appropriateness, gift, 462 Argument quality, message, 138 Asian Americans consumers, 346–347 Aspirational reference group, 305, 306 Associative networks, 106–108, 106e, 107e Associative reference group, 305, 306 Athletes, high school reference group, 305e Attention characteristics, 76–77, 77e and consumer behavior, 11 Attitude, definition, 76, 92, 128 Attitude accessibility, 128 and behavior prediction, 147 Attitude-behavior relationship factors affecting, 146–147 over time, 147 Attitude confidence, 128, 147 Attitude persistence, 128 Attitude resistance, 128 Attitude toward the act (Aact), TORA, 133, 134e Attitude toward the ad (Aad), high-effort, 146 Attitude toward the ad (Aad), low-effort, 167 Attitudes affective (emotional) foundations, 141–146 analytical processes, 132–135 behavior prediction, 146–148 change strategies, 135 characteristics, 128–129 cognitive foundations, 131–140 in consumer behavior, 11 external search, 200 forming and changing, 129 foundations, 129, 130e, 131, 132–135 low-effort situations, 158 and motivation, 60 research, 146 specificity and behavior prediction, 147 unconscious influences, 160–161 Attraction effect, 219 Attractive sources, 78, 169–170 Attractiveness, 143 reference groups, 307 Attribute balancing, high-effort decisions, 231 Attribute determination, 192 Attribute information, external search, 204, 205 Attribute processing, 224–225 Attribution theory, 277, 278 Attributes, and decision-making, 223, 224–225 Authenticity, 389 Autobiographical (episodic) memory, 103 Autonomic decision, 362 Availability heuristic, 242, 244 Avoidance, consumption coping, 279e Avoidance-avoidance conflict, 52 B Baby carrots marketing, 492 Back-to-school shopping events, 241–242 Bargain-a-day websites, 261 Base-rate information, 244 Basic level, hierarchical structure, 112 Behavior (B), TORA, 133, 134e Behavior intention (BI), TORA, 133, 134e Behavior prediction, from attitudes, 146–148 Behavioral approaches, personality, 398 Behavioral change, and innovations, 417e Belief discrepancy, 133 Beliefs, change strategies, 135 Bias for the whole, 87 Biases, 216–217, 272–273 Bicycles, 466–467 Black Friday, 322–323 Black markets, 480 prevention, 482 Blocking exposure to evidence, 273 Body feedback, 160 Boomerangers, 332 Boomers, 335 Boomtown Singles, 341 Bottom-up processing, 229 Boycott, 491 Brand-choice congruence, 311–312 Brand community, 305, 306 Brand extensions, 109–110 Brand familiarity, 190, 257 I-25 Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s) Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it I-26 Subject Index Brand image, 108 creation, 109 maintenance, change and protection, 110 Brand loyalty, 251 development, 252 teens, 333 Brand names consumer inferences, 90 external search, 203 liking and pre-attentive processing, 77 Brand personality, 108, 109e creation, 109 maintenance, change and protection, 110 Brand preference, 190 Brand processing, and decision-making, 223 “Bright side” outcomes, 475–476, 491 Buyer, family role, 361, 361e Buying, and smell, 82 C Categories, knowledge structure, 110–113 Category, attitude reasoning, 131 Category-consistent information, 162 Causality and blame, 277–278 Celebrity sources, 170 Cell phones, disposition, 290–291 Central-route processing, 131 high-effort, 129e Ceremony, gift-giving, 463 Change agents, and innovation, 432 Channel selection, social class influence, 375 Charitable behavior, 490, 490e Children and household decision influence, 363 targeting, 482 Choice, and affective forecasting, 227–228 Choice tactics learning, 247–248 Chunking, memory, 105 Class average families, 365 Classic, innovation, 427 Classical conditioning, 165, 166e Closure, 87 Clustering, 340, 348 Co-branding, 257 Co-creation definition, 419 and innovations, 418–419, 436 process, 58 Coercive power, 313 Cognition needs, 51 Cognitive abilities, external search, 201 Cognitive decision-making model, 222 choice models, 222e Cognitive function attitudes, 128, 129 high-effort attitudes, 131–135 high-effort attitude influences, 135–140 low-effort attitudes, 161, 162 low-effort attitude influences, 162–164 Cognitive involvement, 47 Cognitive resources, and consumer ability, 61 Cognitive responses, 132 Cognitive style, consumers, 61 Collections, special possessions, 456 Color, and perception, 81 Communal goal, 337 Communication source, influence of, 170 See also Sources Communications, cognitive responses to, 132–133 Community grants, 472–473 Community involvement, 490–491 Company reputation, 137 Comparative messages, 139–140 Compatibility, innovation, 430 Compensatory consumption, 370–371 Compensatory method, decision-making, 222 Competing stimuli, and attention, 79 Competitive brand marketing, 253 Competiveness, and consumer behavior, 401 Complaint-resolution, 281–282 Complaints, 281, 289 Complexity, innovation, 431 Complexity of information, and consumer opportunity, 63 Compliance, techniques, 315 Compliant personality, 397 Comprehension in consumer behavior, 11 and culture, 89 definition, 87, 92 and MAO, 88–89 message identification, 88 source identification, 87–88 Compromise effect, high-effort decisions, 231 Compulsive behavior, 477–478, 478e and marketing, 481–482 Computerized Status Index (CSI), 367 Concrete goal, 55 Concreteness, and attention, 79, 80e Conditioned response (CR), 165 Conditioned stimulus (CS), 165 Confirmation bias, 194, 216 Conformity, definition, 311 Conformity pressure creation, 315 Conjoint analysis, consumer behavior research, 33 Conjunctive model, decision-making, 223 Connative function, attitudes, 128 Connectedness function, symbols, 451–452 Conscious low-effort decision-making, 245–246 Conservation behavior, 489 Consideration (evoked set), 189 Consideration set, 219, 229 external search, 199 Consistency with self-concept, 48–49 Conspicuous consumption, 369 Conspicuous waste, 369 Construal level theory, 114, 220 Consumer ability, 60–62 diversity, 331e, 348 inferences, 90–92 and meaning, 445 memory, 100, 120 invasion, 41 resistance to commercial excess, 491 socialization, 309–310 Consumer access, and information, 64 Consumer behavior and age, 330–337 attention, 76–80 comprehension, 22, 87–92 decisions, 6–9 definition, dimensions, 4–5, 4e emotions and coping, ethnic influences, 342–347 exposure, 73–76 gender, 337–340 household influences, 356, 357e, 376 income versus social class, 366–367 influences, 10–14 and innovation, 417 and normative influence, 311–312 outcomes and issues, 13 perception, 80–87 and personality, 398–401, 406 processes, 5, 10e, 11–13 regional influences, 340–342 religious influences, 347–348 sexual orientation, 339 social class influences, 364, 376 social influences, 300e, 322 study benefits, 14–15, 22 Consumer behavior cases baby carrots marketing, 492 bargain-a-day websites, 261 bicycles, 466–467 Black Friday, 322–323 cell phones, 290–291 Cyber Monday, 323 Harley-Davidson, 235–236 IKEA’ s household appeal, 376–377 Old Spice, 176–177 research and marketing, 22–23 retail walk-in clinics, 406–407 search engines, 207 single-serve coffeemakers, 437 teens and music, 349 Under Armour, 93 USAA (United States Automobile Association), 65–66 Volkswagen Group, 149–150 Consumer behavior research ethical issues, 39–41 methods, 28–36 negative aspects, 40–41 positive aspects, 40 researchers, 36–39 tools, 28e–29e Consumer characteristics high-effort decisions, 230–231 informational influence, 316–317 memory retrieval, 119 normative influence, 313 Consumer ethics, 476–477 Consumer experience, learning from, 270–271, 271e Consumer knowledge, external search, 200–201 Consumer learning, and innovation, 430–431 Consumer opportunity, 62–64 Consumer organizations, consumer behavior research, 39 Consumer protection, definition, 39 Consumer theft, 479–480 motivations, 479e prevention, 482 Consumption behaviors, and gender, 338 Consumption controversies, 483–484, 491 Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s) Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it Subject Index Consumption experiences, and episodic memory, 103 Consumption patterns, 405 values impact, 391 Consumption symbols, 445e Context group decision-making, 233–234 and informational influence, 317 message, 164, 175 Continuous innovation, 417 Contrast, and attention, 80 Control of information, and consumer opportunity, 64 Controllability, cause and effect, 277 Coping and consumer behavior, consumption problems, 279–280 Correlated associations, 113 Counterargument (CA), 132 Country of origin, and consumer inferences, 91 Creativity, and consumer behavior, 399 Credibility definition, 136 marketing influence, 302 Cross-cultural needs, 52 Cross-cultural values, 391 Cultural categories, 443 Cultural milieu, and advertising, 393–394 Cultural principles, 443 Cultural resources, and consumer ability, 62 Cultural transitions, symbols, 450 Culture definition, 12 class structure, 366e and comprehension, 89 consumer behavior influences, 341–342 context and needs, 52 and decision-making, 222 external consumption processes, 12–13 and external search, 196 and humor in ads, 173, 174e and innovation, 425 and knowledge content and structure, 115 resources and consumer ability, 62 and meaning, 443–445 and values, 391 Curiosity, and ad response, 146 Customer-company relationship, complaintresolution, 281 Customer loyalty, and satisfaction, 283–284 Customer-oriented marketing, 16 Customer psychographics, complaint-resolution, 282 Customer segments, 16 and attention, 80 Customized products, 382–383 Cutoff levels acceptable, 225 decision-making, 222 Cutting-edge cars, 213–214 Cyber Monday, 323 D “Dark side” outcomes, 475–476, 491 Database marketing, consumer behavior research, 34 Data mining, definition, 34 “Deal fatigue,” 261 Deal sites, 261 Deal-prone consume, 254 Deals, 255 Decay, memory, 116 Deceptive research practices, 41 Decider, family role, 361 Decision characteristics, high-effort decisions, 231–234 Decision delay, 229–230 Decision framing, definition, 220 Decision-making affective, 226–229 in consumer behavior, 12 criteria, 220–226 definition, 214 and high-effort, 218–222, 230–234 low-effort processes, 245–247, 260 and personal relevance, 48 post-decision, 268–270, 269e process, 186e, 215e thought-based, 222 and variety, 258–259 Decision roles, family, 361e Decisions, in consumer behavior, 5–9 Degree of contact, reference groups, 307 Degree of identification, reference groups, 307 Delayed marriage and cohabitation, 358–359 Demographics external search, 201 and innovation, 424 Demonstration, innovation compatibility and simplicity, 432–433 Denial, consumption coping, 279e Density, reference groups, 307 Desire, and goals, 56 Detached personality, 397 Development and communication, symbols, 448 Deviants, high school reference group, 305e Diagnostic information, definition, 191 Diagnosticity, brand name recall, 191 Diaries, consumer behavior research, 31–32 Differential thresholds, 84 marketing implications, 85 Diffusion definition, 425 factors, 426 influences, 427–436 product life cycle, 426e, 427 Direct comparative advertising, 139 Direct experience, attitudes, 131 Disconfirmation, definition, 275 Disconfirmation paradigm, 275e Discontinuous innovation, 417 Disjunctive model, decision-making, 223 Displays, and consumer inferences, 91 Disposition consumer behavior, 4–5 controversies, 487–488, 491 products, 285–287, 289 options, 285e Dissatisfaction coping with, 279 definition, 274 feelings-based, 279–280 I-27 responses to, 281–283 thought-based, 275–279 Dissociative reference group, 305, 306 Distraction, and consumer opportunity, 63 Distribution and consumer behavior, 20–22 and consumer inferences, 91 definition, Diversity influences, 13 Divestment ritual, 459 Divorce, 360 Dogmatism, and consumer behavior, 399 Domain-specific values, 386 Door-in-the-face technique, 315 Downward mobility, 368 Dramas, ad message as, 174 Dual-career families, 359 Dual coding, memory retrieval, 119 Dual-mediation hypothesis, 167 Dynamically continuous innovation, 417 E Early adopters, 422e Early majority, 422e Earned status, 367 Easily processed stimuli, and attention, 79 Echoic memory, 100 Education and consumer ability, 62 and social class, 367 Effort See also High-effort, Low-effort in attitude formation and change, 129, 131 and goals, 54–55 and persuasion, 158 Ego depletion, 55 Egoistic needs, 50e Elaboration attitude/behavior prediction, 146–147 and attitudes, 129 memory, 104, 105 Elites, high school reference group, 305e Embedded market, 309 Emblematic function, symbol, 446–448 Embodiment, 57 Emotional accounting, 216 Emotional appeals, 142, 144, 174 Emotional attachment, attitude/behavior prediction, 147–148 Emotional contagion, 144 Emotional detachment, disposition, 286 Emotional expression, and music, 171e Emotional resources, and consumer ability, 61 Emotions and attitudes, 129 and consumer behavior, gift-giving, 462 Empathy, and episodic memory, 103 Encoding of evidence, 271 Encouragement, specific behaviors, 58 Enduring involvement, 47 Energy Star, EPA program, 489 Engagement, 141 Enhancement, motivation, 57 Environment, Western value, 390 Environmentally conscious behavior, 488–490 Episodic (autobiographical) memory, 103 Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s) Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it I-28 Subject Index Equity theory, 278 Estimation of likelihood, 214 Ethic groups global, 347 United States, 343–347 Ethnic emblems, 446 Ethnic group, definition, 342 Ethnic identification, and values, 391–392 Ethnic influences, on consumer behavior, 342–347 Ethnographic research definition, 34 consumer behavior research, 33–34 Evaluations, change strategies, 135 Evaluative conditioning, 165, 166e Even-a-penny-will-help technique, 315 Evoked set, 189 Expectancy-value models, 133 Expectation, definition, 275 Expectations and performance, 275–276 Experience, attitude/behavior prediction, 147 Experience goods, 198 Experienced emotions, and coping, 279–280 Experiential search, 196 Experiments, consumer behavior research, 32–33 Expertise, high-effort decisions, 230 Experts and informational influence, 317 knowledge content and structure, 115–116 Explaining the experience, 273 Explicit memory, 103 Exponential diffusion curve, 426, 426e Exposure and consumer behavior, 11 definition, 73, 92 influences, 73, 74e Exposure to evidence, 271 Expressive roles, 361 Expressive support seeking, consumption coping, 279e Expressiveness function, symbols, 452 Extended family, 356 External consumption processes, 12–13 External marketing research firms, 37 External search, 194–206 accuracy, 204 definition, 194, 206 extent of, 198–202 information acquired, 203–204 sources, 195–198 steps, 204–205 types, 195e Extremeness aversion, high-effort decisions, 231 F Fad, definition, 427 Fairness and equity, 278 Fairness in the exchange, 278 False memories, 117 Family and children, Western value, 388 Family life cycle, 358 Fashion, definition, 427 Fast food restaurants, 2–3 Favorability associations, 108 attitudes, 128 Favorable word of mouth, engineering, 320 Fear appeals, 145 Feeling-based decisions high-effort, 143–146 low-effort, 256–257 Feeling-based satisfaction/dissatisfaction, 279–280, 289 Feelings simplifying strategy, 256–257 source of information, 141 Felt involvement, 46e, 47–48 Field experiments, consumer behavior research, 33 Figure and ground, 86, 87e Financial resources, and consumer ability, 60–61 Financial risk, 59 Focal attention, 77 Focus, cause and effect, 277 Focus group definition, 30 consumer behavior research, 30 Foot-in-the-door technique, 315 Formality, reference groups, 307, 308 Frame switching, 454 Framing, and decision-making, 220–221 Fraudulent symbol, 370 Frequency heuristic, 161, 162 Frugality, and consumer behavior, 400 Functional (utilitarian) dimension of ad, 146 Functional innovations, 418 Functional needs, 50–51 Future-oriented customers, 231 G Gains and losses, decision-making, 225–226 Gambling, compulsive, 484 Gatekeeper family role, 361 marketing influence, 304 Gender and consumer behavior, 337–340, 348 and special possessions, 458 Gender emblems, 446–447 Generation X, 332, 334 Generation Y, 332 Geographic function, symbol, 446 Gestation stage, gift-giving, 461–463 Gift-giving process, 462e reciprocation, 464 relationship impact, 464e stages, 462e, 463–464 timing, 461–463 Global values, 385, 385e Goal-derived categories, 114, 115 Goals brand name recall, 190, 192 consumer decision-making, 233e and decision-making, 220 and effort, 54–55 and emotions, 55, 56e and knowledge content and structure, 115 to regulate action, 57 to regulate feeling, 57 setting and pursuit, 53–54, 54e types, 55 Good and evil, money as, 371 Government agencies, consumer behavior research, 39 Graded structure, and prototypicality, 111–112 Gray market, 336 Green brands, global top 10, 137e Greenwashing, 490 Grooming ritual, 459 Group characteristics informational influence, 317 normative influence, 313–314 Group context, decision-making, 233–234 Grouping, 87 Guarantees, 277 H Habit, definition, 249 Habitual purchases, other brand marketing, 250, 251 Habituation, 80 Happiness, money as, 371–372 Harmful self-focus, 475 Health, Western value, 389 Hearing and perception, 81 sensory marketing, 83 Hedonic dimension of ad, 146 Hedonic experience, interruption, 227 Hedonic innovations, 418 Hedonic needs, 51 Hedonism, 389 Helpful other-focus, 473 Hemispheric lateralization, 77 Heuristics, 161 in consumer evaluation, 61 Hierarchical structure, 112 High-context cultures, message comprehension, 89 High-effort attitudes affective function, 141–143 cognitive function, 131–135 formation and change, 130e influences, 135–140, 143–145 High-effort behavior, 45, 46e High-effort decision-making, 12, 215e, 218–222 influences, 230–234 High-effort hierarchy of effects, innovation, 420, 421e High-effort information processing and decision-making, 45, 46e High-effort judgments, 215e, 218–222 High-involvement, and satisfaction, 274 High school reference groups, 305e High self-monitors, 148 Hispanic American consumers, 343–345 Home, Western value, 387 Homeless, consumption patterns, 373–374 Homophily group membership, 307, 308 social system and innovation, 435 Horizontal versus vertical orientation, 341 Household changes, 338e, 358–360 consumer behavior influences, 13, 356, 357e, 376 definition, 356 life cycles, 359e Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s) Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it Subject Index roles, 361–363 types, 356, 358 Humor and attention, 78 low-involvement offerings, 172 Husband-dominant decision, 362 Hypothesis generation, 271 Hypothesis testing, 271 I Iconic memory, 100 Ideal identity schema, 453 Ideal state, 185, 187 Idealized self-image, 483 Identification, and episodic memory, 103 Idiocentric consumers, 388 Image location, and perception, 81 Imagery emotional decision-making, 228 judgment, 216 memory impact, 102 Imagined experience attitude change, 135 attitudes, 131 Immediate versus long-term interests, 475 Implicit memory, 103–104 Impulse purchase, 259 Incidental learning, 164 Income, and social class, 366–367 Inconsistency, and attitudes, 60 Incorporation, new role, 449 Independent search, 196 Independent variable, definition, 32 Indirect comparative advertising, 139 Individual-alone goals, 233 Individual-group goals, 233 Individualism, Western value, 388 Individualism versus collectivism, 341, 391 Industry standards, and innovation, 432 Inept set, 219 Inert set, 219 Inferences, definition, 90 Influence sources of, 299–305 types of, 311e Influencer, family role, 361 Infomercials, 88, 138 Information dimensions, 318 sources of, 316–322 Information availability external search, 201 high-effort decision, 232 Information discrepancy, external search, 200 Information format external search, 201 high-effort decision, 232 Information gathering, group decision-making, 233 Information overload, external search, 197 Information processing ability, 200–201 motivation factors, 199–200 opportunity, 201–202 Information transmission, reference groups, 308–309 Informational influence, marketing source, 311e, 316–322 Informative ads, 146 Inherited status, 367 Inhibition, and internal search, 194 In-house marketing research departments, 36–37 Innovation, definition, 415, 436 Innovations, 416e adoption or resistance, 419–425 characteristics, 417–419, 427–429 consequences, 436 consumer learning requirements, 430–433 diffusion, 425–427 influences, 427–435 legitimacy and adaptability, 433–434 social relevance, 433 and social system, 435 uncertainty influence, 429–430 Innovators, 422e Instrumental importance, special possessions, 457 Instrumental roles, 361 Instrumental values, 385 Integration of evidence, 271 Interference, memory, 116–117 Internal consumption processes, 11 Internal search accuracy, 193–194 definition, 188, 206 and recall, 188–193 Internet external search sources, 196–197 searcher types, 200 Interviews definition, 30 consumer behavior research, 30–31 Involvement affective, 141 attitude/behavior prediction, 146–147 external search, 199 objects of, 47–48 and risk, 59 types, 47 Involvement with a brand, 48 Involvement with a medium, 48 Irates, complainer, 281 J Joint household decisions, 362 Judgment biases, 216–217 definition, 214, 234 goodness/badness estimation, 214, 216 low-effort processes, 242 process, 215e satisfaction, dissatisfaction, 273–280 Just noticeable difference (j.n.d.), 84 K Kids & Cul-de-sac consumers, 340 Knowledge attitude/behavior prediction, 147 and consumer behavior, 11 Knowledge content, 105, 106, 109, 120 Knowledge flexibility, 113–114 Knowledge structure, 105–106, 110 associative networks, 106 categories, 111–113 schemas, 106 I-29 L Laggards, 422e Late majority, 422e Law of small numbers, 244 Learning and choice, 247–248, 248e consumer experience, 270–271, 271e factors, 272 Legitimacy, innovation, 433 Lettering, and perception, 81 Lexicographic model, 225 Lifestyles and behavior patterns, 401–402 consumer influence, 13 definition, 401, 406 Likable sources, 170 Liking and color, 81 and smell, 82 List of Values (LOV), 395 Locus of control, 397 Long-term memory (LTM), 102–103, 120 Low-context cultures, message comprehension, 89 Low-effort attitudes affective function, 164–165 cognitive function, 161 formation and change, 159e influences, 162–164, 169–175 Low-effort decision-making, processes, 245–247, 260 Low-effort hierarchy of effects, 246, 421, 421e Low-effort situation, 158 Low-elaboration decisions, 246 and choice tactics, 247 Lower Americans, 365e Low-level construals, 220 Low self-monitors, 148 Luxury watches, 127–128 M MAO (motivation, ability and opportunity), 46e and complaining, 281 and comprehension, 88–89 and direct comparative messages, 140 and effort, 129, 131, 148, 158, 175, 218 and emotion-based attitudes, 143 and high-effort adoption process, 421 and internal search, 188 in low-effort decisions, 246 and post-decision dissonance, 268 Marital transitions, and products, 450 Market segments, 16 segmentation values impact, 391 as socializing agent, 310 Market maven, 304 Market test, 33 Marketing and consumer behavior, 4e and consumers’ privacy, 486–487 consumers’ resistance, 491 and consumption controversies, 485–486 definition, 14 ethics, 14–15, 393, 476 and materialism, 481 social responsibility issues, 488–491 Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s) Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it I-30 Subject Index Marketing communications See also Messages and consumer ability, 62 and enhanced motivation, 57 memorability, 116 opinion leaders, 304 and perceived risk, 58 and repetition, 64 Marketing implications acquisition controversies, 481–482 affective decision-making, 228 African Americans, 345–346 age, 332–337 alternatives comparison, 229–230 Asian Americans, 346–347 attention, 78–80 attitude affective/emotional foundations, 142–143 attitude cognitive foundations, 133 attitude-toward-the-brand theory, 146, 168 attribution theory, 278 brand loyalty, 252–253 classical/evaluative conditioning, 166–167 comprehension, 89–90 connectedness and expressiveness, 452 consumer ability, 62 consumer behavior, 15–22 consumer characteristics, 234 consumer dissatisfaction, 280, 282 consumer opportunity, 64 consumer satisfaction, 274–275, 276–277 consumption controversies, 485–487 cultural influences, 341–342 customer retention, 284 decision delay, 229 decision-making, 221, 223, 224 disposition controversies, 488 disposition decisions, 286–287 emblematic function of products, 448, 453–454 emotional arousal, 145 episodic memory, 103 exposure, 75–76 external search, 198, 202–203, 205–206 fairness and equity, 278–279 fear appeals, 145 feelings, 257–258, 259 gender, 338 gift-giving, 465 hedonic enhancement, 146 Hispanic Americans, 343 household changes, 360 household roles, 363–364 humor and low-involvement offerings, 172 impulse purchases, 260 informational influences, 317 innovation, 419, 421–422, 427, 429, 430, 433, 434 innovation adoption, 424–425, 431–433, 436 internal search, 193, 194 judgment process, 217–218 knowledge content, 109–110 knowledge flexibility, 115 knowledge structure, 113–114 lifestyles, 402–404 low-effort attitudes, 160–161, 163, 164–165 low-effort decision-making, 249 low-effort judgments, 244, 245 memory, 105 message quality, 138–141 mood, 169 motivation, 57–58 negative word-of-mouth communication, 283 normative influences, 314–316 perceived risk, 60 perception, 83–84 personality traits, 401 post-decision dissonance, 270 pricing techniques, 255 problem recognition, 187–188 processing biases, 273 psychographic applications, 405–406 recycling, 289 reference groups, 306, 308–309 role transitions, 451 service recovery, 283 sex, 173–174 sexual orientation, 339–340 social class, 372, 374 source attractiveness, 143 source credibility, 136–137 sources, 303 Theory of Reasoned Action (TORA), 134–135 values, 392 word of mouth, 319–322 working memory, 102 Marketing sources, 299–305, 301e credibility, 302 informational influence, 316–322 mix, 303 normative influence, 310 reference groups, 305–310 Marketing stimuli, 73 Masculinity versus femininity, 391 cultures, 341 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, 49–50, 50e Mass media marketing influence, 299 reach, 301 Match-up hypothesis, 143 Materialism, 386–387, 477 and marketing, 481 Me versus them, 473 Meaning and consumer, 445 and culture, 443–445 emblematic function, 446 gift-giving, 461–466 sacred, 459–460 and special possessions, 457 symbolic, 444e, 446–454 transfer from culture to product, 445e Means-end chain analysis, 394e, 394–395 Media African American marketing, 345–346 Asian American marketing, 347 Hispanic American marketing, 343–344 and innovation, 425 social class influence, 374–375 as socializing agent, 310 Media planning firms, 37 Media search, 196 Medium, memory retrieval stimulus, 118 Memory and consumer behavior, 11 enhancement, 104 explicit and implicit, 103–104 long-term, 102–103 and retrieval, 116–117 sensory, 100 working, 102 Memory-laden objects, 455 Mental accounting, 216 Mental calculation difficulties, and judgment, 217 Mere exposure effect, 164, 175 Message boomers, 336–337 cognitive-based high-effort attitudes, 138–140 cognitive-based low-effort attitudes, 162–164 comprehension, 88 context and repetition, 164, 175 emotion-based high-effort attitudes, 143–146 emotion-based low-effort attitudes, 171–175 generation X, 334 lifestyles, 403 social class influence, 374 teens, 333–334 Metacognitive experiences, 231 Middle Americans, 365e Middle class, consumption patterns, 373 Millennials, consumer behavior, 332 MindBase, psychograhic segmentation system, 404 Mind-body connection behavior influence, 58 and self-control, 56 Miscomprehension, 88 Mispredictions, emotions, 280 Mobile wallets, 414–415 Mobility Blues, 341 Modality, informational information, 318 Modernity, social system and innovation, 435 Money, meanings of, 371 Mood-altering properties, special possessions, 457, 458e Mood-congruent direction, attitudes, 168 Moods and bias, 217 and color, 81, 169 high-effort decisions, 230–231 and internal search, 194 and lighting, 169 and smell, 82 Morals, influence, 311 Motivated reasoning, 47 Motivation, 11 See also MAO (motivation, ability and opportunity) and attitudes, 60 consumer theft, 479e definition, 45, 65 and emotions, 55 gift-giving, 462 and goals, 53–55 and learning, 272 influences, 46e marketing implications, 57–58 and needs, 49–52 personal relevance, 48–49 recycling, 287 and self-control, 55–57 values, 49 Movie and meal combinations, 44–45 Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s) Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it Subject Index Multiattribute expectancy-value models, and decision-making, 223 Multibrand loyalty, 251 Multicultural marketing, 343, 348 Multiple items, external search, 201 Music and attention, 78 and emotional expression, 171e sensory marketing, 83, 171 teens marketing, 349 Mystery ad, 163 N National character, 400–401 Need, definition, 49 Need for cognition (NFC), 399 Need for uniqueness (NFU), 399 Needs categorizations, 50e characteristics, 51–52 identification, 52 and personal relevance, 49–50 Negative word-of-mouth-communication, 275, 283 preventing and responding, 320 Negativity bias, 217 Netnography definition, 34 consumer behavior research, 34–35 Network targeting, 308 Neuroscience, consumer behavior research, 35–36 Noncomparable decision, 229 Noncompensatory model, decision-making, 222 Nonfocal attention, 77 Nonmarketing sources, 299, 301e credibility, 302 Nonsocial needs, 50 Norm(s) definition, 311 creation, 315 Normative beliefs, targeting, 135 Normative influences, 134, 256 attitude/behavior prediction, 148 marketing source, 311e, 310–312 strength impact, 312–314, 322 Nostalgia marketing, 120–121 Novelty, innovations, 417 Nuclear family, 356 Nutrition labels, information format, 201e O Obesity “epidemic,” 484 Objective comprehension, 88 Objective knowledge, external search, 200 Observability, 433 Observations, consumer behavior research, 33–34 Occupation, and social class, 367 Offering acquisition, use and disposal decisions, 6–9 definition, Olfactory memory, 100 One brand at a time evaluation, 224 One-sided messages, 138–139 Ongoing search, 195 Online community, 197–198 Online processing, consumer evaluation, 192 Online word of mouth, 318–319 Operant conditioning, 247 episodic memory, 103 Opinion leaders, 303–304 referral to, 305 social system and innovation, 435 targeting, 304 Opportunity, 11, 45 See also Consumer opportunity, Motivation, MAO (motivation, ability and opportunity) influences, 46e recycling, 288 Optimal stimulation level (OSL), 258, 398–399 Optimizing, best possible, 246 Organic food and nonfood products, annual sales, 389e Overeating and obesity, 484 Overprivileged families, 365 P Packaging, consumer inferences, 91 Parody display, 370 Passives, complainer, 281 Perceived benefits, innovation, 428 Perceived consumer effectiveness, 489 Perceived costs external search, 199 innovation, 428 Perceived risk definition, 58 external search, 199 marketing implications, 60 types, 59 Perceived value, innovation, 428 Perception and consumer behavior, 11 definition, 80 hearing, 81 and smell, 82 stimuli thresholds, 84–85, 92 taste, 82 and touch, 82–83 visual, 81 Perception of problem, complaint-resolution, 281 Perceptual fluency, 89 Perceptual organization, 86 Performance risk, 59 Performance-related tactics, 249 Peripheral cues, 158 Peripheral-route processing, 131 low-effort, 129e persuasion, 158 Personal characteristics, complaint-resolution, 282 Personal marketing delivery, 299, 300 two-way communication, 302 Personal relevance, and motivation, 48–49 Personality attitude/behavior prediction, 148 and consumer behavior, 13, 398–401, 406 definition, 396, 406 and innovation, 424 research approaches, 396–398 Personally relevant stimuli, 78 Persuasion, and effort, 158 Pervasive and persuasive, word of mouth, 318 Pets, 455 Phenomenological approaches, personality, 397 I-31 Photography and pictures, consumer behavior research, 31 Physical (safety) risk, 59 Physical detachment, disposition, 286 Physical distance, social system and innovation, 435 Physical resources, and consumer ability, 61–62 Physiological needs, 50e Physiological response color, 81 smell, 82 Pleasant stimuli, and attention, 78 Positioning and consumer behavior, 17–18 for teens, 333 Possession ritual, 459 Post-decision evaluations, 12 Post-decision feeling, definition, 279 Post-decision levels of happiness, forecasting, 228 Post-decision processes dissonance, 268, 289 regret, 268–270, 289 Power distance, 391 Pre-attentive processing, 77 Preference dispersion, 189 Pre-purchase search, 195 Presentation stage, gift-giving, 463 Present-oriented customers, 231 Prevention-focused goals, 55, 141 Price consciousness variability, 255 and consumer behavior, 19–20 consumer inferences, 91 external search, 203–204 simplifying strategy, 253 Price perception, 254 Primacy and recency effects, 117 Primary reference group, 307 Priming, associations, 107 Prior brand evaluations, and judgment, 217 Prior experience and judgment, 217 and knowledge content and structure, 115–116 and learning, 272 Privacy controversies, 484–485 Problem recognition definition, 185 and information search, 186e Processing biases, 272–273 Product(s) African American marketing, 345 Asian American marketing, 346 and choice tactics, 248 disposition, 285–287, 289, 487 distribution and shelf placement, and exposure, 73 features and consumer inferences, 90–91 fit and self-concepts, 454 fit with system, 432 Hispanic American marketing, 343 informational influence, 316 large market share (top dog), 273 lifestyles influence, 403–404 lower-share brand (underdog), 273 and motivation, 57–58 normative influence, 312–313 positioning for teens, 333 Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s) Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it I-32 Subject Index Product(s) (Continued) quality and brand loyalty, 252 sacred and ritual involvement, 461 social class influence, 374 and symbols, 446–448 technological paradoxes, 419e values influence, 393 Product development, and consumer behavior, 16–17 Product life cycle, 426e, 427 Product placement, 88 and comprehension, 89 Product trial, and smells, 81 Profane things, 459 Prominence, and attention, 79 Promotion-focused goals, 55, 141 Promotions, and innovation trialability, 432 Prototype, definition, 112, 120 Prototypical brands, 112e Prototypicality brand name recall, 189–190, 190e definition, 112 memory retrieval stimulus, 118 Psychoanalytic theories, personality, 396 Psychographics, 383, 384e applications, 404–406 lifestyles, 401–404 personality, 396–401 values, 383–395 Psychological core attitude formation and change, 130e, 159e exposure to comprehension, 74e internal consumer processes, 11 memory and knowledge, 101e motivation, ability and opportunity (MAO), 46e Psychological risk, 59 Psychophysiological reactions, consumer behavior research, 35–36 Punishment, 247–248, 248e Purchase panels, consumer behavior research, 34 Puzzles, and attention, 79 Q QR (quick response) codes, 184–185, 299 dos and don’ ts, 202e Quality and price inference, 91 R Reach, mass media, 301 Reactance, definition, 311 Recall, memory, 104 Recall of attributes, 190–192 Recall of brands, 189–190 Recall of evaluations, 192 Recall of experiences, 192–193 Recirculation, memory, 105 Recognition, memory, 104 Recycling, 287–289 selected materials, 288e Reducing time needed to buy, use and learn product or service, 64 Reducing time pressure, 64 Redundant cues, memory retrieval stimulus, 118 Reference group(s) characteristics, 306–308 and consumer socialization, 309–310 definition, 12 emblems, 447 product influence, 313e types, 305–306, 322 Referrals, and normative influence, 315 Reflexive evaluation, definition, 450 Reformulation stage, gift-giving, 463–464 Regional influences, on consumer behavior, 340–342, 348 Regret minimizing, group decision-making, 233 Regulatory fit, attitudes, 141 Rehearsal, memory, 105 Reinforcement, 247, 248e Reinforcement and removal, symbols, 448 Relationship bonding, gift-giving, 463–464 Relationship impact, gift-giving, 464e Relative advantage, 428 Relative brand uncertainty, external search, 199–200 Religion, and consumer behavior, 347–348 Repeat purchase, 248 development, 250 Repeating marketing communications, 64 Repetition and brand awareness, 164 and consumer opportunity, 63–64 and top-of-mind, 219 Representativeness heuristic, 242 Reputation restoration, 320e Research, and marketing, 22–23 Research foundation, 38 Resistance, innovation, 419 innovation influences, 427–436 to commercial excess, 491 Response involvement, 48 Retail atmospherics, consumer inferences, 91, 92e Retail walk-in clinics, 406–407 Retailer search, 196 Retailers, consumer research, 38 Retrieval and consumer characteristics, 119 cues, 118, 190, 191e definition, 100, 120 enhancing, 117 errors, 117 failures, 116 stimulus, 118–119 Rewards and sanctions, product use, 314 Risk and involvement, 59 perceived, 58–59 Rites of passage, 449 Rituals, role transitions, 449 Rituals, special possessions, 458–459 Rokeach Value Survey (RVS), 395 Role acquisition function, symbol, 448–450 Role acquisition model, 449e phases, 449 Rumors, handling, 321 S Sacred entities, 459, 465 Sacred objects, 460 Sacredness avoiding profaning, 461 creating and maintaining, 460 Safety need, 50e risk, 59 Sales promotions, and brand loyalty, 252–253 Salience associations, 108 memory retrieval stimulus, 118 Salient attributes, 191–192 Same-sex couples, 360 Satisfaction definition, 273 feelings-based, 279–280 service recovery, 283–284 thought-based, 275–279 Satisfice, good enough, 246 Scandals, handling, 321 Schema brand image and personality, 108 definition, 106 Schema-consistent information, 162 Script, definition, 108 Search engines, 207 Search goods, 199 Searching by attribute, 205 Searching by brand, 205 Secondary reference group, 307 Segmentation, lifestyles, 402–403 Selective exposure, 73–75 Self-actualization, 50e Self-concept, 48 and symbols, 453 Self-control, 55 and goal conflict, 55–57 Self-image, idealized, 483 Self-interest versus interests of others, 473–475 Self-monitoring behavior, 400 Self-positivity bias, 217 Self-presentation, group decision-making, 233 Self-referencing message, 163 Semantic memory, 103 Seniors, 336 Sensory marketing, 83 Sensory memory, 100, 120 Separation, old role, 449 Service provider similarity, 315 Service recovery, 282–283 Service, social class influence, 374 Sex, as communication technique, 173 Sex roles, 337–338 Sexual orientation, and consumer behavior, 339 Shaping, 250 Shopping, and needs, 52 Signal-to-noise ratio, and attention, 80 Simple inferences, 161 Simplifying strategies, 249 brand loyalty, 251–253 feelings, 256–257 habit, 249–250 normative influences, 256 price, 253–255 Simulations, external search, 197 Single-serve coffeemakers, 437 Situational factors, attitude/behavior prediction, 148 Situational involvement, 47 Size and shape, and perception, 81 Sleeper effect, 137 Smaller families, 360 Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s) Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it Subject Index Smell and perception, 82 sensory marketing, 84 Snack foods, and social media, 157–158 Social class changes over time, 367–369 consumer behavior influences, 13, 364, 376 and consumption, 369–372 consumption patterns, 372–375 determination, 366–367 emblems, 446 fragmentation, 368 hierarchy, 364 indexes, 367 segmentation variability, 375 and special possessions, 457 structures, 365–366, 366e system types, 364–365 and values, 392 Social comparison information, and susceptibility, 314e Social comparison theory, 484 Social dilemma, 473, 475e Social identity-based attitudes, 132 Social influences, 298–299, 300e, 301e and innovation, 424 and tie-strength, 308e Social media and customer service, 267–268 generation X, 335 marketing influence, 301 teens, 334 word of mouth, 319 Social needs, 50 Social norms, and environmental behaviors, 489 Social-psychological theories, personality, 397–398 Social-relational theory, 212 Social relevance, definition, 433 Social resources, and consumer ability, 62 Social responsibility, 488 Social risk, 59 Social status transitions, symbols, 450–451 Social system, and innovative products, 435–436 Source credibility, 136 Source derogation (SD), 132 Source identification, 87–88 Source of confusion, retrieval error, 117 Sources cognitive-based high-effort attitudes, 136–138, 162 cognitive-based low-effort attitudes, 162 emotion-based high-effort attitudes, 143 emotion-based low-effort attitudes, 169–171 of influence, 299–305, 311e of information, 316–322 Spanish/English messages, Hispanic American marketing, 344 Special brands, 455 Special events, teens, 334 Special possessions, 455–456, 465 characteristics, 456–457, 458e consumers, 457–458 disposal, 459 Special pricing, 255 Speedy response, complaint-resolution, 282 Spouses, decision roles, 362 Spreading of activation, associative networks, 107 S-shaped diffusion curve, 425, 426e Stability, cause and effect, 277 Status crystallization, 367 Status float, 366 Status panic, 368 Status symbol, 370 Stealing rationalizations, 480 temptation to, 479 Stimulation needs, 51 Stimuli thresholds, perception, 84–85 Stimulus, memory retrieval, 118 Strong argument, definition, 138 Strong effect, subliminal advertising, 86 Storytelling, consumer behavior research, 31 Subjective comprehension, 88, 89 Subjective knowledge, external search, 200 Subjective norm (SN), TORA, 133, 134e Subliminal perception, 85–86 Subordinate level, hierarchical structure, 112 Superordinate level, hierarchical structure, 112 Support argument (SA), 132 Surprise, gift-giving, 463 Surprising stimuli, and attention, 79 Survey, definition, 29 Surveys, consumer behavior research, 29–30 Susceptibility to influence, 400 interpersonal influence, 314e Symbolic innovations, 418 Symbolic meaning, 444e, 465 consumption symbols, 445e Symbolic needs, 51 Symbolic value, special possessions, 457, 458e Symbols definition, 14 connectedness function, 451–452 consumer inferences, 90 emblematic function, 446–448 expressiveness function, 452 role acquisition function, 448–451 role transitions, 449 and self-concept, 453–454 Syncractic decision, 362 Syndicated data services, consumer research, 38 T Target market selection, 16 Targeting children, 482 lifestyles, 402–403 vulnerable segments, 480–481 Taste and perception, 82 sensory marketing, 83–84 Taxonomic category, 111, 111e Technological products, paradoxes of, 419e Technology, Western value, 390 Teens, consumer behavior, 330–332 Temporal dilemma, 473, 475e Temporary (situational) involvement, 47 Temptation to steal, 479 Terminal values, 385 Terror Management Theory (TMT), 145 Theory of planned behavior, 131, 134, 148 Theory of Reasoned Action (TORA), 131, 133–134, 134e, 148 I-33 behavior prediction, 146 decision-making, 223 Thinking-behaving-feeling sequence low-effort, 246 traditional, 245 Thin-slice judgments, 160 Thought-based decisions high-effort, 222, 234 low-effort, 249 Thought-based satisfaction/dissatisfaction, 275–279, 289 Tie-strength, and social influence, 308e, 309 Time and consumer opportunity, 63 and decision-making, 220 risk, 59 Time available, external search, 201 Time pressure, high-effort decisions, 231 Tobacco, minor’s illegal use, 483 Top-dog strategies, product, 273 Top-down processing, 229 Top-of-mind accessibility, 147 Top-of-mind and repetition, 219 Top-of-mind brands, 189 Touch and perception, 82–83 sensory marketing, 84 Trade group, definition, 38 Traditional hierarchy of effects, 245 Traditional media generation X, 335 seniors, 337 teens, 334 Trait theories, personality, 396–397, 397e Transformational advertising, 174 Transition, roles, 449 Trial simulation, innovation, 433 Trialability, innovation, 430 Trickle-down effect, 365 Trivial attributes, high-effort decision, 233 Truth effect, repetition, 161 Two brands at a time evaluation, 225 “$2 a Day” consumers, 355–356 Two-sided messages, 138–139 Two-way communication, personally delivered sources, 203, 302 U Uncertainty, innovation, 429–430 Uncertainty avoidance, 391 Unconditioned response (UCR), 165 Unconditioned stimulus (UCS), 165 Unconscious influences, on attitudes, 160–161 Unconscious low-effort decision-making, 245 Underage drinking and smoking, 483 Underdog strategies, product, 273 Underprivileged families, 365 Unexpectedness, and attention, 79 Uniqueness, associations, 108 United States ethnic groups, 343–347 household life cycles, 359e population age, 330, 332e regions, 340 social class, 365e, 366e spending by age, 6e Unity, design, 257 Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s) Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it I-34 Subject Index Upper Americans, 365e Upper class, consumption patterns, 372–373 Upward mobility, 368 Usage brand name recall, 190 consumer behavior, and innovation, 425 methods, Use-diffusion patterns, home technology innovations, 423e Use innovativeness, 428 User, family role, 361, 361e Utilitarian (functional) dimension of ad, 146 Utilitarian value, special possessions, 458e V Vacation choices, 13e Valence, informational information, 318 VALSTM (Values and Lifestyles), 404, 405e Value(s) changes, 391 definition, 383, 406 gift, 462 importance of, 255 influences, 13, 391–393 and innovation, 425 measurement, 393–395 and personal relevance, 49 types, 385–386, 406 Western cultures, 386–391 Value conflict, 383 Value laddering, 394 Value questionnaires, 395 Value segmentation, 391 Value system, definition, 383 Values-driven attitudes, 132 Variety seeking, definition, 258 Variety seeking needs, 258–259 Vinyl long-playing (LP) record albums, 442–443 Viral marketing, 319 Vision, and perception, 81 Vision, sensory marketing, 83, 171 Vividness, brand name recall, 192 Voicers, complainer, 281 Voluntary disposition, 285e Voluntary simplicity, 369, 402 Vulnerable segments, targeting, 480–481, 482 W Weak effect, subliminal advertising, 86 Weak ties, and word-of-mouth, 309 Wearout, 165 Weber’s law, 85 Wife-dominant decision, 362 Will-power, and goals, 56 Word-of-mouth communication influence, 300, 318–319 negative experience, 275, 283, 318, 322 tracking, 321 weak ties, 309 Work and play, Western value, 387–388 Working class, consumption patterns, 373 Working memory (WM), 102, 120 Working memory, stimulus processing, 119 Y Young digiterati, 340 Youth, Western value, 389–390 Z Zapping, 75 Zipping, 75 Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning All Rights Reserved May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s) Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it ... Ideas  Consumer Behavior Involves More than Buying  Consumer Behavior Is a Dynamic Process  Consumer Behavior Can Involve Many People  Consumer Behavior Involves Many Decisions  Consumer Behavior. .. 1  An Introduction to Consumer Behavior Chapter 1  Understanding Consumer Behavior   INTRODUCTION: Panera Bread: More than Bread  Defining Consumer Behavior Consumer Behavior Involves Goods,... Decisions  20 Summary  22 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR CASE: How Unilever’s Brands Connect with Consumers  22 Endnotes  23 Appendix  Developing Information About Consumer Behavior   28 Consumer Behavior Research
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