Động từ tiếng anh thanh hà

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THANH HA (Bien soan) NHA XUA T BAN TU OIEN BACH KHOA DONG TUT TIENG ANH THANH HA (Bien soan) D O N G T IT TIENG ANH NHA XUAT BAN TIT DIEN BACH KHOA THANH HA M ot trong nhCifng kho khan cua ngUdi hoc tieng A nh la lam the nao de nam viing ngut phap, trong do hieu va van dung cac loai tijf trong cau. X uat phat tii thuc te do chun g toi bien soan bo sach “D ong tCf tieng A n h” nay. Cuon sach la nhCitng kien thtic cd ban ve dong tuf trong tieng Anh, cach sU dung, co kem theo cac vi du thUc te di kem. De dung cuon sach nay co hieu qua hOn, tot nhat ban nen do xem ky tting phan trU6c khi do sang phan sau. Trong qua trinh beienoan chac khong tranh khoi thieu sot, rat m ong nhan dUOc y kien dong gop cua cac ban. 5 THANH HA CA C DANG THU’C CUA DONG TlT TIENG ANH Dong tti dUdc dinh nghia tren cd sd hinh thiic khi co the, va theo cach sU dung cua chung trong cau. Trong cac vi du dudi day, nhiing ti* dUdc gach chan la dong tti. - I go to school. Toi di den trit&ng. - She sings a song. Cd ay hat mot Bai hat. - He answered very well. Anh ay tra Idi rat tot. Dong tu! co nam hinh thiic nhu sau: 1. Nguyen m iu (base form ) - tti thUdng thay trong tu! dien. 2. Hinh thiic them “e /es ” (-s form) ■ thUdng dung d ngoi thii ba so it. 3. Hinh thtic qua kh\i (past tense) - thUdng dung d qua khii ddn. 4. Hinh thuc hien tai phan tu! (-ing participle) - thUdng dung d thi tiep dien hay trong cac menh de phan tti hien tai. 5. Hinh thuc qua khr( phan tii (past participle) - thu'dng dung d thi hoan thanh hay trong the bi dong, co nhieu dong tijf hinh thuc qua khii va qua khii phan tii giong nhau. Cac dong tu' co hinh thiic qua khu va qua khii phan tvf tan cung bang "ed" rat pho bien trong tieng Anh, goi la dong tu' co quy tac (regular). Vi du: watch - watched, look - looked 7 DONG TU TIENG ANH Nhiing dong tut khac thuoc dang bat quy tac (irregular), co nghia la hinh thiic cua tiing dong tii khong theo mot nguyen tac nao. Tat ca dong tii deu co s-form va ing-form va nhulng hinh thiic nay luon luon co quy tac nen de biet hinh thiic cua moi dong tir tieng Anh, can biet ba hinh thiic cua moi dong tii bat quy tac: nguyen mau (base form) - qua khvf (past tense) • qua khti phan tif (past participle). * Chu y: cac dong tii khuyet thieu: “ can, may, must, might, will, should, could ” khong co hinh thiic d ngoi thii ba so it (-s form), hien tai phan tii (-ing form) hoac cac thi qua khii (past tense). Quy tac sU dung cac dong tii khuyet thieu nay hoan toan khac vdi dong tii. CAC LOAI DONG TUT Trong tieng Anh co hai loai dong tii chinh la ngoai dong tii va noi dong tii. 1. Ngoai dong tif (transitive verb) Ngoai dong tii: co the theo sau la mot danh tu lam tan ngU - ten cua ngUdi, vat hay sU vat tiep nhan hanh dong. Vi du: - She is^leanm g the floor. Co ay dang lau nha. - We met him at the bank. Chung toi gap anh ay d ngan hang. - I helped that woman. Toi da giup ngi/di ph u n it ay. 2. Noi dong tif (intransitive verb) Noi dong tii': khong co danh tii theo sau no. Noi cach khac. sau noi dong tii khong cd tan ngii. 8 THANH HA Vi du: - He draws. Anh ay ve. - We work. Chung toi lam viec. - I felt tired. Toi cam thay met moi. Noi dong tii dUdc chia thanh hai nhom: dong tii noi (ilinking verb) va dong tit khong noi (not linking verb). Dong tii noi: theo sau la mot danh tit nen de nham vdi ngoai dong tii, nhUng danh tu! theo sau dong tit noi luon noi ve ngUdi hay vat co vai tro la chu ngut cua dong tii. Dong tii noi thUdng dimg la “be”, “become, turn, g et” . Vi du: - This wallet is Lan’s mother. Cai vi nay la cua me Lan. - She has become a singer. Co ay da trd thanh ca si. - He turned out to be my mother’s doctor. Hod ra ong ay la bac si cua me toi. Theo sau dong tii noi co the la tinh tu: hay trang tii mo ta hoac dinh vi cho chu ngi3. Vi du: - She is very big. Co ay rat beo. - The building looks solid, Tod nha trong rat vihig chac. - The table is over here. Cai ban d day. Nhieu dong tit co the la ngoai dong tif hoac noi dong tii tuy theo sU xuat hien cua tan ngfl hay khong. Vi du: - He draws. 9 DONG TUT TIENG ANH Anh ay ve. (Noi dong tii) - He draws a picture. Anh ay ve mot biic tranh. (Ngoai dong tit) Cac tii dien deu phan biet “vt” (verb transitive) hoac “vi” (verb intransitive). THI CUA DONG TLT Thi la thdi gian ma dong tii do de cap tdi: thi hien tai (present), thi qua khii (past), thi tUdng lai (future), Trong tieng Anh thi cua dong tii dUdc dien ta bang nhieu loai cum dong tii, qua do cac trd dong tii se dUdc ket hdp vdi mot trong nhiing hinh thiic cua dong tii. Do do, van de chu yeu cua ngUdi hoc dong tii tieng Anh khong phai chi la hoc thuoc long nhiing hinh thiic cua dong tii. Quan trong la phai nam dUOc sii phiic tap cua cum dong tii tieng Anh, vdi rat nhieu loai khac nhau. 10 THANH HA THI HIEN TAI THi HIEN TAI THtf&NG 1. Hinh thtfc Trong cau khang dinh, thi hien tai co hai hinh thiic: nguyen mau (base form ) va ngoi thijt ba so it them “s/es” (S-form). Hinh thiic nguyen mau diidc sU dung v6i nhQng chu ngO “I I we I you / they'. Hinh thiic “S- form ” diidc dung v6i cac chu tii “he / she / it” hoac bat cif cau true danh tii nao ma nhiing tii tren co the thav the. I I we I you / they + V (nguyen mau) he / she / it + V- s /es * Quy tac them “s/es” vao sau dong tii nguyen mau, neu dong tii d ngoi thii ba so it: - Neu V tan cung bang “o”, them “es” Vi du: to go: He goes (Anh ay di) to do: He does (Anh ay lam) - V tan cung bang “x, ss, sh, ch” thi them “es” Vi du: to fix: He fixes (Anh ay siia) to cross: She crosses (Co ay di qua) to brush: She brushes (Co ay chai) to teach: She teaches (Co ay day h oc) to watch: My little baby watches TV (difa be cua toi xem TV) - V tan cung bang “v” (difng sau mot phu am) triio'c khi them “s” phai doi “y ” thanh “ie”. Vi du: to marry: He marries (Anh ta ci/di) to study: He studies (Anh ta hoc) 11 DONG TUT TIENG ANH nhUng trUdc y 1 a nguyen am thi giii nguyen y, roi them s to play: He plays (Anh ta chcfi) * Cac cach phat am khi them “s/es” vao dong tii nguyen mau: /iz/, Isl, hoac Izl - Am cuoi phat am la Isl khi dong tii nguyen mau ket thuc bang: I pi, Itl, Ikl, Ifl, / 6/. Vi du: stop stops hit hits cook cooks - Am cuoi phat am la lizl khi dong tii nguyen mau ket thuc bang: si, Izl, Ifl, /3/, /d3/, /tJ7. Vi du: miss misses rise rises wash washes watch watches judge judges - Am cuoi phat am la Izl neu am cuoi cua dong tii nguyen mau khong n&m trong hai nguyen ti c tren. Vi du: lay lays ride rides ring rings smell smells 2. C ach su1 d u n g a. D ien ta m ot sti viec, m ot h a nh d on g th eo th oi q u en h oa c lap di lap la i C ac d o ng tii ch i tan su at di ke m : always, often, usually, sometimes, every, regularly, rarely, Vi du: 12 [...]... English Lisa khong con thiic hanh tieng Anh nda * Chu y: Nhieu tinh huong co the dUdc dien ta dong thdi bang thi hien tai hoan thanh va thi hien tai hoan thanh tiep dien Su khac biet la thi hien tai hoan thanh nhan manh vao stf viec, con thi hien tai hoan thanh tiep dien nhan manh vao hanh dong tiep dien - How long have you studied French? Ban da hoc tieng Phap bao lau roi? - How long have you been studying... him Anh ay khong the gap co ay vdo ngay mai vi ban cua anh ay se den thdm anh ay - I am going to buy a new motorbike Tdi se mua mot chiec xe may mdi - I feel tired I'm going to be ill Tdi cam thay met Tdi sap om roi 24 THANH HA - She is going to go to school Co ay se di tdi triidng - He is going to be late Anh ay se bi muon mat a b 2 Cach dung thi ttfOng lai vdi “going to” Dien td mot stf viec hay hanh... Dien td mot viec se hoan thanh va co lien quan tdi mot viec khac d tiictng lai Vi du: a - We shall have arrived by the time you finish dressing Chung toi se den vdo luc ma ban mac xong quan do 28 THANH HA - W hen you arrive, we’ll have had lunch Khi ban den, chung toi se dung xong biia toi - I’ll have met him before he leaves Tdi se gap anh ay triidc khi anh ay di DONG TUT TIENG ANH THI O LA KHLT THI... nghl la toi da gap anh ay mot Ian triidc do - There have been many earthquakes in California Da nhieu Ian dong dat a Calfornia - People have traveled to the Moon 18 THANH HA M oi ngittii da du lich ten mat trang 2 Cach dung a Dien ta mot hanh dong, mot suC viec xay ra d mot thdi diem khong xac dinh 6 qua khil Vi du: - The army has attacked that city five times Quan doi da tan cong vdo thanh pho do 5 Ian... tdi se dang lam viec THANH HA - W hen he comes back from work, his family will be having dinner Khi anh ay di lam ve, gia dinh anh ay se dang an toi b Dien td mot viec da ditdc dii dinh se lam trong tUdng lai khong xa Vi du: - My family will leave Ha Noi in a few days Gia dinh toi se rdi Ha Noi trong mot vdi ngay niCa - Will you be going to Ho Chi Minh City next week? Ban se di thanh pho Ho Chi Minh... thang tdi THI TITOTNG LAI HOAN THANH 1 Hinh thtfc: I / we he t she / it / you / they shall have participle) will have participle) + + Pn (past Pu (past Vi du: - When you arrive I'll have gone to bed Khi ban den, toi se da di ngu roi - I'll have finished this course next month 27 DONG TiTTltNG ANH Tdi se hoan thanh khoa hoc vdo tuan tdi - He’ll have played football to 8 o’clock Anh ay se chcti bong da den... dung Dien ta mot viec lam, mot hanh dong, mot stf viec se xay ra trong tiidng lai Vi' du: - Linda will marry next month Linda se ket hdn vdo thang tdi - I think he will do well Tdi nghi anh ay se lam tot - He will finish new cataloge next week Anh ay se hoan thanh ca-ta-lo mdi vdo tuan tdi - They will never come here again Ho se khong bao gid den day niia 23 DONG TU TIENG ANH b D ie n ta m ot q u y et... two hours Cd ay da nghe dai suot hai tieng qua Dien ta mot hanh dong vUa mdi xay ra VI du: - I’ve just had dinner Toi vita dung bita toi - They have gone to Ho Chi Minh City Ho vita den thanh pho Ho Chi Minh - I’ve just met Peter at the bank Toi vita gap Peter d nha bang * Chu y: - Nhieu ngUdi de nham cach sU dung cua thi hien tai hoan thanh vdi thi qua khii thUdng Qua khit thitcfng di kem vdi cac... chita titng xem bo phim do - We didn’t see that film yesterday Horn qua chung tdi khong xem bo phim do Thi hien tai hoan thanh thUdng hay dUdc dung vdi cac trang t\i: since, for, already, yet, just, recently, lately, ever never, nearly, hardly, - 20 THANH HA THi HIEN TAI HOAN THANH TIEP DliN 1 Hinh thttc I I we I you / they have / been +V-ing he /she /it _ has been +V-ing Vi du: - You have been... was studying while he was making dinner Tdi dang hoc trong khi anh ay lam cdm toi 34 THANH HA - W hile Ellen was reading, Tim was watching television Khi Ellen doc, Tim xem ti-ui - They were eating dinner, discussing their plans, and having a good time Ho viia an toi, vita ban ve ke hoqch, va co mot thdi gian rat vui ve THI QUA KHUTHOAN THANH 1 Hinh thufc S + had + P u (V p a s t p a r t ic ip l e )
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