politeness strategies in requests in the movie series harry potter = chiến lược lịch sự trong lời thỉnh cầu trong các tập phim harry potter

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VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST- GRADUATE STUDIES LƯƠNG THANH HỒNG POLITENESS STRATEGIES IN REQUESTS IN THE MOVIE SERIES “HARRY POTTER” (Chiến lược Lịch sự trong Lời Thỉnh cầu trong các tập phim “Harry Potter”) MINOR M.A. THESIS Field: English Linguistics Code: 60.22.15 Hanoi – 2012 VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST- GRADUATE STUDIES LƯƠNG THANH HỒNG POLITENESS STRATEGIES IN REQUESTS IN THE MOVIE SERIES “HARRY POTTER” (Chiến lược Lịch sự trong Lời Thỉnh cầu trong các tập phim “Harry Potter”) MINOR M.A. THESIS Field: English Linguistics Code: 60.22.15 Supervisor: Assoc.Prof.Dr. Nguyê ̃ n Văn Đô ̣ Hanoi – 2012 iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Declaration …………………………………………………………………………… i Acknowledgements ………………………………………………………………… ii Abstract ………………………………………………………………………………. iii Abbreviations ………………………………………………………………………… vi PART 1: INTRODUCTION 1. Rationale ………………………………………………………………………… 1 2. Aims of the study ………………………………………………………………… 2 3. Research questions of the study …………………………………………………… 2 4. Scope of the study …………………………………………………………………. 2 5. Overview of the movie …………………………………………………………… 2 6. Methods of the study ………………………………………………………………. 3 7. Design of the study ……………………………………………………………… 3 PART 2: DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER 1: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND 1.1. Speech Acts ………………………………………………………………… 5 1.1.1. Speech act theory …………………………………………………………… 5 1.1.2. Speech act of requesting …………………………………………………… 7 1.2. Politeness …………………………………………………………………… 8 1.2.1. Definition of politeness ………………………………………… 8 1.2.2. Social factors affecting politeness strategies …………………… 13 1.2.3. Politeness and indirectness …………………………………………………… 14 1.2.4. Politeness strategies ………………………………………………………… 15 1.2.4.1. Positive politeness strategies ……………………………………………… 16 1.2.4.2. Negative politeness strategies ………………………………………………. 16 1.3. Previous studies on request and politeness strategies …………………………… 16 1.4. Summary ………………………………………………………………………… 18 v CHAPTER 2: POLITENESS STRATEGIES IN REQUESTS IN THE MOVIE SERIES “HARRY POTTER” 2.1. Politeness strategies in requests in the movie series “Harry Potter” …………… 19 2.2. The frequency of Politeness strategies in Requests in the movie series “Harry Potter” ……………………………………………………………………………… 19 2.2.1. Sampling process ……………………………………………………………… 19 2.2.2. The frequency of politeness strategies in requests …………………………… 19 2.2.2.1. Positive politeness strategies ………………………………………………… 20 2.2.2.2. Negative politeness strategies ……………………………………………… 28 2.3. Politeness strategies in requests in the movie series Harry Potter and S-H relationship 2.3.1. Positive politeness strategies and S- H relationships …………… 35 2.3.2. Negative politeness strategies and S- H relationships ………………………… 37 2.4. Summary ………………………………………………………………………… 39 PART 3: CONCLUSION 3.1. Recapitulation ……………………………………………………………… 41 3.2. Implications for teaching politeness strategies in requests ……………………… 42 3.3. Limitations of the study ………………………………………………………… 42 3.4. Suggestions for further research ……………………………………………… 43 REFERENCES vi ABBREVIATIONS FTA: Face Threatening Act H: Hearer/ Addressee S: Speaker/ Addresser S.A: Speech Acts D: Distance P: Power R: Rank of Imposition PPS: Positive Politeness Strategy NPS: Negative Politeness Strategy E.g.: For example M.A.: Master of Arts 1 PART 1: INTRODUCTION 1. Rationale As it can be seen clearly, politeness plays an of great importance role in human daily communication. It has a great influence in phenomena, rules and structures of languages. Therefore, the effectiveness of communication is affected considerably. During the development of civilized society, human beings have been founding standards and values describing appropriate behaviors as well as communicative strategies and language structures which are considered being polite in specific situations and specific cultures. There are a number of studies on politeness issue because of its significance in communication. However, each researcher has a different point of view. For example, Lakoff and Leech study politeness under communicative strategies, Brown and Levinson consider politeness as behaviors saving face. Although politeness seems to be quite familiar and very old, in fact it still develops non- stop and actually offers me many interests, which inspires me to carry out a research on such issue. However, to achieve politeness in communication, it is necessary to give out suitable politeness strategies for each certain context. Thus, the study on politeness as well as politeness strategies is of great importance and essential to enhance the effectiveness of our daily communication. Moreover, what are the other reasons why I would like to investigate politeness strategies in requests in the movie series Harry Potter? Firstly, according to many scholars not only is requesting one of the most popular activities in human daily communication but also is the most threatening act to the human face. Thus, choosing appropriate politeness strategies when making requests need to be taken into due consideration, which actually brings me good opportunities to do research on politeness strategies often used in daily requests. Secondly, I choose the requests in the movie series Harry Potter as the data for my study because watching movies is one of my biggest hobbies and offers me much interest. Especially, the movie series recently have been the best ones produced by Warner Bros - a very famous movie producer in the United States, so I believe that the reliability of the content quality is much relevant to my study. 2 Finally, I would expect the result of my research: Politeness Strategies in Requests in the Movie Series “Harry Potter” will have a great meaning to teaching and learning as well as using politeness strategies in requests appropriately and effectively. In addition, it will be much easier for people to choose and employ politeness strategies, which actually offers effectiveness in daily communication. 2. Aims of the study 1. To study the performance of positive and negative politeness strategies in the requests by the characters in the three episodes of the movie Harry Potter. 2. To study the effects of S-H relationship on the choices of politeness strategies in the requests of the characters in the three episodes of the movie Harry Potter. 3. Research questions 1. What are the positive and negative politeness strategies in the requests by the characters in the three episodes of the movie Harry Potter? 2. How does S-H relationship affect the choices of positive and negative politeness strategies in making requests of the characters in the three episodes of the movie Harry Potter? 4. Scope of the study Due to the time and limitation of a minor thesis, it is impossible for me to investigate politeness strategies in requests in all their aspects. So, I would like to focus on verbal communication, but other important factors such as non-linguistic factors (facial expression, gestures, eye contact, etc.), paralinguistic factors such as intonation, pause, speed of speech, etc. are not taken into consideration in my study. Moreover, positive and negative politeness strategies based on the theoretical framework of Brown and Levinson (1987) are under the investigation of all the requests in three episodes: Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, and Harry Potter and the Half- Blood Prince of the movie Harry Potter. 5. Overview of the movie The Harry Potter movie series are British- American one based on the Harry Potter novels by the British author J.K. Rowling. The series are distributed by Warner Bros and 3 consist of eight episodes beginning with Harry Potter and the Philosopher‟s Stone (2001) and culminating with Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows- Part 2 (2011). They are the highest movie series of all- time in inflation unadjusted dollars, with $7.7 billion in worldwide receipts. The movie series are also a critical success and noted by audiences for growing visually darker and more mature as each episode was released. The movie series revolve around Harry Potter, an orphan who discovers that he is a wizard. Wizard ability is inborn, but children are sent to wizarding school to learn the magical skills necessary to succeed in the wizarding world. Harry is invited to attend the boarding school called Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. Each movie episode chronicles one year in Harry's life, and most of the events take place at Hogwarts. As he struggles through adolescence, Harry learns to overcome many magical, social and emotional hurdles. 6. Methods of the study This study employs the Quantitative method which focuses much more on the collection and analysis of numerical data and statistics. Counting and measuring are common forms of quantitative methods. The result of the research is a number or series of number presented in tables and charts. 7. Design of the study The thesis consists of three main parts: PART 1: INTRODUCTION This part of the thesis presents the rationale, aims, research questions, scope, method and design of the study. PART 2: DEVELOPMENT This is the nuclear part of the thesis containing two chapters: Chapter 1: Theoretical Background This chapter establishes an overview of the theories on Speech Acts, Speech act of Request and Politeness theory which are the basis for the following analysis in the next chapter. Chapter 2: Politeness strategies in requests in the series of movies Harry Potter 4 This chapter studies how the characters in the movie series use the politeness strategies in their requests and how S-H relationship affects their choices of politeness strategies when making requests. PART 3: CONCLUSION In this part, the author recapitulates the study, offers implication, limitations and suggestions for further research. 5 PART 2: DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER 1: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND 1.1. Speech Acts 1.1.1. Speech act theory Many actions are carried out by using languages during human communication. Although they are expressed variously, they are all called speech acts. Speech act is one of the most issues that interests researchers most. It has been investigated seriously by different theorists such as Austin (1962), Grice (1957, 1975), Hymes (1964), Searle (1969), Levinson (1983), Brown and Yule (1983), Yule (1996), etc. so that human communication can be carried out in the most effective way.  Austin’s theory Speech act theory is originally developed by Austin in his famous book entitled “How to do things with words”. He presented a new picture of analyzing meaning in relationship among linguistics conventions correlated with words/ sentences, the situation where the speaker actually says something to the hearer, and associated intentions of the speaker. Austin (1962) defines speech acts as the actions performed in saying something. Actions performed through utterance production are called speech acts such as requesting, apologizing, complaining, promising, etc. Speech acts consist of three related acts, namely locutionary act, illocutionary act and perlocutionary act.  Locutionary act, a basic act of producing a meaningful linguistic expression, includes phonetic acts, phatic acts and rhetic acts. Phonetic acts are acts of pronouncing sound, phatic acts are acts of uttering words or sentences in accordance with the phonological and syntactic rules of the language to which they belong, and rhetic acts are one of uttering a sentence with sense and more or less definite reference.  Illocutionary act is an act performed via the communicative force of an utterance such as requesting, advising, promising, inviting, etc. [...]... POLITNESS STRATEGIES IN REQUESTS IN THE MOVIE SERIES HARRY POTTER 2.1 Politeness strategies in Requests in the movie series Harry Potter This chapter investigates how the characters in the series of movies Harry Potter make their requests politely by the frequency of using politeness strategies in their requests as well as how S-H relation affects their choice of politeness strategies Brown and Levinson... need instructions in order to communicate appropriately in the target language In the following chapter, the author will present the findings and discussions about the frequency of politeness strategies in requests by the characters in the movie Harry Potter and the effects of S-H relationship on the choices of politeness strategies in requests In the next part, the author aims to find the answers to the. .. politeness strategies is employed in this study with 15 positive politeness strategies and 10 negative politeness strategies 2.2 The frequency of politeness strategies in requests employed in the movie series Harry Potter 2.2.1 Sampling process The process of collecting data consists of three steps Firstly, all the request utterances in the conversations of the characters in three movies series Harry. .. threatening to the hearer‟s negative face by indicating that the speaker does not intend to avoid impeding the hearer‟s freedom of action E.g.: ordering, suggesting, threatening, requesting, promising, etc 2 Acts threatening to the hearer‟s positive face by indicating that the speaker does not care about the addressee‟s feelings and wants E.g.: disapproving, contempting, complaining, criticizing, disagreeing... and the hearer may claim the existence of cooperation between the speaker and hearer This strategy accounts for 1.53% of the occurrence of politeness strategies in requests by the characters in the movie series Harry Potter E.g.: If you'll excuse me, I need to have a little word with the driver (in Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban) I'll show you mine if you show me yours (in Harry Potter and the. .. passive voice - Using indefinite pronouns instead of “I” and “you” This strategy accounts for about 66% in comparison with other strategies Mostly, the characters use the imperatives in the requests Although imperatives in some cases are considered as impolite strategy, such imperatives in requests by the characters in the movie series are employed as politeness strategies due to the intimate relationship... mixed politeness strategies Secondly, all contexts with S-H relationships are considered in order to see how S-H relationship affects the choice of politeness strategies in requesting by the characters in the movies Finally, all the statistics needed for the study are calculated carefully and presented in the following tables as well as charts 2.2.2 The frequency of politeness strategies in requests. .. understanding, cooperation) S may satisfy H‟s positive-face wants by actually satisfying some of H‟s wants S can give gifts or share the sadness or happiness to H This strategy is not employed in the characters‟ requests in the movie series To sum up, according to 15 positive politeness strategies in the framework of Brown and Levinson, the requests in the three episodes are grouped as the following table:... without question (in Harry Potter and the Half- Blood Prince) Strategy 12: Include both S and H in the activity By using an inclusive “we” form, when S really means “you” or “me”, he can call upon the cooperative assumptions and thereby redress FTAs Noting that “let‟s” in English is an inclusive “we” form In the movie series, the characters prefer using this strategy to others with the frequency about... strategy accounts for 4.58% of the performance of positive politeness strategies in the movie series E.g.: I think you can go and pat him now Get a move on or all the good ones will have gone (in Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban) I think it's best if you simply cast them away (in Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire) Harry, I must insist you accompany me back to the castle immediately! You must . POLITENESS STRATEGIES IN REQUESTS IN THE MOVIE SERIES HARRY POTTER 2.1. Politeness strategies in requests in the movie series Harry Potter …………… 19 2.2. The frequency of Politeness strategies in. Prince of the movie Harry Potter. 5. Overview of the movie The Harry Potter movie series are British- American one based on the Harry Potter novels by the British author J.K. Rowling. The series. expect the result of my research: Politeness Strategies in Requests in the Movie Series Harry Potter will have a great meaning to teaching and learning as well as using politeness strategies in
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