a study on politeness strategies in requests by the characters in the novel twilight by stephenie meyer = nghiên cứu chiến lược lịch sự trong lời thỉnh cầu của các nhân vật trong tiểu thuyết chạng vạng

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1 VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST-GRADUATE STUDIES TRẦN THỊ PHƯƠNG LINH A STUDY ON POLITENESS STRATEGIES IN REQUESTS BY THE CHARACTERS IN THE NOVEL “TWILIGHT” BY STEPHENIE MEYER (Nghiên cứu chiến lược lịch sự trong lời thỉnh cầu của các nhân vật trong tiểu thuyết “Chạng vạng” của Stephenie Meyer) MA MINOR THESIS Field: English Linguistics Code: 60.22.15 Supervisor: Dr. Hà Cẩm Tâm Hanoi- 2012 2 VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST-GRADUATE STUDIES TRẦN THỊ PHƯƠNG LINH A STUDY ON POLITENESS STRATEGIES IN REQUESTS BY THE CHARACTERS IN THE NOVEL “TWILIGHT” BY STEPHENIE MEYER (Nghiên cứu chiến lược lịch sự trong lời thỉnh cầu của các nhân vật trong tiểu thuyết “Chạng vạng” của Stephenie Meyer) MA MINOR THESIS Field: English Linguistics Code: 60.22.15 Hanoi- 2012 v TABLE OF CONTENTS Declaration ………………………………………………………… ….…… i Acknowledgements……………………………………………………………. ii Table of contents………………………………………………………… … iii Abbreviations………………………………………………………… ….… vi List of tables …………………………………………………………… … vii List of figures…………………………………………………………… …. viii Abstract……………………………………………………………………… ix PART A: INTRODUCTION …………………………………………….…. 1 1. Rationale of the study…………………………………………… …. 1 2. Aims of the study……………………………………………… … … 2 3. Objectives of the study………………………………………… …… 3 4. Research questions……………………………………………… …… 3 5. Scope of the study……………………………………………… … 3 6. Significance of the study…………………………………….………… 3 7. Methods of the study…………………………………………… … 4 8. Organization of the study……………………………………… …… 4 PART B: DEVELOPMENT…………………………………… ……… 5 CHAPTER 1: LITERATURE REVIEW………………………………… 5 1.1. The speech act theory…………………………………………….… 5 1.1.1. Speech acts…………………………………… ………….… 5 1.1.2. The speech act of request………………………………………. 6 1.2. Politeness………………………………… …………………….… 8 1.2.1. Politeness theory…………………………………………….…. 8 1.2.2. Social variables affecting politeness……………………………. 10 1.2.3. Politeness and indirectness. ……………………………………. 10 1.2.4. Politeness and indirectness in requests…………………………. 11 1.2.5. Modification…………………………………………… ….… 14 1.3. Previous studies on requests…………………………………….… 14 vi CHAPTER 2: METHODOLOGY………………………………………… 16 2.1. Research questions. ……………………………………………….… 16 2.2. Data collection ………………………………………………….…… 16 2.3. Data analysis ………………………………………………………… 16 2.4. Analytical framework…………………………………….……… … 17 2.4.1. Alerters…………………………………………….……………. 17 2.4.2. Perspective……………………………………………………… 17 2.4.3. Request strategies…………………………………….…………. 17 2.4.3.1. Direct requests- Category 1…………………….……… 17 2.4.3.2 Conventionally indirect requests- Category 2…… ……. 18 2.4.3.3. Non- conventionally indirect requests- Category 3…… 19 2.4.4. Internal modifications…………………………………………… 19 2.4.4.1. Syntactic downgraders…………………………………. 20 2.4.4.2. Lexical/phrasal downgraders………………………… 20 2.4.4.3. Upgraders……………………………………………… 21 2.4.5. External modification…………………………………………… 22 CHAPTER 3: DATA ANALYSIS…………………….…………………… 23 3.1. Overview of “Twilight” …………………….………………………… 23 3.2. Politeness strategies in request by the characters in “Twilight”………… 23 3.2.1. The utilization of strategies …… …………………………………… 23 3.2.2 The utilization of internal and external modifications…………… …… 28 3.3.3 Politeness strategies in requests in “Twilight”, seen from S-H relationships…………………………………………………………………. 31 PART C: CONCLUSION…………………………… …………….……… 40 1. Major findings and concluding remarks…………………………………. 40 2. Implications …………….……………………………………………… 41 3. Suggestions for further study………………………………….……….… 42 REFERENCES……………………………………… …………….……… 43 vii APPENDIX A: The coding system………………………………… ……… I APPENDIX B: Sample of the coding procedure…………………….………. II APPENDIX C: The use of internal modifications by types in “Twilight” IV APPENDIX D: The polite request strategies in each group of speakers in “Twilight” ………………………………………………… V APPENDIX E: The use of internal modification in each group of speakers in “Twilight” ……………………………………… …………. VI APPENDIX F: Figures for illustrations………… … VII viii ABBREVIATIONS FTA : Face- Threatening Act IFDI : Illocutionary Force Indicating Device H : The Hearer S : The Speaker D : Distance P : Relative Power R : Absolute ranking of imposition (…) : omitted words, phrases, or sentences n : Number of Appearance DR : Direct (Strategy) CI : Conventionally Indirect (Strategy) NCI : Non- Conventionally Indirect (Strategy) SD : Syntactic Downgrader LPD : Lexical/Phrasal Downdgrader UD : Upgrader : ix LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1: The balance of direct, conventionally indirect, and non- conventionally indirect polite request strategies in “Twilight” 24 Table 2: Polite request strategies by types in “Twilight” 25 Table 3: The use of internal modificationsin “Twilight” IV Table 4: The use of external modifications in “Twilight” 31 Table 5: The use of direct, conventionally indirect, and non- conventionally indirect strategies in requests in “Twilight” seen from the characters‟parameters 32 Table 6: The use of internal modification in “Twilight” seen from S-H relationship 36 Table 7: The use of supportive moves in “Twilight” seen from S-H relationship 39 x LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1: The balance of direct, conventionally indirect, and non- conventionally indirect polite request strategies in “Twilight” VII Figure 2: Polite request strategies by types in “Twilight” 25 Figure 3: The use of internal modifications in “Twilight” 29 Figure 4: The use of external modifications in “Twilight” VII Figure 5: The use of direct, conventionally indirect, and non- conventionally indirect strategies in requests in “Twilight” seen from the characters‟ parameters 32 Figure 6: The use of internal modification in “Twilight” seen from S-H relationship VII xi ABSTRACT The speech act of request is a face-threatening act in human‟s communication because it challenges the mutual face of both the speaker and the hearer. The current study aims to uncover how politeness strategies in requests are employed in the novel “Twilight” by Stephenie Meyer. All the requests carrying the illocutionary force of getting somebody to do something serve as the data source. The coding system is based on Blum-Kulka et. al (1989) and Trosborg (1995)‟s coding manual. The findings show that the characters in “Twilight” overwhelmingly chose the Direct Strategies in formulating their requests, in which the Imperative Strategy or Mood Derivable was the most preferable strategy. On the choice of Internal Modifications, the speakers in “Twilight” used a wide range of mitigating devices within the Head Act to reduce the requestive force, mostly the Question forms, Downtoners, and Past tense. With reference to External Modifications, the speakers mostly chose Grounders to give reasons for their requests. The findings also show that the choice of request strategies and mitigating devices was influenced by the relationships between the characters. 1 PART A: INTRODUCTION 1. Rationale of the study Language, as stated by Crystal (1992:212), is “the systematic, conventional use of sounds, signs, or written symbols in a human society for communication and self-expression”. If communication is to be effective, both the speaker and the hearer need to have shared knowledge; i.e., the same perception of what they are talking about. In other words, people need to have communicative competence. Hymes (1967, cited in Tam, 2005) asserts that communicative competence includes not only knowledge of the linguistic forms of a language but also knowledge of when, how and to whom it is appropriate to use these forms. In other words, linguistic components; i.e. grammatical, lexical, phonologicalare not enough for a language learner to avoid cultural shock, miscommunication or even communication breakdown. Language learners thereforeshould acquire pragmatic competence, i.e., the ability to perform language functions appropriately in social contexts. Being aware of the importance of pragmatic ability, a lot of researchers have drawn their attention to its crucial role, highlighted the significance of social context, and made suggestions for appropriateness in communication. The teaching and learning of foreign languages, including English has shifted from linguistic forms of the target language to the communicative approach with more emphasis on communicative competence in order to meet the demand of global development. In line with this, the teaching and learning of English in Vietnam has witnessed a great effort in improving learners‟ communicative competence. More attention has been paid to oral skills and practice which stress on the pragmatic meanings of utterances in contexts. Nevertheless, the traditional ways of teaching and learning, which mainly focused on the development of linguistic competence seem to hold its position as the prominent method. This leads to the fact that Vietnamese learners appear to fail to communicate naturally and appropriately in English. These learners may possess relatively good linguistic knowledge to understand the structures and the words literally, but they fail to achieve communicative goals because they may not be aware of the hidden or unsaid meanings of utterances under certain settings, and lack social appropriateness and linguisticrealization rulesfor performing and [...]... of politeness in Australian and Palestinian Arabic plays based on the framework by Brown and Levinson (1978, 1987) Five Australian and five Palestinian Arabic plays were analysed to identify requests A supplementary questionnaire was also used to determine the concept of “face” by the two cultures The findings reveal that Australian speakers indirectly perform their requests while Palestinian speakers... speakers in English and Spanish The findings reveal that Americans use more direct strategies and fewer conventionally indirect strategies than European speakers in English Fewer mitigating devices both in English and Spanish are used by Americans There are also pragmatic transfers by American and European learners of Spanish The third study to be mentioned was conducted by Farahat (2009), examining the concept... speech act of request has been regarded as one of the face-threatening acts (FTAs) in communication, since it intrinsically threatens the hearer‟s face and is affected by social parameters (Brown and Levinson, 1987) Requests occur in everyday life and play a leading role in human interaction as a vital part of successful communication Hence, many interlanguage and cross-cultural pragmatic studies within... of fact, language, especially daily language used in a literary works appears to be presented truthfully and naturally A long with the researcher‟s special personal interest in the topic, these factors have created an urge for her to choose the minor thesis, namely A study on politeness strategies in requests used by characters in the novel Twilight by Stephenie Meyer The study aims to investigate... blood drinking feeding on animals instead though human blood often greatly appeals to them all Bella and Edward gradually find themselves in love with each other They are now faced with the dangers inevitably intertwined with the existence of human blood drinking vampires, but finally overcome all dangers and obstacles to be with each other 3.2 Politeness strategies in requests by the characters in Twilight ... of the study with close reference to the analytical framework In the following chapter, the analytical framework will be used to analyze the data with detailed examples and illustrations 22 CHAPTER 3: DATA ANALYSIS This chapter will first give an overall picture of the novel Twilight , and then present the investigation of the politeness strategies in requests employed by the characters in the novel. .. Research questions The study seeks to answer the following research questions:  What politeness strategies are employed by the characters in Twilight in their requests?  What mitigation devices are employed by characters in Twilight in their requests? 5 Scope of the study The study focuses entirely on the verbal aspect related to speech acts Other non-verbal aspects such as facial expressions and... stresses more on the collection and analysis of numerical data and statistic The study makes use of utterances in Twilight as the major data source, thus counting and measuring are commonly used The research findings are generally presented in tables and charts or figures 8 Organization of the study The study comprises three parts Part A is “Introduction” which presents the rationale, aims and objectives,... English native speakers‟ use of polite request strategies and modification devices via the language employed by the characters in the novel It is an attempt to support the aforementioned studies and to fill the gap in the area 2 Aims of the study The study aims at exploring how polite request strategies are appropriately manifested in the English language Specifically, the study attempts to examine the. .. and the last section provides the study s analytical framework 2.1 Research questions The study seeks to answer the following research questions:  What polite request strategies are employed by the characters in Twilight ?  What mitigation devices in requests are employed by the characters in Twilight ? 2.2 Data collection The data of the study is the corpus of 683 requests collected from the novel . REQUESTS BY THE CHARACTERS IN THE NOVEL TWILIGHT BY STEPHENIE MEYER (Nghiên cứu chiến lược lịch sự trong lời thỉnh cầu c a các nhân vật trong tiểu thuyết Chạng vạng c a Stephenie Meyer) . BY STEPHENIE MEYER (Nghiên cứu chiến lược lịch sự trong lời thỉnh cầu c a các nhân vật trong tiểu thuyết Chạng vạng c a Stephenie Meyer) MA MINOR THESIS Field: English Linguistics. the way participants in a conversation manage to achieve a workable balance of contributions. The principle can be characterized by four underlying maxims: Quantity, Quality, Relation, and Manner.
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