LÝ THUYẾT VÀ BÀI TẬP VỀ CÂU ĐẢO NGỮ

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INVERSIONS TÓM TẮT Đảo ngữ là hình thức đặt động từ trước chủ ngữ trong câu. Ngoài cách dùng thông thường trong các loại câu hỏi. chúng ta vẫn thường gặp một số trường hợp đảo ngữ sau đây để nhấn mạnh1.NO + INVERSIONNOT Ex: Not a tear did she shed when the story ended in tragedy ( Cô ấy đã không rơi một giọt nước mắt nào khi câu chuyện đó kết thúc trong bi kịch) No money shall I lent you ( Không có số tiền nào mà tôi sẽ cho bạn vay) INVERSIONS TÓM TẮT Đảo ngữ là hình thức đặt động từ trước chủ ngữ trong câu. Ngoài cách dùng thông thường trong các loại câu hỏi. chúng ta vẫn thường gặp một số trường hợp đảo ngữ sau đây để nhấn mạnh 1. NO + INVERSION NOT Ex: Not a tear did she shed when the story ended in tragedy ( Cô ấy đã không rơi một giọt nước mắt nào khi câu chuyện đó kết thúc trong bi kịch) No money shall I lent you ( Không có số tiền nào mà tôi sẽ cho bạn vay) 2. SELDOM, HARDLY, RARELY, SCARELY, LITTLE, NEVER + INVERSION Ex: I have never seen such a beautiful girl  Never have I see such a bautiful girl ( Chưa bao giờ tôi nhìn thấy một cô gái xin như thế) 3. ONLY - Only one / later / in this way / then + INVERSIONS Ex: I have met her only one  Only one have I met her: Only later did I realize that my family played an important role in my life (Chỉ sau này tôi mới nhận ra rằng gia đình tôi đóng một vai trò quan trọn trong cuộc sống của tôi) - Only after / by + N/Ving /Clause + INVERSION Ex: Only by doing a test everday, can you feel confident - Only when/if + Clause, INVERSION Ex: Only when I went abroad to study, did I realize that my family played an important role 4. AT NO TIME, ON NO CONDITION, UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCE, FOR NO REASON, IN NO WAY, NO LONGER + INVERSION Ex: He never suspected that his girl friend was an enemy spy  At no time did he suspect that his girl friend was an enemy spy This button mustn’t be touched under any circustances  Under no circumstances could this button be touched He used to smoke 20 cigarette a day  No longer does he smoke 20 cigarette a day 5. HARDLY + HAD + S + Vpp + WHEN + CLAUSE ( Vừa xong….thì) = NO SOONER + HAD + S + Vpp + THAN + …. Ex: Hardly had my mother hung the clothes out when it rained No sooner had I put the receiver down than he rang back. 6. NHÓM TỪ SO SUCH Câu đảo ngữ có chứa “So” mang cấu trúc như sau: 1 So + tính từ + to be + Danh từ … Ex: · So strange was the situation that I couldn't sleep. (Tình huống này kì lạ khiến tôi không thể ngủ được). · So difficult is the test that students need three months to prepare. (Bài kiểm tra khó tới mức mà các sinh viên cần 3 tháng chuẩn bị). Câu đảo ngữ có chứa “Such” mang cấu trúc như sau: “Such + to be + Danh từ +…” Ex: · Such is the moment that all greats traverse. (Thật là thời khắc trở ngại lớn lao). · Such is the stuff of dreams. (Thật là một giấc mơ vô nghĩa). 7. CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN CHỨA ĐẢO NGỮ a, Câu đk loại 1: If clause = should+S+V (Lưu ý: Dùng SHOULD để nói về khả năng xảy ra ít chắc chắn hơn) Should she come late she wil miss the train Should he lend me some money I will buy that house b, Câu đk loại 2:If clause= Were S +to V/ Were+S (Lưu ý: Dùng WERE TO để nói về khả năng xảy ra ít chắc chắn hơn) If I were you I would work harder =Were I you If I knew her I would invite her to the party= Were I to know her c, Câu đk loại 3 : If clause = Had+S+V 3 ED If my parents hadn't encouraged me, I would have taken pass exam = Had my parents not encouraged me 8. Đảo ngữ với Not only but also không những…….mà còn… Not only + trợ động từ + S +V + but also + S + V… hoặc Not only + trợ động từ + S + V but also Ex: Not only is he good at E but he also draw very well Not only does he sing well but he also plays musical instruments perfectly Not only does he study well, but also he sings well. 9. Đảo ngữ với until/ till+ clause/ adv of time+ auxiliary+ S+ V Ex: I won't come home till 10 o'clock = Not until/ till o'clock that I will come home = It is not until 10 o'clock that I will come home I didn't know that I had lost my key till I got home = Not until/ till I got home did I know that I had lost my key 10. Đảo ngữ với No where+ Au+ S+V Ex: No where in Vietnam is the scenery as beautiful as that in my country No where do I feel as comfortable as I do at home 2 No where can you buy the goods as good as those in my country EXERCISES Choose the most suitable option to complete the sentences. 1. Not until a monkey is several years old ……… to exhibit signs of independence from its mother. A. it begins B. does it begin C. and begin D. is it begin 2. ………… did Jerome accept the job. A. Only because it was an interesting work. B. Because it was an interesting work. B. Only because it was an interested work. D. The work was interesting. 3. ……… great was the destruction that the south took decades to recovered. A. Very B. too C. Such D. So 4. ……. The Charges found themselves 7-0 down. A. Hardly had the games begun B. Hardly the games had begun C. The games had hardly begun D. Hardly had begun the games 5. Not until the fist land plants developed……………… A. land animals appeared B. did land animals appear C. would land animals appear D. the land animals appeared 6. Not until it was too late ………………. I call Susan. A. I remembered B. did I remember C. did I remembered D. I did remember 7. Never before …………………. Such a wonderful child. A. I have seen B. I had seen C. I saw D. have I seen 8. Hardly had we settle down in our seats …………… the lights went out. A. than B. when C. then D. after 9. Only after checking three times …………certain of the answer. Jim promised that never would he tell anyone else. A. I was B. was I C. were I D. I were 10.Only when he is here, …………… A. he speaks English B. does he speak English C. he can speak English D. he does speak English Rewrite these sentences using inversion. 11.As a boy I have climbed that hill many a time. …………………………………………………………………………………… 12.His faithful dog sat by his site. 3 …………………………………………………………………………………… 13.The book that you wanted is here. …………………………………………………………………………………… 14.The young man came into the room. …………………………………………………………………………………… 15.He had hardly gone out when it began to rain. …………………………………………………………………………………… 16.You should act thus and not otherwise. …………………………………………………………………………………… 17.Keith can be held responsible for the accident in no way. …………………………………………………………………………………… 18.I was shown how to operate the machine at no time. …………………………………………………………………………………… 19.Miss Weaver will be offered the job under no circumstance. …………………………………………………………………………………… 20.I will go all that way to visit him again on any account. …………………………………………………………………………………… Rewrite these sentences, using inversion 21.You will find so many happy people nowhere else. …………………………………………………………………………………… 22.He has first class brain but he also a tremendously hard worker not only . …………………………………………………………………………………… 23.They had granted one increase of pay than they asked for another no sooner. …………………………………………………………………………………… 24.It is seldom wise to disregard the advice that he gives. …………………………………………………………………………………… 25.I had heard such ac extraordinary story never before. …………………………………………………………………………………… 26.He had rarely met such a beautiful girl. …………………………………………………………………………………… 27.He knows little what is going on. …………………………………………………………………………………… 28.They will stay in that hotel never again. …………………………………………………………………………………… 29.A movie can very seldom hold my attention like this one. 4 …………………………………………………………………………………… 30.They have invited us to their home not once. …………………………………………………………………………………… Rewrite these sentences using NEVER, RARELY, SELDOM or LITTLE. 31.I have never heard such nonsense! …………………………………………………………………………………… 32.Our profits this year are higher than they have ever been. …………………………………………………………………………………… 33.One rarely finds good service these days. …………………………………………………………………………………… 34.Public borrowing has seldom been so high. …………………………………………………………………………………… 35.They little suspected that the musical was going to be a runaway success. …………………………………………………………………………………… 36.The embassy staff little realized that Ted was a secret agent. …………………………………………………………………………………… Rewrite these sentences, using IN, AT , UNDER, or ON. 37.Keith certainly can’t be held responsible for the accident. …………………………………………………………………………………… 38.The children themselves are not in any way to blame for the disaster. ………………………………………………………………………………… 39.The existence of extraterrestrial is not confirmed by the report. …………………………………………………………………………………… … 40.I was never shown how to operate the machinery. …………………………………………………………………………………… 41.He never suspected that she was a witch. …………………………………………………………………………………… 42.There has never been a time when the English language was not in a state of change. ………………………………………………………………………………… 43.Miss Weaver will not be offered the job under any circumstances. …………………………………………………………………………………… 44.You should not send money to us by post under any circumstances. …………………………………………………………………………………… 45.We can’t exchange tickets in any circumstances. …………………………………………………………………………………… 46.I won’t go out that way to visit him again on my account! …………………………………………………………………………………… Rewrite these sentences, using inversion with NOT. 47.He is my friend as well as yours. 5 …………………………………………………………………………………… 48.He booked tickets for the afternoon performance and the evening performance as well. …………………………………………………………………………………… 49.Burglars stole a thousand pounds’ worth of electrical goods, and left the flat in an awful mess. …………………………………………………………………………………… 50.Tony was not only late, but he had left all his books behind. …………………………………………………………………………………… 51.You will enhance your posture and improve your acting ability on this course. …………………………………………………………………………………… Rewrite these sentences, using inversion with ONLY. 52.I only realized how dangerous the situation had been when I got home. …………………………………………………………………………………… 53.It wasn’t until last week that the Agriculture Minister admitted defeat. …………………………………………………………………………………… 54.I understood Hamlet only after seeing it on the stage. …………………………………………………………………………………… 55.They didn’t get round to business until they had finished eating. …………………………………………………………………………………… 56.They had to wait for twelve hours before their flight left. …………………………………………………………………………………… Rewrite these sentences, using inversion with SHOULD, WERE OR HAD 57.If the chemical were to leak, a large area of the sea would be contaminated. …………………………………………………………………………………… 58.If Germany were to beat Romania, they would face Italy in the final. …………………………………………………………………………………… 59.If Mr. Morgan were still head master, he would not permit such bad behavior. …………………………………………………………………………………… 60.If you had given it on time, you would have got a high mark. …………………………………………………………………………………… 61.If she had become a lawyer, as her parents wished, she would have earned a large salary. …………………………………………………………………………………… 62.If anything has gone wrong with my plan, I would have held responsibility. ………………………………………………………………………………… … 63.If the Government were forced into another election, it would be the favorite to win. …………………………………………………………………………………… 64.If you should wish to make an appointment to see Dr Simons, she is available between 9.00 and 11.00. 6 …………………………………………………………………………………… 65.If you should have further problems with your printer, contact your dealer for advice. ………………………………………………………………………………… 66.If you should decide to accept the post, you will be expected to start work on 1 st April. ……………………………………………………………………… Rewrite each of the following sentences with the given words in such a way that it means the same as the sentence printed above it. 67.He spent all his money. He even borrowed some from me. Not only……………………………………………………………………… 68.He had hardly left the office when the telephone rang.  No sooner …………………………………………………………………… 69.I had only just put the phone down when the boss rang back.  Hardly ………………………………………………………………………. 70.He didn’t finish his work until the bell rang.  Not until …………………………………………………………………… 71.We only began to see the symptoms of the disease after several months.  Only ………………………………………………………………………… 72.I have never seen anyone in my life drink as much as you.  Never ……………………………………………………………………… 73.A sleeping dog was lying under the table.  Under the table ……………………………………………………………… 74.His brother had rarely been more excited. Rarely………………………………………………………………………… 75.The facts were not all made public until later. Only………………………………………………………………………… 76.If I had realized what would happen, I wouldn’t have accepted the job. Had…………………………………………………………………………… 77.The response to our appeal was so great that we have to take on more staff.  Such…………………………………………………………………………. 78.Harry broke his leg, and also injured his shoulder. Not only …………………………………………………………………… 79.The police didn’t at all suspect that the judge was the murderer.  Little ………………………………………………………………………… 80.If you do happen to see Helen, could you ask her to call me? Should……………………………………………………………………… 81.The bus driver can not be blamed for the accident in any way.  In ……………………………………………………………………………. 82.The snowfall was so heavy that all the trains had to be cancelled.  So …………………………………………………………………………… 83.If the government raised interest rates. They would lose the election. Were………………………………………………………………………… 7 84.As soon as I got into the bath, someone knocked at the door.  No sooner 85.There was so much uncertainty that the financial markets remained closed. Such………………………………………………………………………… 86.It’s not common for there to be so much rain in March. Seldom………………………………………………………………………. 87.You won’t allowed in until your identify has been checked. Only………………………………………………………………………… 88.Just after the play started there was a power failure. Hardly……………………………………………………………………… 89.The Prime Minister has hardly ever made a speech as inept as this. Rarely………………………………………………………………………… 90.We had only just arrived home when the police called. Scarcely………………………………………………………………………. 91.Press photographers are banned from taking photographs backstage.  On no……………………………………………………………………… 92.The way so much money has been spent to so little purpose must be a record.  Neverbefore……………………………………………………………… 93.The judge was taken ill just after the trial proceedings began.  Barely…… …………………………………………………………………. 94. Her grief was so great that she almost fainted. –> So great was her grief that she almost fainted. 95. He got down to writing the letter as soon as he returned from his walk. –> No sooner had he returned from his walk than he got down to writing the letter. 96. She had hardly begun to speak before people started interrupting her. –> Hardly had she begun to speak when people started interrupting her. 97. I only realized what I had missed when they told me about it later. –> Only when they told me about it later did I realize what I had missed. 98. You won’t find a more dedicated worker anywhere than Mrs John. –> Nowhere will you find a more dedicated worker than Mrs John. 99. The outcome of the election was never in doubt. –> At no time was the outcome of the election in doubt. 100. He forgot about the gun until he got home. –> Not until he got home did he remember about the gun. rd everyday can you become a good athlete. 8 . INVERSIONS TÓM TẮT Đảo ngữ là hình thức đặt động từ trước chủ ngữ trong câu. Ngoài cách dùng thông. bao giờ tôi nhìn thấy một cô gái xin như thế) 3. ONLY - Only one / later / in this way / then + INVERSIONS Ex: I have met her only one  Only one have I met her: Only later did I realize that
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